| Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||739.656 g/mol|
|Density||6 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||570 °C (1,058 °F; 843 K)|
|Boiling point||837 °C (1,539 °F; 1,110 K)|
|8 coordinate square antiprismatic|
Std enthalpy of
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Thorium(IV) iodide (Th I4) is an inorganic chemical compound composed of thorium and iodine. It is one of three known thorium iodides, the others being thorium(II) iodide and thorium(III) iodide.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black non-metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811. It was named two years later by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac from this property, after the Greek ἰώδης "violet-coloured".
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. A chemical element bonded to an identical chemical element is not a chemical compound since only one element, not two different elements, is involved.
The actinide or actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Protactinium is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91. It is a dense, silvery-gray actinide metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids. It forms various chemical compounds in which protactinium is usually present in the oxidation state +5, but it can also assume +4 and even +3 or +2 states. Concentrations of protactinium in the Earth's crust are typically a few parts per trillion, but may reach up to a few parts per million in some uraninite ore deposits. Because of its scarcity, high radioactivity and high toxicity, there are currently no uses for protactinium outside scientific research, and for this purpose, protactinium is mostly extracted from spent nuclear fuel.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals. It occurs usually in small isolated crystals. It has a hardness of 5.0 to 5.5 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness and is relatively dense, about 4.6 to 5.7 g/cm3. There are at least four different kinds of monazite, depending on relative elemental composition of the mineral:
An iodide ion is the ion I−. Compounds with iodine in formal oxidation state −1 are called iodides. This page is for the iodide ion and its salts, not organoiodine compounds. In everyday life, iodide is most commonly encountered as a component of iodized salt, which many governments mandate. Worldwide, iodine deficiency affects two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disability.
Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement. As a medication it is used to treat hyperthyroidism, in radiation emergencies, and to protect the thyroid gland when certain types of radiopharmaceuticals are used. In the developing world it is also used to treat skin sporotrichosis and phycomycosis. As a supplement it is used in those who have low intake of iodine in the diet. It is given by mouth.
The crystal bar process was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925. This process was the first industrial process for the commercial production of pure ductile metallic zirconium. It is used in the production of small quantities of ultra-pure titanium and zirconium. It primarily involves the formation of the metal iodides and their subsequent decomposition to yield pure metal. This process was superseded commercially by the Kroll process.
The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol. The Monsanto process has largely been supplanted by the Cativa process, a similar iridium-based process developed by BP Chemicals Ltd which is more economical and environmentally friendly.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine. Under standard conditions, it is a white, water-soluble solid comprising a 1:1 mix of sodium cations (Na+) and iodide anions (I−) in a crystal lattice. It is used mainly as a nutritional supplement and in organic chemistry. It is produced industrially as the salt formed when acidic iodides react with sodium hydroxide.
Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I. It is a dense, colorless, volatile liquid. In terms of chemical structure, it is related to methane by replacement of one hydrogen atom by an atom of iodine. It is naturally emitted by rice plantations in small amounts. It is also produced in vast quantities estimated to be greater than 214,000 tons annually by algae and kelp in the world's temperate oceans, and in lesser amounts on land by terrestrial fungi and bacteria. It is used in organic synthesis as a source of methyl groups.
Lithium iodide, or LiI, is a compound of lithium and iodine. When exposed to air, it becomes yellow in color, due to the oxidation of iodide to iodine. It crystallizes in the NaCl motif. It can participate in various hydrates.
Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine. It is notable for its crystal structure, which is typical for compounds of the form MX2 with strong polarization effects.
Thorium(IV) chloride (ThCl4) is an inorganic chemical compound. In addition to the anhydrous ThCl4, two hydrates have been reported: ThCl4(H2O)4 and ThCl4(H2O)8. These hygroscopic salts are water-soluble and white, at room temperature. Similar to other thorium complexes thorium(IV) chloride has a high melting point 770 °C (1,418 °F) and a boiling point of 921 °C (1,690 °F). Like all the other actinides, thorium is radioactive and has sometimes been used in the production of nuclear energy. Thorium(IV) chloride does not appear naturally but instead is derived from Thorite, Thorianite, or Monazite which are naturally occurring formations.
Thorium(IV) fluoride (ThF4) is an inorganic chemical compound. It is a white, hygroscopic powder which can be produced by reacting thorium with fluorine gas. At temperatures above 500 °C, it reacts with atmospheric moisture to produce ThOF2.
Calcium iodide (chemical formula CaI2) is the ionic compound of calcium and iodine. This colourless deliquescent solid is a salt that is highly soluble in water. Its properties are similar to those for related salts, such as calcium chloride. It is used in photography. It is also used in cat food as a source of iodine.
Beryllium iodide is the chemical compound with the formula BeI2. It is very hygroscopic and reacts violently with water, forming hydroiodic acid.
Isopropamide (R5) is a long-acting anticholinergic drug. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers and other gastrointestinal disorders involving hyperacidity and hypermotility. Chemically, it contains a quaternary ammonium group. It is most often provided as an iodide salt, but is also available as a bromide or chloride salt. It was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1954.
Bismuth(III) iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula BiI3. This gray-black solid is the product of the reaction of bismuth and iodine, which once was of interest in qualitative inorganic analysis.
Iron(II) iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula FeI2.
Thorium monoxide, is the binary oxide of thorium having chemical formula ThO. The covalent bond in this diatomic molecule is highly polar. The electric field between the two atoms has been calculated to be 84 gigavolts per centimeter, one of the largest known internal electric fields.
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