Finland participated in the Second World War, twice battling the Soviet Union, and then against Nazi Germany. As relations with the Soviet Union changed during the war, Finland was placed in the unusual situation of being for, then against and then for the overall interests of the Allied powers.
The first two major conflicts in which Finland was directly involved were the defensive Winter War against an invasion by the Soviet Union in 1939, followed by the Continuation War, alongside Germany and the other Axis Powers against the Soviets, in 1941–1944. The third conflict, the Lapland War against Germany in 1944–1945, followed the signing of the Moscow Armistice with the Allied Powers, which stipulated expulsion of Nazi German forces from Finnish territory.
By the end of hostilities, Finland had defended its independence, but had to cede nearly 10% of its territory, including its fourth largest city, Viipuri (Vyborg), and pay out a large amount of war reparations to the Soviet Union. As a result of this territorial loss, all East Karelians abandoned their homes, relocating to areas that remained within the borders of Finland.
In 1809, the Russian Empire conquered Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War. Finland entered a personal union with the Russian Empire as a grand duchy with extensive autonomy. During the period of Russian rule the country generally prospered. On 6 December 1917, during the Russian Civil War, the Finnish parliament Suomen Eduskunta declared independence from Russia, which was accepted by the Bolshevik regime of the Soviet Union on 31 December. In January 1918, the Eduskunta ordered General Carl Mannerheim to use local Finnish White Guards to disarm Finnish Red Guards and Russian troops in the country, which began on 27 January and led to the beginning of the Finnish Civil War.
After the Eastern Front and peace negotiations between the Bolsheviks and Germany collapsed, the German troops intervened in Finland and occupied Helsinki. The Red faction was defeated and the survivors were subjected to a reign of terror, in which at least 12,000 people died. A new government with Juho Kusti Paasikivi as prime minister, pursued a pro-German policy and sought to annex Russian Karelia, which had a Finnish-speaking majority despite never being part of Finland.
After the extinction of the Hohenzollern monarchy on 9 November 1918, Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent, German troops left Finland and British ships cruised in the Baltic. Mannerheim was elected regent by the Eduskunta and Finnish policy became pro-Entente as the western powers intervened in the Russian Civil War (7 November 1917 – 16 June 1923). Mannerheim favoured intervention against the Bolsheviks but suspicion of the White Russians who refused to recognise Finnish independence led to his aggressive policy being overruled, then the Bolshevik victory in Russia forestalled Finnish hostilities.
Paasikivi led a delegation to Tartu in Estonia with instructions to establish a frontier from lake Ladoga in the south, via Lake Onega to the White Sea in the north. The importance of the Murmansk railway, built in 1916, meant that the Soviet delegation rejected the Finnish border proposal and the treaty of 14 October 1920 recognised a border in which Finland obtained the northern port of Petsamo (Pechenga) an outlet to the Arctic Ocean and a border roughly the same as that of the former Grand Duchy of Finland, claims on areas of Eastern Karelia were abandoned and the Soviets accepted that the south-eastern border would not be moved west of Petrograd.
During the winter war period, the relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Some elements in Finland maintained the dream of "Greater Finland" which included the Soviet-controlled part of Karelia. The proximity of the Finnish border to Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) caused worry in the Soviet leadership. On 23 August 1939 Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. A secret clause of this agreement marked Finland as part of the Soviet sphere of influence.
On 12 October the Soviet Union started negotiations with Finland concerning parts of Finnish territory, the Karelian Isthmus, the Gulf of Finland islands and the Hanko Peninsula. No agreement was reached. On 26 November the Soviet Union accused the Finnish army of shelling the village of Mainila. It was subsequently found that the Soviets had in fact shelled their own village to create an excuse to withdraw from their non-aggression pact with Finland. On 30 November the Soviet Union attacked Finland. The attack was denounced by the League of Nations and, as a result, the Soviet Union was expelled from that body on 14 December.
The aim of the invasion was to annex Finland by the Soviet Union. The first attack, on 30 November 1939, was an aerial bombardment of the city of Helsinki and all along the Finnish-Soviet border. This put the Finnish people on the defensive without having to make any decision, unifying the once divided country.The Soviet invasion was intended to be a liberation of the 'Red Finns', with the eventual annexation of Finland into the USSR. To this end, a puppet government, the "Finnish Democratic Republic" was established in Terijoki under the leadership of the exiled O. W. Kuusinen.
