|Nearest city||Lexington, Kentucky|
|Architectural style||Greek Revival|
|NRHP reference #||71000342|
|Added to NRHP||August 12, 1971|
Waveland State Historic Site, also known as the Joseph Bryan House, in Lexington, Kentucky is the site of a Greek Revival home and plantation now maintained and operated as part of the Kentucky state park system. It was the home of the Joseph Bryan family, who followed Daniel Boone through the Cumberland Gap, and became an early settler and horseman of this region.
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County and often denoted as Lexington-Fayette, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 60th-largest city in the United States. By land area, Lexington is the 28th largest city in the United States. Known as the "Horse Capital of the World," it is the heart of the state's Bluegrass region. It has a nonpartisan mayor-council form of government, with 12 council districts and three members elected at large, with the highest vote-getter designated vice mayor. In the 2018 U.S. Census Estimate, the city's population was 323,780 anchoring a metropolitan area of 516,697 people and a combined statistical area of 746,330 people.
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer, woodsman, and frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky. It was still considered part of Virginia but was on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains from most European-American settlements. As a young adult, Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, and selling their pelts in the fur market. Through this occupational interest, Boone first learned the easy routes to the area. Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775, Boone blazed his Wilderness Road from North Carolina and Tennessee through Cumberland Gap in the Cumberland Mountains into Kentucky. There, he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.
The Cumberland Gap is a pass through the long ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, within the Appalachian Mountains, near the junction of the U.S. states of Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee.
The history of Waveland begins with the Boone and Bryan families. The two families met in the Yadkin River Valley, North Carolina, when the Boones moved onto the land next to the Bryan family. It was said that the Bryans outfitted several of the Boones hunting trips. Eventually William Bryan married Daniel Boone's sister, Mary Boone. William and Mary had a son, Daniel Boone Bryan. 2,000 acres (810 ha) about six miles from present-day downtown Lexington, Kentucky.Daniel Boone surveyed the land that he would give to his nephew, Daniel Boone Bryan, who was a renowned historian, frontiersman, and poet. The area surveyed was about
Daniel Boone Bryan settled the land around Waveland by 1786. The name Waveland came from the waves that were visible when the wind blew the fields of grain and hemp surrounding the house. The area was once the home of the biggest hemp and rope producers of the nation. When Daniel Boone Bryan moved to what is now Waveland, he built a small stone cabin. The Waveland mansion was constructed between the fall of 1844 and late 1848. Joseph Bryan had the house built "to please his father" according to a letter written by his son Elijah in 1845. Bryan constructed his office with seven doors, each for a different part of his life. There was a door that connected to the formal dining room, where he and guests would eat. Another door, which locked from his office, was to two upstairs rooms where he would allow travelers to stay if they paid him. He made sure he was able to lock them in for safety reasons. The travelers could not leave their room unless Joseph unlocked the door, meaning he was safe from being robbed or attacked by them at night. Another door led to the fields where the slaves worked. This meant easier communication with them when necessary. Another door led out to the road where businessmen would often travel in to see him. Being an important and successful businessman in Kentucky, he often was visited by others. One door lead into the family parlor, where he could be with his children. The remaining two doors were closets, which were used as safes.
Hemp, or industrial hemp, typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago. It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.
A safe is a secure lockable box used for securing valuable objects against theft and/or damage from fire. A safe is usually a hollow cuboid or cylinder, with one face being removable or hinged to form a door. The body and door may be cast from metal or formed out of plastic through blow molding. Bank teller safes typically are secured to the counter, have a slit opening for dropping valuables into the safe without opening it, and a time-delay combination lock to foil robbers/and or thieves. One significant distinction between types of safes is whether the safe is secured to a wall or structure or if it can be moved around. A less secure version is usually called a cash-box.
Bryan was at once a gunsmith, having a large shop and employing twenty five men at one time; manufacturer of saltpeter and gunpowder; operator of a gristmill, a blacksmith shop, Baptist church, a female seminary, a distillery and a paper mill.He was able to manage all of these successfully. He and his wife Elizabeth had twelve children.
