Yugoslav monitor Sava

Last updated

Yugoslav monitor Sava
SS Bodrog 1914.jpg
SMS Bodrog on the Danube river in 1914
History
Austria-Hungary-flag-1869-1914-naval-1786-1869-merchant.svg Austria-Hungary
NameBodrog
Namesake Bodrog River
In service2 August 1904
Out of service1918
FateAssigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (KSCS)
Naval Ensign of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svgKingdom of Yugoslavia
NameSava
Namesake Sava River
Acquired15 April 1920
FateScuttled by the crew on 11/12 April 1941
Naval Ensign of the Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia
NameSava
AcquiredRaised and repaired
FateScuttled by the crew 8/9 September 1944
Naval Ensign of Yugoslavia (1949-1993).svg Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
NameSava
AcquiredRaised and repaired
Reinstated1952
FateTransferred to state-run company
StatusAcquired by the Ministry of Defence and Military Museum and restored. Now a floating museum.
NotesNaval service ended in 1962
General characteristics
Class and type Temes-class river monitor
Displacement440 tonnes (430 long tons)
Length57.7 m (189 ft 4 in)
Beam9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)
Draught1.2 m (3 ft 11 in)
Installed power
Propulsion2 triple-expansion steam engines
Speed13 knots (24 km/h; 15 mph)
Complement86 officers and enlisted
Armament
  • 2 × 120 mm (4.7 in)/L35 guns (2 × 1)
  • 1 × 120 mm (4.7 in)/L10 howitzer
  • 2 × 37 mm (1.5 in) guns
Armour

The Yugoslav monitor Sava is a Temes-class river monitor that was built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy as SMS Bodrog. She fired the first shots of World War I just after 01:00 on 29 July 1914, when she and two other monitors shelled Serbian defences near Belgrade. She was part of the Danube Flotilla, and fought the Serbian and Romanian armies from Belgrade to the mouth of the Danube. In the closing stages of the war, she was the last monitor to withdraw towards Budapest, but was captured by the Serbs when she grounded on a sandbank downstream from Belgrade. After the war, she was transferred to the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), and renamed Sava. She remained in service throughout the interwar period, although budget restrictions meant she was not always in full commission.

Contents

During the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Sava served with the 1st Monitor Division. Along with her fellow monitor Vardar, she laid mines in the Danube near the Romanian border during the first few days of the invasion. The two monitors fought off several attacks by the Luftwaffe , but were forced to withdraw to Belgrade. Due to high river levels and low bridges, navigation was difficult, and Sava was scuttled on 11 April. Some of her crew tried to escape cross-country towards the southern Adriatic coast, but all were captured prior to the Yugoslav surrender. The vessel was later raised by the navy of the Axis puppet state known as the Independent State of Croatia and continued to serve as Sava until the night of 8 September 1944 when she was again scuttled.

Following World War II, Sava was raised once again, and was refurbished to serve in the Yugoslav Navy from 1952 to 1962. She was then transferred to a state-owned company that was eventually privatised. In 2005, the government of Serbia granted her limited heritage protection after citizens demanded that she be preserved as a floating museum, but little else has been done to restore her at the time. In 2015, the Serbian Ministry of Defence and Belgrade's Military Museum acquired the ship and restored her. She was relaunched as a floating museum in early 2019.

Description and construction

A Temes-class river monitor, the ship was built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy by H. Schönichen, and designed by Austrian naval architect Josef Thiel. Originally named SMS Bodrog, she was laid down at Neupest on 14 February 1903. [1] Like her sister ship SMS Temes, she had an overall length of 57.7 m (189 ft 4 in), [lower-alpha 1] a beam of 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in), and a normal draught of 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in). Her standard displacement was 440 tonnes (430 long tons), and her crew consisted of 86 officers and enlisted men. [lower-alpha 2] Bodrog had two triple-expansion steam engines, each driving a single propeller shaft. Steam was provided by two Yarrow water-tube boilers, and her engines were rated at 1,400 indicated horsepower (1,000 kW). As designed, she had a maximum speed of 13 knots (24 km/h; 15 mph), [2] and carried 62 tonnes (61 long tons) of coal. [3]