Strategic goals of the Red Army included cutting Finland in half and capturing Petsamo in the north and Helsinki in the south. km (800 miles) in length, presenting the defenders with a significant disadvantage.The Soviets had been building their forces up on the border for several months during the previous negotiations. The Soviet Union fielded four armies composed of 16 divisions and another three were being brought into position; meanwhile, the Finnish army had 9 smaller divisions. In addition, Soviet forces enjoyed an overwhelming superiority in the numbers of armour and air units deployed. The problem with numbers was a Finnish issue as they had to defend a border that was some 1287
The Winter War was fought in three stages: the initial Soviet advance, a short lull and then a renewed Soviet offensive.The war was fought mainly in three areas. The Karelian Isthmus and the area of Lake Ladoga was the primary focus of the Soviet war effort. A two-pronged attack, with one pincer engaging the Finnish forces on the Isthmus while the other went around Lake Ladoga in an attempt at encircling the defenders. This force was then to advance to and capture the city of Viipuri. The second front was in central Karelia, where the Soviet forces were to advance to the city of Oulu, cutting the country in half. Finally, a southwards drive from the north was to capture the Petsamo region. By late December, the two main fronts had come to a standstill as the Finns were counterattacking with more strength and the Soviets were being bogged down. With the failure of two of its three offensives by the end of December, the Soviet headquarters ordered a cessation of operations. By 27 December it was observed that the Soviet forces were digging in on the Karelian Isthmus. In the north, however, the Finns had been pushed back to Nautsi and with reinforcements took the higher ground to halt the Soviet advance south of Petsamo. During this period the Finns are known to have been harassing supply columns and even carrying out raids against fortified Soviet positions. A lull period followed in January 1940, as the Soviet army reassessed its strategy, rearmed and resupplied. The last phase began in February 1940 with a major artillery barrage that began on the 2nd and lasted till the 11th, accompanied by reconnaissance raids at key objectives. The Soviets, using new equipment and materials, also began using tactics of rotating troops from the reserve to the front, constantly applying pressure to the Finnish defenders. It seemed that the Red Army had inexhaustible amounts of ammunition and supplies, as attacks were always preceded by barrages, followed by aerial assaults and then random troop movements against the lines. Finnish military and government leaders saw that the only thing left to do was to negotiate a peace treaty with Moscow.
The tenacity of the Finnish people, both military and civilian, in the face of a superior opponent gained the country much sympathy throughout the world. However, material support from other countries was small and none of Finland's neighbours were willing to commit their militaries to a war against the USSR. The need for a diplomatic solution became even more apparent, after the Soviet forces broke through the Finnish defensive line on the Karelian Isthmus and moved on towards Viipuri.
A demanding peace proposal was sent to Finland by Molotov in mid-February, claiming more land for the USSR and significant diplomatic and military sanctions. By 28 February, Molotov made his offer an ultimatum with a 48-hour time limit, which pushed the Finnish leadership to act quickly.The Finnish people were worn down and could no longer hold out against such vast, well-supplied numbers. By 13 March 1940, the Winter War was officially over, the Moscow Peace Treaty was signed and the Soviet Union had gained more territory than it originally demanded.
The period of peace following the Winter War was widely regarded in Finland as temporary, even when peace was announced in March 1940. A period of frantic diplomatic efforts and rearmament followed. The Soviet Union kept up intense pressure on Finland, thereby hastening the Finnish efforts to improve the security of the country.
Defensive arrangements were attempted with Sweden and Great Britain, but the political and military situation in the context of the Second World War rendered these efforts fruitless. Finland then turned to Nazi Germany for military aid. As the German offensive against the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) approached, the cooperation between the two countries intensified. German troops arrived in Finland and took up positions, mostly in Lapland, from where they would invade the Soviet Union. The Finnish military took part in the planning for Operation Barbarossa, and prepared to invade the Soviet Union alongside the Germans in the north, and independently in the south.[ citation needed ]
Operation Barbarossa began on 22 June 1941. On 25 June the Soviet Union launched an air raid against Finnish cities, after which Finland declared war and also allowed German troops stationed in Finland to begin offensive warfare. The resulting war was known to the Finns as the Continuation War.
During the summer and autumn of 1941 the Finnish Army was on the offensive, retaking the territories lost in the Winter War. The Finnish army also advanced further, especially in the direction of Lake Onega, (east from Lake Ladoga), closing the blockade of the city of Leningrad from the north, and occupying Eastern Karelia, which had never been a part of Finland before. This resulted with Stalin asking Roosevelt for help in restoring peaceful relations between Finland and the Soviet Union on 4 August 1941. Finland's refusal of the Soviet offer of territorial concessions in exchange for a peace treaty would later cause Great Britain to declare war on Finland on 6 December (The US maintained diplomatic relations with Finland until the summer of 1944).The German and Finnish troops in Northern Finland were less successful, failing to take the Russian port city of Murmansk during Operation Silver Fox.
