|In service||8 April 1982|
|Manufacturer|| Comeng |
|Built at|| Granville |
|Family name||High Speed Train|
|Number built||19 power cars|
60 passenger carriages
|Formation||2 power cars, 4-7 carriages|
|Fleet numbers||XP2000-18, XFH2104-10, XFH2112-13, XBR2150-58, XAM 2175-82|
|Depot(s)||XPT Service Centre|
|Line(s) served|| North Coast |
|Maximum speed||Service: 160 km/h (100 mph),|
Record: 193 km/h (120 mph)
|Traction system||Diesel electric|
|Prime mover(s)|| Paxman Valenta 12-cylinder diesel (as built)|
Paxman VP185 12-cylinder diesel (from 2000)
|Power output||1,492 kW (2,001 hp) per power car|
|Bogies||PJA (Power) NJA (Trailer)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The New South Wales XPT (short for Express Passenger Train) is the main long-distance passenger train operated by NSW TrainLink on regional railway services in New South Wales, Australia from Sydney to Dubbo, Grafton and Casino as well as interstate destinations, Brisbane, and Melbourne. The XPT is based on the British Rail designed High Speed Train and entered service in April 1982.
NSW TrainLink is an Australian brand for the medium and long distance passenger rail and coach services in New South Wales. It operates services throughout New South Wales and into the neighbouring Australian states and territories of Victoria, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory. Train services are operated by the government's NSW Trains. Coach services are contracted to private operators. It is an agency of Transport for NSW.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
The Central railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located at the southern end of the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The station is the largest and busiest railway station in New South Wales and serves as a major transport interchange for NSW TrainLink inter-city rail services, Sydney Trains commuter rail services, Sydney light rail services, State Transit bus services, and private coach transport services. Often abbreviated as Central or Central station, the station is also known as Sydney Terminal and Central Railway Stations Group and Central Railway; Central Station; Underbridges. The property is owned by RailCorp, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. It recorded 11.35 million passenger movements in 2013.
Improving public transport was a major issue in the 1976 State Election in New South Wales and one of the commitments of the incoming Wran Government was to buy new rolling stock for country rail services.
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses, trams and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines, coaches, and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world.
A general election for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly was held in the state of New South Wales, Australia, on Saturday 1 May 1976. The result was a narrow win for the Labor Party under Neville Wran—the party's first in the state in more than a decade.
The Wran ministry (1976–78) or First Wran ministry was the 71st ministry of the New South Wales Government, and was led by the 35th Premier of New South Wales, the Honourable Neville Wran,, representing the Labor Party. It was the first of eight consecutive occasions when Wran was Premier.
In January 1978 the Public Transport Commission invited tenders for 25 high-speed railcars similar to the Prospector railcars delivered by Comeng to the Western Australian Government Railways in 1971. The tender allowed bidders to suggest alternative types of high-speed train. Comeng submitted a tender for a train based on the British Rail designed High Speed Train which had entered service in the United Kingdom in October 1976. In August 1979, Comeng was announced as the successful bidder and although the tender had called for 100 vehicles, by the time the contract was signed in March 1980, the order was only for 30, 10 power cars and 20 carriages, enough to form four five-carriage trains with two spare power cars.
The Public Transport Commission (PTC) was an agency of the Government of New South Wales responsible for the provision of rail, bus and ferry services in New South Wales, Australia from October 1972 until June 1980.
A railcar, in British English and Australian English, is a self-propelled railway vehicle designed to transport passengers. The term "railcar" is usually used in reference to a train consisting of a single coach, with a driver's cab at one or both ends. Some railway companies, such as the Great Western, termed such vehicles "railmotors".
The WAGR WCA class railcars and WCE class trailers were built by Comeng, Granville for the Western Australian Government Railways in 1971 to operate the new Prospector service between East Perth and Kalgoorlie. At the time of their construction the WCA class units were the longest and fastest diesel railcars in the world.
The High Speed Train design was significantly modified, with the power cars being 50 cm (19.7 in) shorter, the Paxman Valenta engine downrated from 2,250 to 2,000 bhp (1,680 to 1,490 kW), gearing lowered for a top operating speed of 160 km/h (99 mph), suspension modified to operate on inferior track, and air filters and the cooling system modified to cater for hotter and dustier Australian conditions. However, the XPT is theoretically capable of reaching speeds of 200 km/h (120 mph). A different light cluster was fitted along with three high-beam spotlights mounted to the roof. The passenger trailer cars were based on a Budd design, with the British Rail Mark 3 trailers considered unsuitable.
The Paxman Valenta was an engine that was made by Paxman, Colchester for the High Speed Train, and is still in use in various marine applications, such as the Upholder/Victoria-class submarines.