A gunsmith is a person who repairs, modifies, designs, or builds guns. This occupation differs from an armorer who usually only replaces worn parts in standard firearms. A gunsmith actually does modifications and changes to a firearm that may require a very high level of craftsmanship requiring the skills of a top level machinist, a very skilled wood worker, and even an engineer. Their level of craftsmanship usually requires several years of training and practical experience under a higher level gunsmith, attendance at a gunsmithing school, or both. A gunsmith also does factory level repairs and renovations to restore a much used or deteriorated firearms to new condition. They may make alterations to adapt sporting guns to better fit the individual shooter that may require extensive modifications to the firearm's stocks and metal parts. These repairs and redesigns may require fabrication and fitting of non-available parts and assemblies, which the gunsmith usually fabricates themselves. Gunsmiths may also renew metal finishes to new condition levels, or apply carvings, engravings and other decorative features to an otherwise finished gun. The environment in which all this takes place often varies depending on the specific locality, with some gun stores featuring one or a handful of individuals performing this work under their roof, some may work as individuals in their own, separate shop, or it may be a group of highly trained specialist craftspeople who each contribute their individual skill to completely manufacture highly crafted custom made firearms from basic metal and wood raw materials.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur (S), charcoal (C), and potassium nitrate (saltpeter, KNO3). The sulfur and charcoal act as fuels while the saltpeter is an oxidizer. Because of its incendiary properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been widely used as a propellant in firearms, artillery, rockets, and fireworks, and as a blasting powder in quarrying, mining, and road building.
Bryan's son, Joseph, inherited Waveland and made the most memorable piece of this historic site. Joseph Bryan's wife convinced him to construct a more memorable and beautiful home than his father had built. He tore down the old stone cabin two years after his father's death so that he could build the large, opulent house that his wife wanted. To reduce construction costs, Bryan constructed the stairway rail using flat pieces of wood instead of rounded ones. Although his wife wanted expensive marble baseboards, Bryan used cheaper stones and had them painted to look like marble.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble is typically not foliated, although there are exceptions. In geology, the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.
Proof of how successful the Bryans' businesses were was that he was able to construct most of the house using only his businesses and materials on his land; the lumber he used came from Waveland plantations, the wrought iron was made at the Waveland blacksmith, the bricks used in the buildings were made from some clay gathered on the land, which was then burned on site. The resources that were not at Waveland were the stones that were used for the foundation of the house and also for some decorative work. The stones that were needed were quarried and dressed at Tyrone on the Kentucky River and moved to Waveland.
The Kentucky River is a tributary of the Ohio River, 260 miles (418 km) long, in the U.S. Commonwealth of Kentucky. The river and its tributaries drain much of the central region of the state, with its upper course passing through the coal-mining regions of the Cumberland Mountains, and its lower course passing through the Bluegrass region in the north central part of the state. Its watershed encompasses about 7,000 square miles (18,000 km2). It supplies drinking water to about one-sixth of the population of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
Bryan decided to build a classic Greek Revival structure. Inspired by the work of Lexington architect John McMurtry, Bryan hired Washington Allen, a well-known Lexington contractor, to oversee the construction of his new home.The house contained fourteen high ceiling rooms, which made them each cooler in the summer, as heat rises. The main doorway of the mansion is considered to be an exact replica of the doorway of the north entrance to the Erechtheion at the Acropolis in Athens. The house also contains a porch on either side, to give a view of the beautiful surrounding country side, as well as a spacious hall and a portico.
Throughout their time at Waveland, the Bryans kept slaves. There were thirteen slaves, three women and ten men. The women were to keep the house clean as well as do the cooking. Margaret Cartmell Bryan, Joseph's wife, made all of the clothing for all of the slaves and the Bryan family. The invention of the sewing machine significantly reduced the time it took her to make clothing.
The male slaves were in charge of the farm. Each one had to keep 20 acres (8.1 ha) of land. In order to save time traveling, the Bryans allowed the slaves to build houses on the property they kept. The slaves at Waveland enjoyed freedoms that were uncommon for other slaves of the day. When they were not working, they were allowed to hunt for themselves. They were also allowed to buy and sell at the local markets, keeping any profits for themselves. Joseph Bryan also allowed the slaves to keep weapons. The slave quarters were two bricks thick, making them better insulated than many other homes in Kentucky.
