Military history of Finland during World War II

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Finnish soldiers raise the flag at the three-country cairn between Norway, Sweden and Finland on 27 April 1945, which marked the end of World War II in Finland. Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki 27.4.1945.png
Finnish soldiers raise the flag at the three-country cairn between Norway, Sweden and Finland on 27 April 1945, which marked the end of World War II in Finland.

Finland participated in the Second World War, twice battling the Soviet Union, and then against Nazi Germany. As relations with the Soviet Union changed during the war, Finland was placed in the unusual situation of being against and then for the overall interests of the Allied powers.

Finland Republic in Northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Contents

The first two major conflicts were the defensive Winter War against an invasion by the Soviet Union in 1939–1940, followed by the Continuation War, alongside the Axis Powers against the Soviets, in 1941–1944. The third conflict, the Lapland War against Germany in 1944–1945, followed the signing of the Moscow Armistice with the Allied Powers, which stipulated expulsion of Nazi German forces from Finnish territory.

Winter War 1939–1940 war between the Soviet Union and Finland

The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland. It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, and ended three and a half months later with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation.

Continuation War 1941–1944 war by Finland and Germany against the Soviet Union

The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II. In Russian historiography, the war is called the Soviet–Finnish Front of the Great Patriotic War. Germany regarded its operations in the region as part of its overall war efforts on the Eastern Front and provided Finland with critical material support and military assistance.

Lapland War 1944–1945 war between Finland and Germany

The Lapland War was fought between Finland and Nazi Germany effectively from September to November 1944 in Finland's northernmost region, Lapland, during World War II. Although Finns and Germans had been fighting the Soviet Union (USSR) together since 1941 during the Continuation War, the Soviet Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in the summer of 1944 forced Finnish leadership to negotiate a separate peace agreement. The Moscow Armistice demanded Finland break diplomatic ties with Germany and expel or disarm any German soldiers remaining in Finland after 15 September 1944.

By the end of hostilities, Finland had defended its independence, but had to cede nearly 10% of its territory, including its second largest city, Viipuri (Vyborg), and pay out a large amount of war reparations to the Soviet Union. As a result of this territorial loss, all East Karelians abandoned their homes, relocating to areas that remained within the borders of Finland.

Vyborg Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Vyborg is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Vyborg Bay, 130 km to the northwest of St. Petersburg and 38 km south of Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland. The population of Vyborg has developed as follows: 79,962 (2010 Census); 79,224 (2002 Census); 80,924 (1989 Census)..

War reparations of Finland to the Soviet Union were originally worth US$300,000,000 at 1938 prices. Finland agreed to pay the reparations in the Moscow Armistice signed on 19 September 1944. The protocol to determine more precisely the war reparations to the Soviet Union was signed in December 1944, by the prime minister Juho Kusti Paasikivi and the chairman of the Allied Control Commission for controlling the Moscow Armistice in Helsinki, Andrei Zhdanov.

Karelia area in Northern Europe

Karelia, the land of the Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden. It is currently divided among the northwestern Russian Federation and Finland.

Background

Finnish independence

The Grand Duchy of Finland, as the country was named until 1917. Grand-Duchy-of-Finland2.png
The Grand Duchy of Finland, as the country was named until 1917.

In 1809, the Russian Empire conquered Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War. Finland entered a personal union with the Russian Empire as a grand duchy with extensive autonomy. During the period of Russian rule the country generally prospered. On 6 December 1917, during the Russian Civil War, the Finnish parliament Suomen Eduskunta declared independence from Russia, which was accepted by the Bolshevik regime of the Soviet Union on 31 December. In January 1918, the Eduskunta ordered General Carl Mannerheim to use local Finnish White Guards to disarm Finnish Red Guards and Russian troops in the country, which began on 27 January which began the Finnish Civil War. [1]

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Swedish Empire the years 1611–1721 in the history of Sweden

The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The beginning of the Empire is usually taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, and its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War.

Finnish War 1808–1809 war between Russia and Sweden

The Finnish War was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. Other notable effects were the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and the establishment of the House of Bernadotte, the new Swedish royal house, in 1818.

