Thomson River (Victoria)

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Thomson
Thomson River bridge 1910.jpg
A bridge over the Thomson River, pictured in 1910.
Australia Victoria relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Location of the Thomson River mouth in Victoria
EtymologyIn honour of Sir Edward Thomson [1] [2]
Native nameTambo, [3] Carrang-carrang, [4] Carran-carran [5]
Location
Country Australia
State Victoria
Region South East Coastal Plain (IBRA), West Gippsland
Local government area Shire of Wellington
Settlements Heyfield, Sale
Physical characteristics
Source Baw Baw Plateau, Great Dividing Range
  locationnear Newlands
  coordinates 37°44′45″S146°10′42″E / 37.74583°S 146.17833°E / -37.74583; 146.17833
  elevation972 m (3,189 ft)
Mouth confluence with the Latrobe River
  location
near Sale
  coordinates
38°8′45″S147°5′11″E / 38.14583°S 147.08639°E / -38.14583; 147.08639 Coordinates: 38°8′45″S147°5′11″E / 38.14583°S 147.08639°E / -38.14583; 147.08639
  elevation
2 m (6 ft 7 in)
Length170 km (110 mi)
Discharge 
  location mouth
Basin features
River system West Gippsland catchment
Tributaries 
  leftMatlock Creek, Jordan River, Aberfeldy River, Stringers Creek, Lammers Creek, Stoney Creek, Macalister River
[6]

The Thomson River, a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, is located in the Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria.

A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) that has continuous flow in parts of its stream bed all year round during years of normal rainfall. "Perennial" streams are contrasted with "intermittent" streams which normally cease flowing for weeks or months each year, and with "ephemeral" channels that flow only for hours or days following rainfall. During unusually dry years, a normally perennial stream may cease flowing, becoming intermittent for days, weeks, or months depending on severity of the drought. The boundaries between perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral channels are not defined, and subject to a variety of identification methods adopted by local governments, academics, and others with a need to classify stream-flow permanence.

West Gippsland, a region of Gippsland in Victoria, Australia, extends from the southeastern limits of metropolitan Melbourne and Western Port Bay in the west to the Latrobe Valley in the east, and is bounded by the Strzelecki Ranges to the south and the Mount Baw Baw Plateau in the Great Dividing Range to the north.

Gippsland Region in Victoria, Australia

Gippsland is an economic rural region of Victoria, Australia, located in the south-eastern part of that state. It covers an area of 41,556 square kilometres (16,045 sq mi), and lies to the east of the eastern suburbs of Greater Melbourne, to the north of Bass Strait, to the west of the Tasman Sea, to the south of the Black-Allan Line that marks part of the Victorian/New South Wales border, and to the east and southeast of the Great Dividing Range that lies within the Hume region and the Victorian Alps. Gippsland is generally broken down into the East Gippsland, South Gippsland, West Gippsland, and the Latrobe Valley statistical divisions.

Contents

Location and features

The Thomson River rises below Newlands at the north western end of the Baw Baw Plateau of the Great Dividing Range, where it shares a watershed with the Yarra and Tanjil rivers. From its source, the river flows generally north, then east, then south southeast through its impoundment, then southeast, then east, and finally east by south, joined by seventeen tributaries including the Jordan, Aberfeldy, and Macalister rivers, before reaching its confluence with the Latrobe River near Sale. The river descends 970 metres (3,180 ft) over its 170-kilometre (110 mi) course. [6] [7]

Baw Baw National Park Protected area in Victoria, Australia

The Baw Baw National Park is a national park located on the boundaries between the Central Highlands and Gippsland regions of Victoria, Australia. The 13,530-hectare (33,400-acre) national park is situated approximately 120 kilometres (75 mi) east of Melbourne and 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of the Latrobe Valley. The park contains the Baw-Baw Plateau and borders the Mount Baw Baw Alpine Resort.

Great Dividing Range mountain range in the Australian states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria

The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. It stretches more than 3,500 kilometres (2,175 mi) from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through New South Wales, then into Victoria and turning west, before finally fading into the central plain at the Grampians in western Victoria. The width of the range varies from about 160 km (100 mi) to over 300 km (190 mi). The Greater Blue Mountains Area, Gondwana Rainforests, and Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Areas are located in the range.