Joseph Bryan supported the Confederacy during the Civil War and gave them supplies such as horses and food produced on his land. When Union authorities discovered this, they sought to arrest him. Bryan fled to Canada, returning years later when the war had ended.As a result of the war, the slaves at Waveland were emancipated, but they chose to stay and continue working for Bryan, who paid them for their labor, but charged them rent.
Joseph Henry Bryan, one of Bryan's eleven children, lost his house, so he and his wife and children moved back into Waveland with his father.Eventually, Joseph Bryan, Sr. moved out, leaving Joseph Henry Bryan as the owner of Waveland. While he owned Waveland, he established it as one of the premier thoroughbred and trotter farms in Kentucky. Waveland produced some great horses such as "Waveland Chief", "Ben-Hur", "Eric", "Olaf" and "Wild Rake", who never lost a heat and was sold to William Rockefeller for $7800 in the 1880s. Joseph Henry Bryan also built a race track across from the mansion. He and other businessmen would go out to watch horse races. The women, who were not allowed to go, would often go up to the top floor of the house and watch the races with their binoculars.
Joseph Henry Bryan was a notorious gambler. In less than seven years, he lost over one million dollars. Another family member had to sell their home so that they could try to keep Joseph Henry Bryan from losing the property. Eventually, however, Bryan was unable to pay his debt. For this, he was never forgiven by his family. He had to sell the house at auction just to try to pay off the debt. 200 acres (81 ha) of the original 2,000 acres (810 ha) for use by the University of Kentucky as experimental farmland.Salle A. Scott bought Waveland in 1894. She sold the property in 1899 to James A Hullet. In 1956, the Commonwealth of Kentucky bought the house and less than
In 1957, Waveland became a museum that depicted Kentucky life from pioneer days to the Civil War. The house sits on 10 acres of land and now depicts life on a plantation during the 1840s. Period-appropriate furniture was donated to the site. Many of the buildings did not survive, but Waveland currently contains the mansion, decorated in Antebellum style, and four outbuildings, which are the ice house, a two-story brick building that was the slave quarters, a barn, and a smokehouse.
Tours are given daily for much of the year, and the tour guides dress in the style of the 1840s. Tours include the historic house, the slave quarters, smokehouse and ice house, and focus on the Bryan family and life on a 19th-century Kentucky plantation.
Nicholas County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,135. Its county seat is Carlisle, which is also the only incorporated community in the county. Founded in 1799, the county is named for Col. George Nicholas, the "Father of the Kentucky Constitution".
Boone County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 118,811, making it the fourth-most populous county in Kentucky. Its county seat is Burlington. The county was formed in 1798 from part of Campbell County. and was named for frontiersman Daniel Boone.
Ashland is the name of the plantation of the 19th-century Kentucky statesman Henry Clay, located in Lexington, Kentucky, in the central Bluegrass region of the state. It is a registered National Historic Landmark. The Ashland Stakes, a Thoroughbred horse race at Keeneland Race Course that has run annually since the race course first opened in 1936, was named for the historically important estate.
My Old Kentucky Home State Park is a state park located in Bardstown, Kentucky. The park's centerpiece is Federal Hill, a farm owned by United States Senator John Rowan in 1795. During the Rowan family's occupation, the mansion became a meeting place for local politicians and hosted several visiting dignitaries. The farm is best known for its association with American composer Stephen Foster's anti-slavery ballad "My Old Kentucky Home, Good Night". Foster was a cousin of the Rowan family, and was likely inspired to write the ballad both by Harriet Beecher Stowe's anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin and through imagery seen on visits to Federal Hill. After popularity of the song increased throughout the United States, Federal Hill was purchased by the Commonwealth of Kentucky, dedicated as a historic site, and renamed "My Old Kentucky Home" on July 4, 1923. Foster's song by the same name was made the state song of Kentucky in 1928. The Federal Hill mansion was featured on a U.S. postage stamp in 1992, and it is one of the symbols featured on the reverse of the Kentucky state quarter issued in 2001.
The Judah P. Benjamin Confederate Memorial at Gamble Plantation Historic State Park, also known as the Gamble Mansion or Gamble Plantation, is a Florida State Park which is home to the Florida Division United Daughters of the Confederacy ("UDC"), located in Ellenton, Florida, on 37th Avenue East and US 301. It consists of the antebellum mansion developed by its first owner, Major Robert Gamble; a 40,000-gallon cistern to provide the household with fresh water; and 16 acres (65,000 m2) of the former sugarcane plantation. At its peak, the plantation included 3,500 acres, and Gamble likely held more than 200 slaves to work the property and process the sugarcane.
