The concept of Seven Archangels is found in some works of early Jewish literature.
Jewish literature includes works written by Jews on Jewish themes, literary works written in Jewish languages on various themes, and literary works in any language written by Jewish writers. Ancient Jewish literature includes Biblical literature and rabbinic literature. Medieval Jewish literature includes not only rabbinic literature but also ethical literature, philosophical literature, mystical literature, various other forms of prose including history and fiction, and various forms of poetry of both religious and secular varieties. The production of Jewish literature has flowered with the modern emergence of secular Jewish culture. Modern Jewish literature has included Yiddish literature, Ladino literature, Hebrew literature, and Jewish American literature.
The term archangel itself is not found in equivalent in the Hebrew Bible, and in the Greek New Testament the term archangel only occurs in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and the Epistle of Jude 1:9, where it is used of Michael, who in Daniel 10:13 is called 'one of the chief princes,' and 'the great prince'. In the Septuagint this is rendered "the great angel."
An archangel is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is usually associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are very similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions.
The Hebrew Bible, which is also called the Tanakh or sometimes the Mikra, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, except for some Biblical Aramaic passages in the books of Daniel and Ezra. The Hebrew Bible is also the textual source for the Christian Old Testament. The form of this text that is authoritative for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text (MT) and it consists of 24 books, while the translations divide essentially the same material into 39 books for the Protestant Bible.
The Greek New Testament is the original form of the books that make up the New Testament as they appeared in Koine Greek, the common dialect from 300 BC to 300 AD. There are several Greek-language versions of the New Testament that approximate the original form of the New Testament books in Greek. The first published edition of the Greek New Testament was produced by Erasmus in 1516, Novum Instrumentum omne. There are multiple Greek copies of the New Testament Byzantine text-types, used by the Greek Orthodox Church. There exist multiple copies of the New Testament Textus Receptus, the basis of the King James Version of the New Testament.
The idea of seven archangels is most explicitly stated in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit when Raphael reveals himself, declaring: "I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stand in the glorious presence of the Lord, ready to serve him." (Tobit 12:15) The other two archangels mentioned by name in the Bible are Michael and Gabriel. The four names of the other archangels come from tradition.
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons. It was pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo, the Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, and the Council of Florence, and confirmed in the Counter-Reformation by the Council of Trent (1546). It is not found in Protestant or Jewish biblical canons.
Raphael is an archangel responsible for healing in the traditions of most Abrahamic religions. Not all branches of these religions consider the identification of Raphael to be canonical.
Michael is a masculine given name that comes from Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל / מיכאל, derived from the question מי כאלmī kāʼēl, meaning "Who is like God?".
One such tradition of archangels comes from the Old Testament Jewish apocrypha, namely the third century BCE Book of the Watchers,which eventually merged with four other books in what has been called the Enochic Pentateuch, but which is commonly known today as 1 Enoch, or the Book of Enoch. The Enoch story's narrative is affiliated with the Book of Giants , which also references the great archangels and was made part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church's scriptural canon. Although by the seventh century it was rejected by Christian leaders from all other denominations as canonical scripture, and despite having been prevalent in Jewish and early Christian apostolic traditions (as well as the early Christian leaders writings), the book fell from academic and religious status (i.e., failing to 'qualify' in the eyes of church authorities as canonical scripture) — resulting in the text not being found in most parts of the world, as it was forbidden, from the 7th century C.E. on. The list of angels survived only as part of oral traditions that differed to one another depending on the particular religio-cultural tradition in which they were present, and thus many different lists of angels (termed "archangel") exist, but to different levels of acceptance.
The Book of Enoch is an ancient Jewish apocalyptic religious text, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. Enoch contains unique material on the origins of demons and giants, why some angels fell from heaven, an explanation of why the Great Flood was morally necessary, and prophetic exposition of the thousand-year reign of the Messiah.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian churches. One of the few pre-colonial Christian churches in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has a membership of between 45 and 50 million people, the majority of whom live in Ethiopia. It is a founding member of the World Council of Churches. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is in communion with the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, having gained autocephaly in 1959.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers. There is no definitive list. The era of these scholars who set the theological and scholarly foundations of Christianity largely ended by AD 700.
The Jewish people borrowed the names for angels from the Babylonian culture, [ citation needed ] during their forced exile known as the Babylonian captivity starting in 605 BCE, first with the prophet Daniel, then later with authors such as Ezekiel who styled the Babylonian constellations (the abstract forms of the constellations), that were held as "sons of the gods" (the four sons of the Sky Father deity in Babylonia that carried the Winged Sun, the throne of the Wisdom), as angels from the Lord of Israel, in fact living animals in the heaven that were referred to as cherubim, and with that he repurposed some of the characters found in the Mesopotamian polytheistic belief system as angelic servants of the Lord of Israel, thus establishing the prevalence of the God of Israel. The 2 BC Book of the Parables, chapter XL, echoes such folkloric representations, and gives the name of the four angels with whom the Ancient of Days comes, the ones standing before the Lord of Spirits, "the voices of those upon the four sides magnifying the Lord of Glory" as: Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel.which under the dualistic influence of Zoroastrianism, and as an addition to its own development of early Mesopotamian belief systems, had resulted in a folklore and cosmology that centered around the anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representation of stars and planets, in which it was later introduced the same concept for star constellations, whose characteristics and names were imported by notable Jewish prophets
The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC. During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Ashurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia rebelled under the Chaldean Nabopolassar. In alliance with the Medes, Persians, Scythians and Cimmerians, they sacked the city of Nineveh in 612 BC, and the seat of empire was transferred to Babylonia for the first time since the death of Hammurabi in the mid-18th century BC. This period witnessed a general improvement in economic life and agricultural production, and a great flourishing of architectural projects, the arts and science.
Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is one of the world's oldest continuously practiced religions. It is a heterodox yet orthopraxic faith centered in a dualistic cosmology of good and evil and an eschatology predicting the ultimate conquest of evil with theological elements of henotheism, monotheism/monism, and polytheism. Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking spiritual leader Zoroaster, it exalts an uncreated and benevolent deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, as its supreme being. Major features of Zoroastrianism, such as messianism, judgment after death, heaven and hell, and free will may have influenced other religious and philosophical systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Greek philosophy, Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith, and Buddhism.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity. The religious development of Mesopotamia and Mesopotamian culture in general was not particularly influenced by the movements of the various peoples into and throughout the area, particularly the south. Rather, Mesopotamian religion was a consistent and coherent tradition which adapted to the internal needs of its adherents over millennia of development.
From the Book of the Watchers chapter IX, a list of group of angels is given, in this case, the ones who saw the quantity of blood which was shed on earth in account of the transgression of the "sons of the gods", a group of rogue celestial spirits, termed "the Watchers", that arrived to earth during the antediluvian times, and it is given as a group of five that interceded on behalf of humankind to the Most High: Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel. Whereas the most popular tradition was borrowed from chapter XX, in which a list of "seven angels who watch" is given as: Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Sarakiel, Gabriel, and Remiel.
Watcher is a term used in connection with biblical angels. Watcher occurs in both plural and singular forms in the Book of Daniel, where reference is made to their holiness. The apocryphal Books of Enoch refer to both good and bad Watchers, with a primary focus on the rebellious ones.
The antediluvian is the time period referred to in the Bible between the fall of humans and the Genesis flood narrative in the biblical cosmology. The narrative takes up chapters 1–6 of the Book of Genesis. The term found its way into early geology and science until the late Victorian era. Colloquially, the term is used to refer to any ancient and murky period.
Uriel is one of the archangels of post-exilic rabbinic tradition, and also of certain Christian traditions.
The earliest specific Christian references are in the late 5th to early 6th century: Pseudo-Dionysius gives them as Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Camael, Jophiel, and Zadkiel. [ citation needed ] In most Protestant Christian oral traditions only Michael and Gabriel are referred to as "archangels", which echoes the most mainstream Muslim view on the subject, whereas in the Roman Catholic Christian traditions Raphael is also included, resulting in a group of three.Pope Gregory I lists them as Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel (or Anael), Simiel, Oriphiel, and Raguel.
Lists of characters referred to as "angels" also exist in traditions foreign to the largest religious groups, and are usually regarded as occultist or superstitious. A later reference to seven archangels appeared in an 8th or 9th-century talisman attributed to Auriolus, a "servant of God" in north-western Spain. He issues a prayer to "all you patriarchs Michael, Gabriel, Cecitiel, Oriel, Raphael, Ananiel, Marmoniel.
In the Catholic Church, three archangels are mentioned by name in its canon of scripture: Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael. Raphael appears in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, where he is described as "one of the seven angels who stand ready and enter before the glory of the lord of spirits", Revelation 8:2–6 .a phrase recalled in
Some strands of the Eastern Orthodox Church, exemplified in the Orthodox Slavonic Bible (Ostrog Bible, Elizabeth Bible, and later consequently Russian Synodal Bible), recognize as authoritative also 2 Esdras, which mentions Uriel. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine tradition, venerate seven archangels and sometimes an eighth. Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Selaphiel (Salathiel), Jegudiel (Jehudiel), Barachiel, and the eighth, Jerahmeel (Jeremiel) (The Synaxis of the Chief of the Heavenly Hosts, Archangel Michael and the Other Heavenly Bodiless Powers: Feast Day: November 8).
As well as Uriel, the Book of Enoch, not regarded as canonical by any of these Christian churches, mentions (chapter 21) Raguel, Sariel, and Jerahmeel, while other apocryphal sources give instead the names Izidkiel, Hanael, and Kepharel.
In the Coptic Orthodox tradition the seven archangels are named as Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Suriel, Zadkiel, Sarathiel, and Ananiel.
In Anglican and Episcopal tradition, there are three or four archangels in the calendar for September 29, the feast of St Michael and All Angels (also called Michaelmas), namely Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael,and often also Uriel.