Bodrog was armed with two 120 mm (4.7 in)L/35 [lower-alpha 3] guns in single gun turrets, a single 120 mm (4.7 in)L/10 howitzer in a central pivot mount, and two 37 mm (1.5 in) guns. [1] The maximum range of her Škoda 120 mm guns was 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), and her howitzer could fire its 20 kg (44 lb) shells a maximum of 6.2 km (3.9 mi). [4] Her armour consisted of belt, bulkheads and gun turrets 40 mm (1.6 in) thick, and deck armour 25 mm (0.98 in) thick. The armour on her conning tower was 75 mm (3.0 in) thick. [lower-alpha 4] Bodrog was launched on 12 April 1904, commissioned on 2 August 1904, [1] and completed on 10 November 1904. [2]

Career

World War I

Serbian campaign

Bodrog was part of the Danube Flotilla, and at the start of World War I she was based in Zemun, just upstream from Belgrade on the Danube, [5] under the command of Linienschiffsleutnant [lower-alpha 5] (LSL) Paul Ekl. [1] She shared the base with three other monitors and three patrol boats. [5] Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914, and a little after 01:00 on the following day, Bodrog and two other monitors fired the first shots of the war against Serb fortifications on the Zemun–Belgrade railway bridge over the Sava river and on Topčider Hill. [7] The Serbs were outgunned by the monitors, and by August began to receive assistance from the Russians. This support included the supply and emplacement of naval guns and the establishment of river obstacles and mines. [8] On 8 September, the Austro-Hungarian base at Zemun was evacuated in the face of a Serbian counterattack. [9] Bodrog and the minesweeper Andor conducted a deception operation towards Pančevo on 19 September, and six days later, Bodrog bombarded Serb positions on the bank of the Sava near Belgrade. On 28 September, she rendezvoused with the monitor SMS Szamos at Banovci, and the following day the two monitors targeted the Belgrade Fortress and conducted a reconnaissance of Zemun. On 1 October, Bodrog sailed to Budapest, where she was placed in dry dock for two weeks. She returned to the flotilla on 15 October. [1] By November, French artillery support had arrived in Belgrade, endangering the monitor's anchorage, [10] and on 12 November, Ekl was replaced by LSL Olaf Wulff. The stalemate continued until the following month, when the Serbs evacuated Belgrade in the face of an Austro-Hungarian assault. [11] On 1 December, Bodrog and the newly commissioned monitor SMS Enns engaged the retreating Serbs. [1] After less than two weeks, the Austro-Hungarians retreated from Belgrade, and it was soon recaptured by the Serbs with Russian and French support. Bodrog continued in action against Serbia and her allies at Belgrade until December, when her base was withdrawn to Petrovaradin, near Novi Sad, for the winter. [11]

The Germans and Austro-Hungarians wanted to transport munitions down the Danube to the Ottoman Empire, so on 24 December 1914, Bodrog and the minesweeper Almos escorted the steamer Trinitas loaded with munitions, the patrol boat b and two tugs from Zemun past Belgrade towards the Iron Gates gorge on the Serbian–Romanian border. [1] [12] The convoy ran the gauntlet of the Belgrade defences unharmed, but when it reached Smederevo it received information that the Russians had established a minefield and log barrier just south of the Iron Gates. It turned back under heavy fire, and withdrew as far as Pančevo without serious damage to any vessel. Bodrog returned to base, and the monitor SMS Inn was sent to guard the munitions and escort the convoy back to Petrovaradin. [12] In January 1915, British artillery arrived in Belgrade, further bolstering its defences, [13] and Bodrog spent the first months of the year at Zemun. On 23 February, LSL Kosimus Böhm took command. On 1 March, Bodrog and several other vessels including the monitor SMS Körös were relocated to Petrovaradin. [1] After the commencement of the Gallipoli campaign, munitions supply to the Ottomans became critical, so another attempt was planned. On 30 March, the steamer Belgrad left Zemun, escorted by Bodrog and Enns. The convoy was undetected as it sailed past Belgrade at night during a storm, but after the monitors returned to base, Belgrad struck a mine near Vinča, and after coming under heavy artillery fire, exploded near Ritopek. [12] On 22 April 1915, a British picket boat that had been brought overland by rail from Salonika was used to attack the Danube Flotilla anchorage at Zemun, firing two torpedoes without success. [14]

In September 1915, the Central Powers were joined by Bulgaria, and the Serbian Army soon faced an overwhelming Austro-Hungarian, German and Bulgarian ground invasion. In early October, the Austro-Hungarian 3rd Army attacked Belgrade, and Bodrog, along with the majority of the flotilla, was heavily engaged in support of crossings near the Belgrade Fortress and the island of Ada Ciganlija. [15]

View from the Belgrade Fortress over the Grosser Krieg Island. Bodrog supported the October 1915 crossings of the Danube near the fortress. Great War Island panorama.jpg
View from the Belgrade Fortress over the Grosser Krieg Island. Bodrog supported the October 1915 crossings of the Danube near the fortress.