The Budd Company was a 20th-century metal fabricator, a major supplier of body components to the automobile industry and a manufacturer of stainless steel passenger rail cars, airframes, missile and space vehicles, and various defense products.
The British Rail Mark 3 is a type of passenger carriage developed in response to growing competition from airlines and the car in the 1960s. A variant of the Mark 3 became the rolling stock for the High Speed Train (HST).
The first power car and trailer commenced testing with a stainless steel luggage van in August 1981. km/h between Table Top and Gerogery in southern NSW, breaking that set by the Western Australian Government Railways' Prospector railcar in 1971. On a test run to Albury on 18 September 1992 the XPT reached 193 km/h between Table Top and Yerong Creek. 200 km/h was the target speed. This record was broken by Queensland Rail's Electric Tilt Train in May 1999.The initial XPT livery was red, black and orange with InterCity XPT signwriting on the power cars. On a demonstration run to Albury on 6 September 1981 the XPT set a new Australian speed record of 183
The New South Wales stainless steel carriage stock was a type of passenger carriage operated by the New South Wales Government Railways from 1961 until 1993.
The Albury railway station is a heritage-listed railway station at Railway Place, Albury, New South Wales, Australia, adjacent to the border with Victoria, in Australia. It was designed by John Whitton and built from 1880 to 1881. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
Table Top is an outer suburb of the city of Albury, New South Wales, located 16 kilometres (10 mi) north of Albury and 19 kilometres (12 mi) west of Bowna. At the 2011 census, Table Top had a population of 1253. The area used to be part of the Greater Hume Shire but was recently integrated into the City of Albury.
The first full test XPT set ran in January 1982. The four sets entered service on the Central West XPT to Dubbo in April 1982, the Mid North Coast XPT to Kempsey in May 1982 and the Riverina XPT to Albury in August 1982.
The Central West Express is an Australian passenger train operating on the Main Western line in New South Wales from Sydney to Dubbo.
The Dubbo railway station is a heritage-listed railway station and bus interchange located on the Main Western line in Dubbo in the Dubbo Regional Council local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The station serves the city of Dubbo and was opened on 1 February 1881. The station is also known as Dubbo Railway Station and yard group. The property is owned by RailCorp, an agency of the Government of New South Wales and was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The station and associated yards were designed by the office of the Engineer-in-Chief of the NSW Government Railways, under the direction of John Whitton.
Kempsey railway station is located on the North Coast line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Kempsey, opening on 3 December 1917 when the line was extended from Wauchope. It was the terminus of the line until it was extended to Macksville on 1 July 1919.
In 1983, a further five power cars and 15 trailers were ordered. These allowed the Canberra XPT to commence in August 1983 followed by the Northern Tablelands XPT to Glen Innes and Tenterfield (2 times per week only) in June 1984.The XPT cut 50 minutes off the trip between Sydney and Canberra. By tightening up the diagrams, an overnight South XPT to Albury was introduced, but cancelled in June 1985 due to low patronage. In 1985 an additional 12 trailer carriages were ordered to allow six sets of 7 carriages to be formed. From October 1985, the Mid North Coast XPT to Kempsey ceased, being replaced by the Holiday Coast XPT to Grafton. The Northern Tablelands XPT also was cut back to Armidale and only ran on alternate days with a HUB/RUB set operating on the other days.
Initially the XPT carried a fare surcharge compared to parallel locomotive hauled services; however this was abolished from May 1985.
It was proposed to extend operations to Melbourne with costs to be shared with V/Line. A promotional train ran to Melbourne on Friday 213 November 1990, with the consist XP2012-XDH2111-XDR2156-XD2219-XD2215-XFH2015-XP2008.Further demonstration runs took place to Melbourne in February 1985. Crew training commenced on the North East line between Albury and Benalla in July 1985 with services scheduled to commence on 3 August, however agreement could not be reached with the Australian Federated Union of Locomotive Employees over crewing and the plan was shelved.
Following the election of the Greiner Government in March 1988, consultants Booz Allen Hamilton were commissioned to prepare a report into NSW rail services. On purely economic grounds, the report recommended closing all country passenger services as they were judged unviable; however this was not politically acceptable.If services were to be maintained, the report recommended operating a reduced rail service, all with XPTs.
In February 1990, the Brisbane Limited and Pacific Coast Motorail were withdrawn and replaced by XPT services to Brisbane and Murwillumbah. To provide rolling stock for these, the Canberra XPT was withdrawn and replaced by a locomotive hauled train and the Northern Tablelands Express was truncated to become a day return service to Tamworth.
In June 1990, the government announced that it would purchase a fleet of Xplorers to reintroduce services to Armidale and Moree. When these were introduced in October 1993 the Northern Tablelands XPT ceased and the stock replaced a locomotive hauled set on a service to Grafton.