On 31 July 1941 the United Kingdom launched raids on Kirkenes and Petsamo to demonstrate support for the Soviet Union. These raids were unsuccessful.
In December 1941, the Finnish army took defensive positions. This led to a long period of relative calm in the front line, lasting until 1944. During this period, starting at 1941 but especially after the major German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad, intermittent peace inquiries took place. These negotiations did not lead to any settlement.
On 16 March 1944, the President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, called for Finland to disassociate itself from Nazi Germany.
On 9 June 1944, the Red Army launched a major strategic offensive against Finland, attaining vast numerical superiority and surprising the Finnish army. This attack pushed the Finnish forces approximately to the same positions as they were holding at the end of the Winter War. Eventually the Soviet offensive was fought to a standstill in the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, while still tens or hundreds of kilometres in front of the main Finnish line of fortifications, the Salpa Line. However, the war had exhausted Finnish resources and it was believed that the country would not be able to hold another major attack. [ page needed ]
The worsening situation in 1944 had led to Finnish president Risto Ryti giving Germany his personal guarantee that Finland would not negotiate peace with the Soviet Union for as long as he was the president. In exchange Germany delivered weapons to the Finns. After the Soviet offensive was halted, however, Ryti resigned. Due to the war, elections could not be held, and therefore the Parliament selected the Marshal of Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, the Finnish commander-in-chief, as president and charged him with negotiating a peace.
The Finnish front had become a sideshow for the Soviet leadership, as they were in a race to reach Berlin before the Western Allies. This, and the heavy casualties inflicted on the Red Army by the Finns, led to the transfer of most troops from the Finnish front. On 4 September 1944 a ceasefire was agreed, and the Moscow armistice between Soviet Union and United Kingdom on one side and Finland on another was signed on 19 September.
The Moscow armistice was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War, though the final peace treaty was not to be signed until 1947 in Paris.
The conditions for peace were similar to those previously agreed in the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty, with Finland being forced to cede parts of Finnish Karelia, a part of Salla and islands in the Gulf of Finland. The new armistice also handed the whole of Petsamo over to the Soviet Union. Finland also agreed to legalize communist parties and ban fascist organizations. Finally, the armistice also demanded that Finland must expel German troops from its territory, which was the cause of the Lapland War.
The Lapland War was fought between Finland and Nazi Germany in Lapland, the northernmost part of Finland. The main strategic interest of Germany in the region was the nickel mines in the Petsamo area.
Initially the warfare was cautious on both sides, reflecting the previous cooperation of the two countries against their common enemy, but by the end of 1944 the fighting intensified. Finland and Germany had made an informal agreement and schedule for German troops to withdraw from Lapland to Norway. The Soviet Union did not accept this "friendliness" and pressured Finland to take a more active role in pushing the Germans out of Lapland, thus intensifying hostilities.
The Germans adopted a scorched-earth policy, and proceeded to lay waste to the entire northern half of the country as they retreated. Around 100,000 people lost their homes, adding to the burden of post-war reconstruction. The actual loss of life, however, was relatively light. Finland lost approximately 1,000 troops and Germany about 2,000. The Finnish army expelled the last of the foreign troops from their soil in April 1945.
The war had caused great damage to infrastructure and the economy. From the autumn of 1944, the Finnish army and navy performed many mine clearance operations, especially in Karelia, Lapland and the Gulf of Finland. The sea mine clearance lasted until 1950. The mines caused many military and civilian casualties, particularly in Lapland.
As part of the Paris Peace Treaty, Finland was classified as an ally of Nazi Germany, bearing its responsibility for the war. The treaty imposed heavy war reparations on Finland and stipulated the lease of the Porkkala area near the Finnish capital Helsinki as a military base for fifty years.The reparations were initially thought to be crippling for the economy, but a determined effort was made to pay them. The reparations were reduced by 25% in 1948 by the Soviet Union and were paid off in 1952. Porkkala was returned to Finnish control in 1956.
In subsequent years the position of Finland was unique in the Cold War. The country was heavily influenced by the Soviet Union, but was the only country on the Soviet pre-World War II border to retain democracy and a market economy. Finland entered into the Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (YYA Treaty) with the Soviet Union in which the Soviet Union agreed to the neutral status of Finland. Arms purchases were balanced between East and West until the fall of the Soviet Union.