Yarra River river in Victoria, Australia

The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, is a perennial river in east-central Victoria, Australia.

The Thomson Valley was intensively mined for gold during the latter half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Prospector "Ned" Stringer discovered significant quantities of alluvial gold at the junction of what is now known as Stringers Creek. A short distance up that creek the gold mining township of Walhalla was established. The first person to walk the entire length of the river was Ronald Le Sage, father of David Le Sage, who explored its viability for a cattle droving route in 1959.

Walhalla, Victoria Town in Victoria, Australia

Walhalla is a small town in Victoria, Australia, founded as a gold-mining community in late 1862 and at its peak home to around 4,000 residents. Today, the town has a population of 20 permanent residents, though it has a large proportion of houses owned as holiday properties. It attracts large numbers of tourists and is a major focus of the regional tourism industry. The town's name is taken from an early gold mine in the area, named for the German hall of fame, the Walhalla temple.

The river is impounded not far below its source by the Thomson Dam, creating Thomson Reservoir. The reservoir provides around 70% of Melbourne's water storage and supplies about 30% of Melbourne's water needs. [8] This takes about 50% of the river's natural flow, which places a great environmental stress downstream. It particularly affects the Gippsland Lakes, which include Lake Wellington, Lake Victoria and Lake King. This area has international significance as a Ramsar listed wetland site. [9]

Thomson Dam dam in West Gippsland, Victoria

The Thomson Dam is a major earth and rockfill embankment dam with a controlled chute spillway across the Thomson River, located about 130 kilometres (81 mi) east of Melbourne in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria. The impounded reservoir is officially called Thomson Reservoir, sometimes called Lake Thomson.

Gippsland Lakes lake

The Gippsland Lakes are a network of lakes, marshes and lagoons in east Gippsland, Victoria, Australia covering an area of about 354 square kilometres (137 sq mi). The largest of the lakes are Lake Wellington, Lake King and Lake Victoria. The lakes are collectively fed by the Avon, Thomson, Latrobe, Mitchell, Nicholson and Tambo rivers.

Ramsar Convention international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.

Diversion tunnel

The 170-metre (560 ft) Victorian heritage-listed diversion tunnel is located on the river near its junction with Coopers Creek (and the locality of Platina), approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south-west of Walhalla. Tunnelling commenced in August 1911 and was completed around October 1912; making the diversion tunnel one of thirteen river diversions surviving from the Victorian gold rush. [10]

Victorian Heritage Register heritage register of Victoria, Australia

The Victorian Heritage Register (VHR) lists places deemed to be of cultural heritage significance to the State of Victoria, Australia. It has statutory weight under the Heritage Act 1995 which established Heritage Victoria as the State Government listing and permit authority. Listing on the Victorian Heritage Register is separate from listing by a local Council or Shire, known as a Heritage Overlay. Heritage Victoria is currently part of the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning of the Government of Victoria, Australia. Heritage Victoria reports to the Heritage Council who approve recommendations to the Register and hear appeals when a registration is disputed. The Council also hears appeals by an owner to a permit issued by Heritage Victoria. The Minister for Planning is the responsible Minister for Heritage Victoria and the Heritage Act 1995. As of 2013, there were over 2,200 places and objects listed on the VHR.

Victorian gold rush

The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia approximately between 1851 and the late 1860s. It led to a period of extreme prosperity for the Australian colony, and an influx of population growth and financial capital for Melbourne, which was dubbed "Marvellous Melbourne" as a result of the procurement of wealth.

Etymology

In the Australian Aboriginal Brataualung language the river is given two names, Tambo, with no defined meaning; [3] and Carrang-carrang or Carrang-carrang, meaning "brackish water". [4] [5]

Australian Aboriginal languages 290–363 languages spoken by Aboriginal Australians

The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated 28 language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands. The relationships between these languages are not clear at present. Despite this uncertainty, the Indigenous Australian languages are collectively covered by the technical term "Australian languages", or the "Australian family".