In October 1990, the government announced that eight sleeper carriages would be ordered for use on overnight services to Brisbane, Murwillumbah and Melbourne.These were included in an order placed with ABB Transportation, Dandenong in 1991 for four power cars and 13 trailers that was jointly funded by the New South Wales and Victorian governments. At the same time the earlier stock was repainted in CountryLink livery.
In November 1993. XPTs replaced locomotive hauled stock on the overnight Sydney/Melbourne Express.In December 1994 an XPT daylight service to Melbourne was introduced by extending the Riverina XPT from Albury.
In 1995, CountryLink trialled three Swedish Railways X2000 tilting train carriages. After conducting a statewide tour in March, they were used on Canberra services from 23 April until 18 June 1995 with modified XPT power cars XP2000 and XP2009.
Since 2003, an XPT has operated a service each January to Parkes for the Parkes Elvis Festival.With the closure of the Murwillumbah line, the XPT service was cut back to Casino from May 2004. In October 2013 with a set isolated west of Lithgow by bushfires, it was deployed on the Outback Xplorer service to Broken Hill.
In October 2016, the NSW government announced the XPTs would be replaced as part of the NSW TrainLink Regional Train Project.A contract with CAF was signed February in 2019, with the XPTs to be replaced from 2023.
The XPT fleet are currently used on services from Sydney to Dubbo, Grafton, Casino, Brisbane and Melbourne.
The Dubbo set is captive and operates a daily return service. The other seven sets rotate on a seven-day repeating cycle as follows:
Between each duty in Sydney, trains are serviced at the XPT Service Centre south of Sydenham station. This pattern has led to the XPT being one of the most utilised train fleets worldwide with only three significant periods of downtime in the cycle. This includes one overnight stabling in Grafton, between days 2 and 3, and two overnight stablings in Sydney, between days 4 and 5, and days 7 and 1.
Initially all services operated with five carriage sets. Following the purchase of extra carriages, this was increased to seven. In 1998 each set was reduced to six carriages.In 2001 all were reduced to five carriages outside of school holiday periods. Today XPTs operate with four carriages to Dubbo (formed from the country end as XL, XBR, XF and XFH), and five (formed from the country end as XAM, XL, XBR, XF and XFH) on the North Coast and Melbourne services, with six during peak times when an extra XF is added. The Dubbo set can operate with one power car if required, with the power car turned at its destination.
The XPT fleet consists of:
XPT power cars originally powered by a Paxman Valenta 12RP200L engine with a single turbocharger. These were replaced from June 2000 by Paxman VP185 12-cylinder, diesel engines with four low-pressure turbochargers and two high-pressure turbochargers boasting 1,492 kW or 2,001 horsepower that had been successfully used by some British Rail High Speed Trains since 1994. Traction equipment was manufactured in England by Brush Traction of Loughborough.
Power cars comprise five main compartments at the platform level. At the front is the drivers' cab, followed by the clean air compartment, engine room, cooling group, and compressor room at the rear of the locomotive.
The State Rail Authority named the XP power cars after destinations that the XPT served. All nameplates have since been removed.
XP2001-XP2014 were built by Comeng, Granville with XP2015 - XP2018 built by ABB Transportation, Dandenong.
XPT power cars have dimensions of 17.30 metres long, 2.89 metres wide and 4.03 metres high. They weigh 76 tonnes with two operating on each service in a push pull arrangement.
The original XPT carriages were refurbished in 1992/93 including a repaint in CountryLink livery.All were refurbished again between 2005 and 2008.
Carriage coding, features and numbers are as follows:
|Type||Services Provided||Number in fleet||Seating Capacity||Weight (tonnes)||ID Number and constructor||Notes|
Booked Luggage Compartment,
|9||44||40.1||XFH 2104 – XFH 2110, XFH 2112 and XFH 2113|
|XF||Economy Saloon||25||68||40.1||XF 2200 – XF 2224|
|XBR||First Class Saloon,|
|9||21 (plus one wheelchair space)||43.6||XBR 2150 – XBR 2158 |
|XBR 2157 was rebuilt from economy class saloon XD 2225 and XBR 2158 from economy saloon/luggage car XDH 2111, both by United Goninan, Broadmeadow|
|XL||First Class Saloon||9||56||40.1 (Comeng)|
39.6 (ABB Transportation)
|XL 2228 – XL 2232 |
XL 2233 – XL 2236
|XL 2233 – 2236 were rebuilt by United Goninan from XFH/XDH saloon/luggage cars|
|XAM||First Class corridor car,|
|48.3||XAM 2175 – XAM 2182 (ABB Transportation)||Nine passenger compartments available as twin-berth sleepers for overnight services or three-seat "daysitters" at other times, with five shared toilet/shower compartments.|
The XPT fleet is maintained at the XPT Service Centre, a purpose built depot south of Sydenham station within the confines of the Meeks Road Triangle. All work is performed here except for wheel reprofiling which is performed on a wheel lathe at Flemington Maintenance Depot.