German troops intervened in Finland after the Eastern Front and peace negotiations between the Bolsheviks and Germany collapsed and occupied Helsinki. The Red faction was defeated and the survivors were subjected to a reign of terror, in which at least 12,000 people died. A new government with Juho Kusti Paasikivi as prime minister, pursued a pro-German policy and sought to annex Russian Karelia, which had a Finnish-speaking majority despite never being part of Finland. [1]

Eastern Front (World War I) Theatre of World War I

The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I was a theater of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, involved most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France.

Juho Kusti Paasikivi 7th President of Finland

Juho Kusti Paasikivi was the seventh President of Finland (1946–1956). Representing the Finnish Party and the National Coalition Party, he also served as Prime Minister of Finland, and was an influential figure in Finnish economics and politics for over fifty years. He is remembered as a main architect of Finland's foreign policy after the Second World War.

Treaty of Tartu

After the extinction of the Hohenzollern monarchy on 9 November 1918, Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent, German troops left Finland and British ships cruised in the Baltic. Mannerheim was elected regent by the Eduskunta and Finnish policy became pro-Entente as the western powers intervened in the Russian Civil War (7 November 1917 – 16 June 1923). Mannerheim favoured intervention against the Bolsheviks but suspicion of the White Russians who refused to recognise Finnish independence led to his aggressive policy being overruled, then the Bolshevik victory in Russia forestalled Finnish hostilities. [2]

Russian Civil War multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians.

Paasikivi led a delegation to Tartu in Estonia with instructions to establish a frontier from lake Ladoga in the south, via Lake Onega to the White Sea in the north. The importance of the Murmansk railway, built in 1916, meant that the Soviet delegation rejected the Finnish border proposal and the treaty of 14 October 1920 recognised a border in which Finland obtained the northern port of Petsamo (Pechenga) an outlet to the Arctic Ocean and a border roughly the same as that of the former Grand Duchy of Finland, claims on areas of Eastern Karelia were abandoned and the Soviets accepted that the south-eastern border would not be moved west of Petrograd. [2]

Winter War

During the winter war period, the relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Some elements in Finland maintained the dream of "Greater Finland" which included the Soviet-controlled part of Karelia. The proximity of the Finnish border to Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) caused worry in the Soviet leadership. On 23 August 1939 Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. A secret clause of this agreement marked Finland as part of the Soviet sphere of influence.

On 12 October the Soviet Union started negotiations with Finland concerning parts of Finnish territory, the Karelian Isthmus, the Gulf of Finland islands and the Hanko Peninsula. No agreement was reached. On 26 November the Soviet Union accused the Finnish army of shelling the village of Mainila. It was subsequently found that the Soviets had in fact shelled their own village to create an excuse to withdraw from their non-aggression pact with Finland. On 30 November the Soviet Union attacked Finland. The attack was denounced by the League of Nations and, as a result, the Soviet Union was expelled from that body on 14 December. [3]

First phase of the Winter war Winterwaroverview.JPG
First phase of the Winter war

The aim of the invasion was to annex Finland by the Soviet Union. The first attack, on 30 November 1939, was an aerial bombardment of the city of Helsinki and all along the Finnish-Soviet border. This put the Finnish people on the defensive without having to make any decision, unifying the once divided country. [4] The Soviet invasion was intended to be a liberation of the 'Red Finns', with the eventual annexation of Finland into the USSR. [5] [6] To this end, a puppet government, the "Finnish Democratic Republic" was established in Terijoki under the leadership of the exiled O. W. Kuusinen. [7]

Strategic goals of the Red Army included cutting Finland in half and capturing Petsamo in the north and Helsinki in the south. [8] The Soviets had been building their forces up on the border for several months during the previous negotiations. The Soviet Union fielded four armies composed of 16 divisions and another three were being brought into position; meanwhile, the Finnish army had 9 smaller divisions. [8] In addition, Soviet forces enjoyed an overwhelming superiority in the numbers of armour and air units deployed. The problem with numbers was a Finnish issue as they had to defend a border that was some 1287 km (800 miles) in length, presenting the defenders with a significant disadvantage. [8]