Brackish water Water with salinity between freshwater and seawater

Brackish water is water having more salinity than freshwater, but not as much as seawater. It may result from mixing seawater with fresh water together, as in estuaries, or it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers. The word comes from the Middle Dutch root "brak". Certain human activities can produce brackish water, in particular civil engineering projects such as dikes and the flooding of coastal marshland to produce brackish water pools for freshwater prawn farming. Brackish water is also the primary waste product of the salinity gradient power process. Because brackish water is hostile to the growth of most terrestrial plant species, without appropriate management it is damaging to the environment.

The river was given its English name in 1840 by Angus McMillan in honour of Sir Edward Thomson, the Chief Secretary of the Colony of New South Wales, based in Sydney. [1] [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Avon River (Gippsland, Victoria) river in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia

The Avon River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region, of the Australian state of Victoria. The Avon, forms an important part of the Latrobe sub-catchment, draining the south eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range, to form the Gippsland Lakes.

Mitchell River (Victoria) river in Victoria, Australia

The Mitchell River is a perennial river of the East Gippsland catchment, located in the Australian state of Victoria. The unregulated river provides a unique example of riparian ecology, flowing generally south with the catchment area drawing from the steep mountains of the Victorian Alps to enter Lake King, one of the Gippsland Lakes, and then empty into the Bass Strait.

Latrobe River river in Australia

The Latrobe River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria. The Latrobe River and its associated sub-catchment is an important source for the Gippsland Lakes, draining the south eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range.

Tambo River (Victoria) river of Victoria, Australia

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Nicholson River (Victoria) river in Victoria, Australia

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Timbarra River (Victoria) river in Victoria, Australia

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Thomson River Diversion Tunnel Protected area in Victoria, Australia

The Thomson River Diversion Tunnel, also known as the Horseshoe Bend Tunnel or the Chinese Tunnel, is located on the Thomson River near the junction with Coopers Creek, approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south-west of Walhalla, Victoria, Australia. The site is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and covered by a Heritage Overlay.

Macalister River river in Victoria, Australia

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Perry River (Victoria) tributary of the Avon River in Victoria, Australia

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Jordan River (Victoria) tributary of the Thomson River in Victoria, Australia

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Ada River (Baw Baw, Victoria) perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria

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Aberfeldy River river in Australia

The Aberfeldy River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the Alpine region of the Australian state of Victoria.

Toorongo River

The Toorongo River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria.

Loch River river in Australia

The Loch River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria.

Tanjil River

The Tanjil River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria.

Tyers River

The Tyers River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria.

Moe River

The Moe River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the West Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria.

Coopers Creek, Victoria Town in Victoria, Australia

Coopers Creek is a former township and mine in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. In the 1860s, Coopers Creek was settled during the Victorian gold rush and, throughout its history, gold, copper and lime have been mined there. Today, Coopers Creek is effectively limited to two camping sites, the first near the site of the mining town and the second to the east at Bruntons Bridge. Ruins from the town's mining history, and the Copper Mine Hotel are all of the town's history which survives.

References

  1. 1 2 Blake, Les (1977). Place names of Victoria. Adelaide: Rigby. p. 198. ISBN   0-7270-0250-3.
  2. 1 2 "Thomson River: 27701: Historical Information". Vicnames. Government of Victoria. 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  3. 1 2 "Thomson River: 27701: Traditional Name: Tambo". Vicnames. Government of Victoria. 12 August 2011. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  4. 1 2 "Thomson River: 27701: Traditional name: Carrang-carrang". Vicnames. Government of Victoria. 12 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  5. 1 2 "Thomson River: 27701: Traditional name: Carrang-carran". Vicnames. Government of Victoria. 12 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  6. 1 2 "Map of Thomson River, VIC". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  7. West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority; Department of Sustainability and Environment; Melbourne Water Corporation; Southern Rural Water (September 2003). "Thomson River Environmental Flow Requirements and Options to Manage Flow Stress" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  8. Premier of Victoria (24 October 2010). "All Water Returned to the Yarra and Thomson Rivers" (Press release). Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  9. Environment Victoria - Thomson River
  10. "Thomson River Diversion Tunnel, Victorian Heritage Register (VHR) Number H1990, Heritage Overlay Number HO261". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria. Retrieved 13 September 2010.