Boone Hall Plantation is one of America's oldest working plantations, continually growing crops for over 320 years. The antebellum era plantation is located in Mount Pleasant, Charleston County, South Carolina, U.S.A., and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
James Taylor V (1769–1848) was an American banker, Quartermaster general, and one of the wealthiest early settlers of Kentucky. He was a founder of the city of Newport, Kentucky.
Rebecca Ann (Bryan) Boone was an American pioneer and the wife of famed frontiersman Daniel Boone. No contemporary portrait of her exists, but people who knew her said that when she met her future husband she was nearly as tall as he and very attractive with black hair and dark eyes.
Elmendorf Farm is a Kentucky Thoroughbred horse farm in Fayette County, Kentucky, involved with horse racing since the 19th century. Once the North Elkhorn Farm, many owners and tenants have occupied the area, even during the American Civil War. Most of the land acquired during Haggin's era has since been sold off to neighboring stud farms, but the original 765 acres including the columns and many of the historic barns and houses still exist at Elmendorf.
The Mordecai House, built in 1785, is a registered historical landmark and museum in Raleigh, North Carolina that is the centerpiece of Mordecai Historic Park, adjacent to the Historic Oakwood neighborhood. It is the oldest residence in Raleigh on its original foundation. In addition to the house, the Park includes the birthplace of President Andrew Johnson, the Ellen Mordecai Garden, the Badger-Iredell Law Office, Allen Kitchen and St. Mark's Chapel, a popular site for weddings. It is located in the Mordecai Place Historic District.
The Varner–Hogg Plantation State Historic Site is a historic site operated by the Texas Historical Commission. The site was the home of former Governor of Texas James S. Hogg and his family. The site is located outside West Columbia, in Brazoria County.
Levi Todd was an 18th-century American pioneer who, with his brothers John and Robert Todd, helped found present-day Lexington, Kentucky and were leading prominent landowners and statesmen in the state of Kentucky prior to its admission into the United States in 1792.
Antebellum architecture is the neoclassical architectural style characteristic of the 19th-century Southern United States, especially the Deep South, from after the birth of the United States with the American Revolution, to the start of the American Civil War. antebellum architecture is especially characterized by Georgian, Neo-classical, and Greek Revival style plantation homes and mansions.
First African Baptist Church is a historic church at 264-272 E. Short Street in Lexington, Kentucky. The congregation was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett and his wife, slaves who came to Kentucky with their master, Rev. Joseph Craig, in 1781 with "The Travelling Church" of Baptists from Spotsylvania, Virginia.
The Daniel Boone Home is a historic site in Defiance, Missouri, United States. The house was built by Daniel Boone's youngest son Nathan Boone, who lived there with his family until they moved further south in 1837. The Boones had moved there from Kentucky in late 1799. Nathan later said, "In the summer of 1800, I erected a good substantial log house, and several years after that I replaced it with a commodious stone building. My father, Daniel Boone, built himself a shop and had a set of tools, and when at home he would make and repair traps and guns. In fact he did all the needed smith work for the family and sometimes for neighbors to oblige them. But after a few years he disposed of his tools." Daniel and his wife Rebecca lived primarily with their son Nathan from at least 1804 to 1813, and then for much of the time from late 1816 to his death in 1820.
Waveland, a historic estate located at 120 East Erksine Rd in Danville, Kentucky. The Waveland House is owned by Dr. Thad and Jane Overmyer.
Peter Durrett was a Baptist preacher and slave, who with his wife founded the First African Baptist Church of Lexington, Kentucky by 1790. By his death, the congregation totaled nearly 300 persons. It is the first black congregation west of the Allegheny Mountains, the first black Baptist congregation in Kentucky, and the third oldest black congregation in the United States. Its historic church was built in 1856, under the third pastor, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Linville is an unincorporated community located in Rockingham County, in the U.S. state of Virginia. It is located 6 miles north of Harrisonburg, Virginia. It contains the Linville United Church of Christ.