The Winter War was fought in three stages: the initial Soviet advance, a short lull and then a renewed Soviet offensive. [9] The war was fought mainly in three areas. The Karelian Isthmus and the area of Lake Ladoga was the primary focus of the Soviet war effort. A two-pronged attack, with one pincer engaging the Finnish forces on the Isthmus while the other went around Lake Ladoga in an attempt at encircling the defenders. This force was then to advance to and capture the city of Viipuri. The second front was in central Karelia, where the Soviet forces were to advance to the city of Oulu, cutting the country in half. Finally, a southwards drive from the north was to capture the Petsamo region. [10] By late December, the two main fronts had come to a standstill as the Finns were counterattacking with more strength and the Soviets were being bogged down. With the failure of two of its three offensives by the end of December, the Soviet headquarters ordered a cessation of operations. By 27 December it was observed that the Soviet forces were digging in on the Karelian Isthmus. [11] In the north, however, the Finns had been pushed back to Nautsi and with reinforcements took the higher ground to halt the Soviet advance south of Petsamo. During this period the Finns are known to have been harassing supply columns and even carrying out raids against fortified Soviet positions. [12] A lull period followed in January 1940, as the Soviet army reassessed its strategy, rearmed and resupplied. [13] The last phase began in February 1940 with a major artillery barrage that began on the 2nd and lasted till the 11th, accompanied by reconnaissance raids at key objectives. [14] The Soviets, using new equipment and materials, also began using tactics of rotating troops from the reserve to the front, constantly applying pressure to the Finnish defenders. [15] It seemed that the Red Army had inexhaustible amounts of ammunition and supplies, as attacks were always preceded by barrages, followed by aerial assaults and then random troop movements against the lines. Finnish military and government leaders saw that the only thing left to do was to negotiate a peace treaty with Moscow. [16]

The tenacity of the Finnish people, both military and civilian, in the face of a superior opponent gained the country much sympathy throughout the world. However, material support from other countries was small and none of Finland's neighbours were willing to commit their militaries to a war against the USSR. The need for a diplomatic solution became even more apparent, after the Soviet forces broke through the Finnish defensive line on the Karelian Isthmus and moved on towards Viipuri. [17]

A demanding peace proposal was sent to Finland by Molotov in mid-February, claiming more land for the USSR and significant diplomatic and military sanctions. By 28 February, Molotov made his offer an ultimatum with a 48-hour time limit, which pushed the Finnish leadership to act quickly. [18] The Finnish people were worn down and could no longer hold out against such vast, well-supplied numbers. By 13 March 1940, the Winter War was officially over, the Moscow Peace Treaty was signed and the Soviet Union had gained more territory than it originally demanded. [19]

Interim peace

Finland's concessions in the Winter War. Finnish areas ceded in 1940.png
Finland's concessions in the Winter War.

The period of peace following the Winter War was widely regarded in Finland as temporary, even when peace was announced in March 1940. A period of frantic diplomatic efforts and rearmament followed. The Soviet Union kept up intense pressure on Finland, thereby hastening the Finnish efforts to improve the security of the country.

Defensive arrangements were attempted with Sweden and Great Britain, but the political and military situation in the context of the Second World War rendered these efforts fruitless. Finland then turned to Nazi Germany for military aid. As the German offensive against the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) approached, the cooperation between the two countries intensified. German troops arrived in Finland and took up positions, mostly in Lapland, from where they would invade the Soviet Union. The Finnish military took part in the planning for Operation Barbarossa, and prepared to invade the Soviet Union alongside the Germans in the north, and independently in the south.[citation needed]

Operation Barbarossa began on 22 June 1941. On 25 June the Soviet Union launched a air raid against Finnish cities, after which Finland declared war and also allowed German troops stationed in Finland to begin offensive warfare. The resulting war was known to the Finns as the Continuation War.

Continuation War

Relative strengths of Finnish, German and Soviet troops at the start of the Continuation War in June 1941. Continuation-War-1941.png
Relative strengths of Finnish, German and Soviet troops at the start of the Continuation War in June 1941.

During the summer and autumn of 1941 the Finnish Army was on the offensive, retaking the territories lost in the Winter War. The Finnish army also advanced further, especially in the direction of Lake Onega, (east from Lake Ladoga), closing the blockade of the city of Leningrad from the north, and occupying Eastern Karelia, which had never been a part of Finland before. This caused Great Britain to declare war on Finland on 6 December. The German and Finnish troops in Northern Finland were less successful, failing to take the Russian port city of Murmansk during Operation Silver Fox.