During the Continuation War (1941–1944) Finland was co-belligerent with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, and dependent on food, fuel and armament shipments from Germany. In spite of this, Finland retained an independent democratic government. Moreover, during the war, Finland kept its army outside the German command structure despite numerous attempts by the Germans to tie them more tightly together.
Finnish Jews were not persecuted, and even among extremists of the Finnish Right they were highly tolerated, as many leaders of the movement came from the clergy. Of approximately 500 Jewish refugees, eight were handed over to the Germans, a fact for which Finnish prime minister Paavo Lipponen issued an official apology in 2000. The field synagogue operated by the Finnish army was probably a unique phenomenon in the Eastern Front of the war.Finnish Jews fought alongside other Finns for their country's freedom.
About 2,600–2,800 Soviet prisoners of war were handed over to the Germans in exchange for roughly 2,200 Finnic prisoners of war held by the Germans. In November 2003, the Simon Wiesenthal Center submitted an official request to Finnish President Tarja Halonen for a full-scale investigation by the Finnish authorities of the prisoner exchange.In the subsequent study by Professor Heikki Ylikangas it turned out that about 2,000 of the exchanged prisoners joined the Russian Liberation Army. The rest, mostly army and political officers, (among them a name-based estimate of 74 Jews), most likely perished in Nazi concentration camps.
During World War II, Finland was in many ways a unique case: It was the only European country bordering the Soviet Union in 1939 which was still unoccupied by 1945. Of all the European countries fighting, only three European capitals were never occupied: Moscow, London and Helsinki. It was a country which sided with Germany, but in which native Jews and almost all refugees were safe from persecution.It was the only co-belligerent of Nazi Germany which maintained democracy throughout the war. It was in fact the only democracy in mainland Europe that remained so despite being an involved party in the war.
According to the Finnish records 19,085 Soviet prisoners of war died in Finnish prison camps during the Continuation War, which means that 29.6% of Soviet POWs taken by the Finns did not survive. The high number of fatalities was mainly due to malnutrition and diseases. However, about 1,000 POWs were shot, primarily when attempting to escape.
When the Finnish Army controlled East Karelia between 1941 and 1944, several concentration camps were set up for Russian civilians. The first camp was set up on 24 October 1941, in Petrozavodsk. Of these interned civilians 4,361perished mainly due to malnourishment, 90% of them during the spring and summer of 1942.
Finland was never a member of the Axis powers as it never signed the Tripartite Pact, but was aided in its military assault on the Soviet Union by Germany from the beginning of Operation Barbarossa in 1941, and in its defence against Soviet attacks in 1944 prior to the separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. Finland was led by its elected president and parliament during the whole 1939–1945 period. As a result, some political scientists name it as one of the few instances where a democratic country was engaged in a war against one or more other democratic countries, namely the democracies in the Allied forces.However, nearly all Finnish military engagements in World War II were fought solely against an autocratic power, the Soviet Union, and the lack of direct conflicts specifically with other democratic countries leads others to exclude Finnish involvement in World War II as an example of a war between two or more democracies.
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The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II. In Russian historiography, the war is called the Soviet–Finnish Front of the Great Patriotic War. Germany regarded its operations in the region as part of its overall war efforts on the Eastern Front and provided Finland with critical material support and military assistance.
The Winter War was a war between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland. It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, and ended three and a half months later with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation.
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim was a Finnish military leader and statesman. Mannerheim served as the military leader of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War, Regent of Finland (1918–1919), commander-in-chief of Finland's defence forces during World War II, Marshal of Finland, and the sixth president of Finland (1944–1946).
Co-belligerence is the waging of a war in cooperation against a common enemy with or without a formal treaty of military alliance. Generally, the term is used for cases where no alliance exists. Likewise, allies may not become co-belligerents in a war if a casus foederis invoking the alliance has not arisen. Co-belligerents are defined in the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law as "states engaged in a conflict with a common enemy, whether in alliance with each other or not".
The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March. It marked the end of the 105-day Winter War, upon which Finland ceded border areas to the Soviet Union. The treaty was signed by Vyacheslav Molotov, Andrey Zhdanov and Aleksandr Vasilevsky for the Soviet Union, and Risto Ryti, Juho Kusti Paasikivi, Rudolf Walden and Väinö Voionmaa for Finland. The terms of the treaty were not reversed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the Karelian question remains disputed.
The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919, during the Russian Civil War. Aunus is the Finnish name for Olonets Karelia. This expedition was one of many Finnic "kinship wars" (heimosodat) fought against forces of Soviet Russia after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and during the Russian Civil War.