In 1986 agreement was reached to build a fleet of XPTs for the State Railway of Thailand. To allow it to be built to the narrower 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge and retain the same fuel capacity, it was proposed to extend the power cars by 2.7 metres to 20 metres and mount them on Bo-Bo-Bo bogies. The negotiations were sufficiently advanced for the Prime Minister of Thailand to announce it on television, however the Australian Department of Trade withdrew its support at the last moment and the deal fell through.
CountryLink was an Australian passenger rail and road service brand operating in regional New South Wales, as well as to Canberra, Brisbane and Melbourne. Originally created as a business unit of the State Rail Authority of New South Wales, it later became a subsidiary of RailCorp, a Government of New South Wales entity. CountryLink operated rail services using XPT and Xplorer rolling stock, with connecting coach services operated under contract by private operators.
Rail transport in Australia is a crucial aspect of the Australian transport network. Rail in Australia is to a large extent state-based. As at 2018, the Australian rail network consisted of a total of 36,064 kilometres (22,409 mi) of track on three major track gauges.
The S sets are a class of electric multiple unit operated by Sydney Trains in New South Wales, Australia. The carriages are of stainless steel, double deck construction. The class is currently the oldest in the Sydney Trains fleet and as of May 2019, they have mostly been replaced by the Waratah Series 2 B Set trains. The S Sets are the only class in the entire fleet that is not air-conditioned, earning them the nicknames "Sweat Sets" and "Ridgys".
The North Coast Line is the primary rail route in the Mid North Coast and Northern Rivers regions of New South Wales, Australia, and forms a major part of the Sydney–Brisbane rail corridor.
Interail was an Australian rail freight operator owned by QR National. In June 2011 it ceased trading as a separate brand, and became part of QR National.
The Spirit of Progress was the premier express passenger train on the Victorian Railways in Australia, running from Melbourne to the New South Wales border at Albury, and later through to Sydney.
The railways of New South Wales, Australia, use a large variety of passenger and freight rolling stock.
The Xplorer is a diesel multiple unit train operated by NSW TrainLink on regional rail services in New South Wales, Australia from Sydney to Armidale, Moree, Broken Hill, Griffith and Canberra. The first Xplorers entered service in October 1993, and are mechanically identical to but feature a higher level of passenger amenity than the Endeavour railcars. All 23 carriages were built by ABB Transportation in Dandenong, Victoria.
High-speed rail in Australia has been under investigation since the early 1980s. Every Federal Government since this time has investigated the feasibility of constructing high speed rail, but to date nothing has ever gone beyond the detailed planning stage. The most commonly suggested route is between Australia's two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne, which is the world's second busiest air corridor. Various corridors have been proposed for a potential high-speed line.
The Silver City Comet was a train service that operated from September 1937 until November 1989 between Parkes and Broken Hill in western New South Wales. It was the first air-conditioned train in the British Empire.
The Southern Aurora was an overnight express passenger train that operated between Australia's two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne. First-class throughout, including the dining facilities, the Southern Aurora featured all-sleeper accommodation. The train first ran on 16 April 1962 after the opening of the North East standard gauge line from Melbourne to Albury, eliminating the break-of-gauge between the capital cities.
The Inter-Capital Daylight was a passenger train that operated between Australia's two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne from March 1956 until August 1991.
The Sydney–Melbourne rail corridor is an approximately 960-kilometre (600 mi) standard gauge railway corridor that runs between Melbourne and Sydney, the two largest cities in Australia. Freight and passenger services operate along the route, such as the NSW TrainLink XPT passenger service. The XPT offers a day and night service in each direction.
The Sydney/Melbourne Express was an overnight intercapital passenger train service that operated between the Australia's largest two cities, Sydney and Melbourne, between August 1986 and November 1993. Operated jointly by State Rail Authority and V/Line the name depended on the direction of travel, with the train nicknamed the 'Sex' or 'Mex'.
The Riverina Express was a passenger train operated by the New South Wales Government Railways between Sydney, Griffith and Albury from September 1949 until November 1993.
The Western Mail was an Australian passenger train that ran from Sydney to Dubbo and Parkes from the 1973 until November 1988. The service commenced when the Dubbo Mail and Forbes Mail were combined.
The R type carriages were a series of locomotive-hauled carriages proposed to be built for the Victorian country rail network in the early and mid 1980s.