On 31 July 1941 the United Kingdom launched raids on Kirkenes and Petsamo to demonstrate support for the Soviet Union. These raids were unsuccessful.

In December 1941, the Finnish army took defensive positions. This led to a long period of relative calm in the front line, lasting until 1944. During this period, starting at 1941 but especially after the major German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad, intermittent peace inquiries took place. These negotiations did not lead to any settlement.

On 16 March 1944, the President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, called for Finland to disassociate itself from Nazi Germany. [20]

On 9 June 1944, the Red Army launched a major strategic offensive against Finland, attaining vast numerical superiority and surprising the Finnish army. This attack pushed the Finnish forces approximately to the same positions as they were holding at the end of the Winter War. Eventually the Soviet offensive was fought to a standstill in the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, while still tens or hundreds of kilometres in front of the main Finnish line of fortifications, the Salpa Line. However, the war had exhausted Finnish resources and it was believed that the country would not be able to hold another major attack. [21] [ page needed ]

The worsening situation in 1944 had led to Finnish president Risto Ryti giving Germany his personal guarantee that Finland would not negotiate peace with the Soviet Union for as long as he was the president. In exchange Germany delivered weapons to the Finns. After the Soviet offensive was halted, however, Ryti resigned. Due to the war, elections could not be held, and therefore the Parliament selected the Marshal of Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, the Finnish commander-in-chief, as president and charged him with negotiating a peace.

The Finnish front had become a sideshow for the Soviet leadership, as they were in a race to reach Berlin before the Western Allies. This, and the heavy casualties inflicted on the Red Army by the Finns, led to the transfer of most troops from the Finnish front. On 4 September 1944 a ceasefire was agreed, and the Moscow armistice was signed on 19 September.

Moscow armistice

The Moscow armistice was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War, though the final peace treaty was not to be signed until 1947 in Paris.

The conditions for peace were similar to those previously agreed in the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty, with Finland being forced to cede parts of Finnish Karelia, a part of Salla and islands in the Gulf of Finland. The new armistice also handed the whole of Petsamo over to the Soviet Union. Finland also agreed to legalize communist parties and ban fascist organizations. Finally, the armistice also demanded that Finland must expel German troops from its territory, which was the cause of the Lapland War.

Lapland War

The village of Ivalo destroyed by the Germans during the Lapland War. Ivalontuhottuakylaa.jpg
The village of Ivalo destroyed by the Germans during the Lapland War.

The Lapland War was fought between Finland and Nazi Germany in Lapland, the northernmost part of Finland. The main strategic interest of Germany in the region was the nickel mines in the Petsamo area.

Initially the warfare was cautious on both sides, reflecting the previous cooperation of the two countries against their common enemy, but by the end of 1944 the fighting intensified. Finland and Germany had made an informal agreement and schedule for German troops to withdraw from Lapland to Norway. The Soviet Union did not accept this "friendliness" and pressured Finland to take a more active role in pushing the Germans out of Lapland, thus intensifying hostilities.

The Germans adopted a scorched-earth policy, and proceeded to lay waste to the entire northern half of the country as they retreated. Around 100,000 people lost their homes, adding to the burden of post-war reconstruction. The actual loss of life, however, was relatively light. Finland lost approximately 1,000 troops and Germany about 2,000. The Finnish army expelled the last of the foreign troops from their soil in April 1945.

Post-war

The war had caused great damage to infrastructure and the economy. From the autumn of 1944, the Finnish army and navy performed many mine clearance operations, especially in Karelia, Lapland and the Gulf of Finland. The sea mine clearance lasted until 1950. The mines caused many military and civilian casualties, particularly in Lapland.

As part of the Paris Peace Treaty, Finland was classified as an ally of Nazi Germany, bearing its responsibility for the war. The treaty imposed heavy war reparations on Finland and stipulated the lease of the Porkkala area near the Finnish capital Helsinki as a military base for fifty years. [22] The reparations were initially thought to be crippling for the economy, but a determined effort was made to pay them. The reparations were reduced by 25% in 1948 by the Soviet Union and were paid off in 1952. Porkkala was returned to Finnish control in 1956.