The Finnish Army is the land forces branch of the Finnish Defence Forces. Today's Army is divided into six branches: the infantry, field artillery, anti-aircraft artillery, engineers, signals, and materiel troops. The commander of the Finnish Army since 1 August 2017 is Lieutenant General Petri Hulkko.
Operation Silver Fox from 29 June to 17 November 1941, was a German–Finnish military operation on the Eastern Front of World War II against the Soviet Union. The objective of the offensive was to cut off and capture the key Soviet Port of Murmansk through attacks from Finnish and Norwegian territory.
The Order of the Day of the Sword Scabbard, or the Sword Scabbard Declaration, actually refers to two related declarations by the Finnish Commander-in-Chief Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim during World War I and World War II against Soviet control of East Karelia.
The Ryti–Ribbentrop letter of agreement of June 26, 1944, was a personal letter from President Risto Ryti of Finland to German Führer Adolf Hitler whereby Ryti agreed not to reach a separate peace in the war with the Soviet Union without approval from Nazi Germany, in order to secure German military aid for Finland to stop the Soviet offensive. This letter marked the closest to an alliance that Finland and Nazi Germany came to during World War II.
Greater Finland is an irredentist and nationalist idea that emphasized territorial expansion of Finland. The most common concept of Greater Finland was defined by natural borders encompassing the territories inhabited by Finns and Karelians, ranging from the White Sea to Lake Onega and along the Svir River and Neva River—or, more modestly, the Sestra River—to the Gulf of Finland. Some proponents also included the Kola Peninsula, Finnmark, Torne Valley, Ingria, and Estonia.
The Interim Peace was a short period in the history of Finland during the Second World War. The term is used for the time between the Winter War and the Continuation War, lasting a little over a year, from 13 March 1940 to 24 June 1941. The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940 and it ended the 105-day Winter War.
The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive or Karelian offensive was a strategic operation by the Soviet Leningrad and Karelian Fronts against Finland on the Karelian Isthmus and East Karelia fronts of the Continuation War, on the Eastern Front of World War II. The Soviet forces captured East Karelia and Viborg. After that, however, the fighting reached a stalemate.
The Battle of Rovaniemi was an event during the 1944 Lapland War. The actual fighting between the components of the Finnish Armoured Division and Finnish 3rd Division against the troops of the German Twentieth Mountain Army took place at the vicinity of the town of Rovaniemi. The notoriety of the encounter derives from the near-total destruction of the town.
The Moscow Armistice was signed between Finland on one side and the Soviet Union and United Kingdom on the other side on September 19, 1944, ending the Continuation War. The Armistice restored the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940, with a number of modifications.
The Lapland War was fought between Finland and Nazi Germany effectively from September to November 1944 in Finland's northernmost region, Lapland, during World War II. Although Finns and Germans had been fighting the Soviet Union (USSR) together since 1941 during the Continuation War, the Soviet Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in the summer of 1944 forced Finnish leadership to negotiate a separate peace agreement. The Moscow Armistice demanded Finland break diplomatic ties with Germany and expel or disarm any German soldiers remaining in Finland after 15 September 1944.
During the early stages of World War II, the British and French Allies made a series of proposals to send troops to assist Finland against the Soviet Union in the Winter War, which started on 30 November 1939. The war was a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, which put Finland into the Soviet sphere of influence. The plans involved the transit of British and French troops and equipment through neutral Norway and Sweden. The initial plans were abandoned due to Norway and Sweden declining transit through their land, fearing their countries would be drawn into the war. The Moscow Peace Treaty ended the war in March 1940, precluding the possibility of intervention.
The timeline of the Winter War is a chronology of events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the Winter War. The war began when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 and it ended 13 March 1940.
The Finnish military administration in Eastern Karelia was an interim administrative system established in those areas of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (KFSSR) of the Soviet Union which were occupied by the Finnish army during the Continuation War. The military administration was set up on July 15, 1941 and it ended during the summer of 1944. The goal of the administration was to prepare the region for eventual annexation into Finland.
The 114th Rifle Division began service in July, 1939 as a standard Red Army rifle division, as part of the pre-war expansion of the Soviet forces. It was stationed on the Svir River front in the autumn of 1941 and had a relatively uneventful war facing the Finns until the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive began on June 10, 1944, from which point it saw much more active service. As the Finns were leaving the war the division was transferred to 14th Army in the Arctic, from where it helped to defeat and pursue the German forces from Lapland into Norway.