Although in the Book of Enoch, Ramiel is described as one of the leaders of the 200 Grigori, the fallen angels, the leader is identified as Semjaza. Other names derived from pseudepigrapha and recognized by Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches are Selaphiel, Jegudiel, and Raguel.
In Ismailism, there are seven cherubim, comparable to the Seven Archangels ordered to bow down before Qadar, of whom Iblis refuses.
In Yazidi religion, there are seven archangels, named Jabra'il, Mika'il, Rafa'il (Israfil), Dadra'il, Azrail and Shamkil (Shemna'il) and Azazil, who are emanations from God and entrusted to care about the created world.
Seven angels or archangels are given as related to the seven days of the week: Michael (Sunday), Gabriel (Monday), Raphael (Tuesday), Uriel (Wednesday), Selaphiel (Thursday), Raguel or Jegudiel (Friday), and Barachiel (Saturday).[ citation needed ]
Various occult systems associate each archangel with one of the traditional "seven luminaries" (the seven naked-eye moving objects in the sky: the seven classical planets): the sun, the moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn;but there is disagreement as to which archangel corresponds to which body. Regardless, each day of week has a name of a celestial body. Monday is Moon day. Tuesday is Mars. Wednesday is Mercury. Thursday is Jupiter. Friday is Venus. Saturday is Saturn. Sunday is the Sun.
According to Rudolf Steiner, four important archangels also display periodic spiritual activity over the seasons: Spring is Raphael, summer is Uriel, autumn is Michael, and winter is Gabriel. – with autumn in Aries; Raphael the Venus archangel – with spring in Libra; Gabriel connected to the long, moonlit nights of winter in Cancer; and Uriel linked to Saturn, presiding over bright summer days in Capricorn.Following this line of reasoning, Aries (astrologically ruled by Mars) represents spring, Cancer (ruled by the moon) represents summer, Libra (ruled by Venus) represents autumn, and Capricorn (ruled by Saturn) represents winter. Therefore, by association, Raphael is Mars, Uriel is the moon, Michael is Venus, and Gabriel is Saturn. Rudolf Steiner's Northern Hemisphere indications regarding the seasons and their placement in the Zodiac will be the opposite in the Southern Hemisphere, making Michael the Mars archangel
Gabriel, in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel. He was first described in the Hebrew Bible and was subsequently adopted by other traditions.
In Christianity, angels are agents of God, based on angels in Judaism. The most influential Christian angelic hierarchy was that put forward by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite in the 4th or 5th century in his book De Coelesti Hierarchia.
Sariel is an angel, mainly from Judaic tradition. Other possible versions of his name are Suriel, Suriyel, Seriel, Sauriel, Saraqael, Sarakiel, Suruel, Surufel, and Sourial.
The Hebrew name Jerahmeel, which appears several times in the Tanakh, also appears in various forms as the name of an archangel in books of the intertestamental and early Christian periods.
The angel Jophiel, also called Iophiel, Iofiel, Jofiel, Yofiel, Youfiel, Zophiel and Zuriel, is a non-canonical archangel of wisdom, understanding, and judgment. He is listed as one of the Seven Archangels in Pseudo-Dionysian teachings.
Zadkiel is the archangel of freedom, benevolence and mercy, and the Patron Angel of all who forgive, also known as Sachiel, Zedekiel, Zadakiel, Tzadkiel, and Zedekul. Rabbinical tradition considers him to be the angel of mercy.
Râmîêl, or Remiel, is both a fallen Watcher and an archangel in the apocryphal Book of Enoch. Ramiel means "thunder of God" from the Hebrew elements ra'am and El, "God".
Camael, also spelled Khamael, Camiel, Cameel and Camniel, is the Archangel of strength, courage and war in Christian and Jewish mythology and angelology.
Saint Selaphiel the Archangel or Saint Sealtiel, Selatiel, sometimes identified with Salathiel from the Second Book of Esdras. He is one of the seven archangels in the Byzantine Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions.
Saint Jegudiel the Archangel also Jhudiel or Jehudiel is one of the seven Archangels in Eastern Orthodox tradition and in the eastern rites of the Catholic Church.
Barachiel is one of the seven Archangels in Byzantine Catholic and Eastern Orthodox tradition.
Archangel Zerachiel or Zahariel is one of the primary angels who leads souls to judgement. An Angel of Healing, he is also the presiding angel of the sun, prince of ministering angels, and the angel of children, particularly children of parents who have sinned. He is said to have dominion over the earth. In Enoch I he is listed as one of the seven archangels. In the list of Pope Gregory I, one of the seven archangels is called Zachariel.
Antonio del Duca or Lo Duca was the Sicilian friar whose persistent campaign for an official veneration of the "Seven Angelic Princes" was partly answered in the dedication of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, constructed to the orders of Pope Pius IV within the ruins of the Baths of Diocletian.
In some Judeo-Christian traditions, the Angel of the Presence / Face or Angel of his presence / face refers to an entity variously considered angelic or else identified with God himself.
Raguel is an angel mainly of the Judaic traditions. He is considered the Angel of Justice. His name means "Friend of God".