In subsequent years the position of Finland was unique in the Cold War. The country was heavily influenced by the Soviet Union, but was the only country on the Soviet pre-World War II border to retain democracy and a market economy. Finland entered into the Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (YYA Treaty) with the Soviet Union in which the Soviet Union agreed to the neutral status of Finland. Arms purchases were balanced between East and West until the fall of the Soviet Union.

Assessment

Finland and Nazi Germany

During the Continuation War (1941–1944) Finland was co-belligerent with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, and dependent on food, fuel and armament shipments from Germany. In spite of this, Finland retained an independent democratic government. Moreover, during the war, Finland kept its army outside the German command structure despite numerous attempts by the Germans to tie them more tightly together.

Finnish Jews were not persecuted, and even among extremists of the Finnish Right they were highly tolerated, as many leaders of the movement came from the clergy. Of approximately 500 Jewish refugees, eight were handed over to the Germans, a fact for which Finnish prime minister Paavo Lipponen issued an official apology in 2000. The field synagogue operated by the Finnish army was probably a unique phenomenon in the Eastern Front of the war. [23] Finnish Jews fought alongside other Finns for their country's freedom. [24]

About 2,600–2,800 Soviet prisoners of war were handed over to the Germans in exchange for roughly 2,200 Finnic prisoners of war held by the Germans. In November 2003, the Simon Wiesenthal Center submitted an official request to Finnish President Tarja Halonen for a full-scale investigation by the Finnish authorities of the prisoner exchange. [25] In the subsequent study by Professor Heikki Ylikangas it turned out that about 2,000 of the exchanged prisoners joined the Russian Liberation Army. The rest, mostly army and political officers, (among them a name-based estimate of 74 Jews), most likely perished in Nazi concentration camps. [26] [27]

Finland and World War II overall

During World War II, Finland was in many ways a unique case: It was the only European country bordering the Soviet Union in 1939 which was still unoccupied by 1945. Of all the European countries fighting, only three European capitals were never occupied: Moscow, London and Helsinki. It was a country which sided with Germany, but in which native Jews and almost all refugees were safe from persecution. [28] It was the only co-belligerent of Nazi Germany which maintained democracy throughout the war. It was in fact the only democracy in mainland Europe that remained so despite being an involved party in the war.

According to the Finnish records 19,085 Soviet prisoners of war died in Finnish prison camps during the Continuation War, which means that 29.6% of Soviet POWs taken by the Finns did not survive. The high number of fatalities was mainly due to malnutrition and diseases. However, about 1,000 POWs were shot, primarily when attempting to escape. [29]

When the Finnish Army controlled East Karelia between 1941 and 1944, several concentration camps were set up for Russian civilians. The first camp was set up on 24 October 1941, in Petrozavodsk. Of these interned civilians 4,361 [30] perished mainly due to malnourishment, 90% of them during the spring and summer of 1942. [31]

Finland was never a member of the Axis powers as it never signed the Tripartite Pact, but was aided in its military assault on the Soviet Union by Germany from the beginning of Operation Barbarossa in 1941, and in its defence against Soviet attacks in 1944 prior to the separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944. Finland was led by its elected president and parliament during the whole 1939–1945 period. As a result, some political scientists name it as one of the few instances where a democratic country was engaged in a war against one or more other democratic countries, namely the democracies in the Allied forces. [32] However, it is worth pointing out that nearly all Finnish military engagements in World War II were fought solely against an autocratic power, the Soviet Union, and the lack of direct conflicts specifically with other democratic countries leads others to exclude Finnish involvement in World War II as an example of a war between two or more democracies. [33]

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 Vehviläinen 2002, pp. 5–7.
  2. 1 2 Vehviläinen 2002, pp. 7–10.
  3. League of nations' expulsion of the USSR 14 December 1939. League of Nations, Official Journal 1939, p. 506 (Council Resolution); p. 540 (Assembly Resolution.) RESOLUTION Adopted by the Council of the League of Nations, 14 December 1939
  4. Jakobson, p.157
  5. Zeiler & DuBois 2013, p. 210
  6. Vehviläinen 2002, p. 70
  7. Warner, p.147
  8. 1 2 3 Chew, p.6
  9. Warner, p.148
  10. Warner, p.150
  11. Chew, p.70
  12. Chew, p.71
  13. Warner, p.153
  14. Warner, p.155
  15. Chew, p.146
  16. Warner, p.157
  17. Jakobson, p.239
  18. Jakobson, p.238
  19. Upton, Anthony F. Finland In Crisis 1940–1941: A Study in Small-Power Politics. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1965, p. 35
  20. The American Presidency Project: Franklin D. Roosevelt – XXXII president of the United States: 1933–1945. Message Urging Finland to Break with Nazi Germany. March 16, 1944
  21. Howard D. Grier. Hitler, Dönitz, and the Baltic Sea, Naval Institute Press, 2007, ISBN   1-59114-345-4. p. 31
  22. Australian Treaty Series 1948 No 2. Treaty of Peace With Finland, Paris, 10 February 1947
  23. Jews in Finland During the Second World War Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine – Vuonokari, Tuulikki; university paper at the Department of Translation Studies, University of Tampere, 2003.
  24. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. The Simon Wiesenthal Center, press information
  26. Jakobson, Max (16 November 2003). "Wartime refugees made pawns in cruel diplomatic game". Helsingin Sanomat. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  27. Ylikangas, Heikki, Heikki Ylikankaan selvitys Valtioneuvoston kanslialle Archived 8 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine , Government of Finland
  28. Hannu Rautkallio, Finland and Holocaust, New York, 1987
  29. Westerlund 2008, p. 8-9
  30. Westerlund 2008, p. 8
  31. Suur-Suomen kahdet kasvot – Laine, Antti; 1982, ISBN   951-1-06947-0, Otava
  32. Farber, Henry S. and Gowa, Joanne. "Polities and Peace", International Security, Vol. 20 no. 2, 1995.
  33. Russert, Bruce. "The Fact of Democratic Peace," Grasping the Democratic Peace, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Bibliography

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Greater Finland irredentism

Greater Finland is an irredentist and nationalist idea that emphasized territorial expansion of Finland. The most common conception of Greater Finland was defined by natural borders encompassing the territories inhabited by Finns and Karelians, ranging from the White Sea to Lake Onega and along the Svir River and Neva River—or, more modestly, the Sestra River—to the Gulf of Finland. Some proponents also included the Kola Peninsula, Finnmark, Torne Valley, Ingria, and Estonia.

Interim Peace period in the history of Finland between the Winter War and the Continuation War

The Interim Peace was a short period in the history of Finland during the Second World War. The term is used for the time between the Winter War and the Continuation War, lasting a little over a year, from 13 March 1940 to 24 June 1941. The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940 and it ended the 105-day Winter War.

Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive military operation

The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive or Karelian offensive was a strategic operation by the Soviet Leningrad and Karelian Fronts against Finland on the Karelian Isthmus and East Karelia fronts of the Continuation War, on the Eastern Front of World War II. The Soviet forces captured East Karelia and Viborg. After that, however, the fighting reached a stalemate.

Moscow Armistice peace treaty ending the Continuation War

The Moscow Armistice was signed between Finland on one side and the Soviet Union and United Kingdom on the other side on September 19, 1944, ending the Continuation War. The Armistice restored the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940, with a number of modifications.

The timeline of the Winter War is a chronology of events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the Winter War. The war began when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 and it ended 13 March 1940.

Finnish military administration in Eastern Karelia

The Finnish military administration in Eastern Karelia was an interim administrative system established in those areas of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (KFSSR) of the Soviet Union which were occupied by the Finnish army during the Continuation War. The military administration was set up on July 15, 1941 and it ended during the summer of 1944. The goal of the administration was to prepare the region for eventual annexation into Finland.

114th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 114th Rifle Division began service in July, 1939 as a standard Red Army rifle division, as part of the pre-war expansion of the Soviet forces. It was stationed on the Svir River front in the autumn of 1941 and had a relatively uneventful war facing the Finns until the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive began on June 10, 1944, from which point it saw much more active service. As the Finns were leaving the war the division was transferred to 14th Army in the Arctic, from where it helped to defeat and pursue the German forces from Lapland into Norway.

Battle of Porlampi

The Battle of Porlampi, also known as the Battle of Porlammi, was a military engagement fought between the Finnish Army and Red Army from 30 August to 1 September 1941 on the Karelian Isthmus. The battle was fought near the town of Porlampi during the second month of the Continuation War. The battle was a Finnish victory and effectively ended the reconquest of Karelia.