Romanian campaign

Following the capture of Belgrade on 11 October and the initial clearance of mines and other obstacles, the flotilla sailed downstream to Orșova near the Hungarian–Romanian border and waited for the lower Danube to be swept for mines. Commencing on 30 October 1915, they escorted a series of munitions convoys down the Danube to Lom where the munitions were transferred to the Bulgarian railway system for shipment to the Ottoman Empire. [16]

In November 1915, Bodrog and the other monitors were assembled at Rustschuk, Bulgaria. [16] The Central Powers were aware that the Romanians were negotiating to enter the war on the side of the Entente, so the flotilla established a sheltered base in the Belene Canal to protect the 480-kilometre (300 mi) Danube border between Romania and Bulgaria. [17] During 1915, the 37 mm (1.5 in) guns on the Bodrog were replaced with a single 66 mm (2.6 in)L/18 gun, and three machine guns were also fitted. [1]

When the Romanians entered the war on 27 August 1916, the monitors were again at Rustschuk, and were immediately attacked by three improvised torpedo boats operating out of the Romanian river port of Giurgiu. The torpedoes that were fired missed the monitors but struck a lighter loaded with fuel. Tasked with shelling Giurgiu the following day, the Second Monitor Division, consisting of Bodrog and three other monitors, set fire to oil storage tanks, the railway station and magazines, and sank several Romanian lighters. While the attack was underway, the First Monitor Division escorted supply ships back to the Belene anchorage. Bodrog and her companions then destroyed two Romanian patrol boats and an improvised minelayer on their way back to Belene. This was followed by forays of the Division both east and west of Belene, during which both Turnu Măgurele and Zimnicea were shelled. [18]

On 2 October 1916, Bodrog and Körös attacked a Romanian pontoon bridge being established across the Danube at Oryahovo, obtaining five direct hits, thus contributing to the defeat of the Romanian Flămânda Offensive. This was followed by action supporting the crossing of Generalfeldmarschall [lower-alpha 6] August von Mackensen's Austro-Hungarian Third Army at Sistow. Bodrog then wintered at Turnu Severin. [1]

From 21 February 1917, Bodrog and Körös were deployed as guardships at Brăila. On 1 March, Bodrog became stuck in ice at nearby Măcin. LSL Guido Taschler took command of Bodrog in 1918. That year's spring thaw saw Bodrog, Körös, Szamos, Bosna and several other vessels sent through the mouth of the Danube into the Black Sea as part of Flottenabteilung Wulff (Fleet Division Wulff) under the command of Flottenkapitän (Fleet Captain) Olav Wulff, arriving in Odessa on 12 April. On 15 July, she and Bosna sailed to the port of Nikolaev, and from 5 August, Bodrog was stationed at Cherson. On 12 September, she returned to Brăila along with other vessels. [1]

Bodrog was sent to Reni near the mouth of the Danube to protect withdrawing Austro-Hungarian troops, arriving there on 1 October. She then sailed upstream, reaching Rustschuk on 11 October, and Giurgiu two days later. On 14 October, she was deployed at Lom. [20] She was the last Austro-Hungarian monitor to withdraw towards Budapest and was the only one that failed to reach the city. On 31 October 1918, Bodrog collided with a sand bank while navigating through heavy fog near Vinča. [21] She was later captured by the Serbian Army. [22]

Interwar period and World War II

From the Armistice to September 1919, Bodrog was crewed by sailors of the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Serbo-Croatian : Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca, KSCS; later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Bodrog was transferred to the KSCS along with a range of other vessels, including three other river monitors, [23] but was not officially handed over to the KSCS Navy and renamed Sava until 15 April 1920. [24] [25] Her sister ship Temes was transferred to Romania and renamed Ardeal. [2] In 1925–26, Sava was refitted, but by the following year only two of the four river monitors of the KSCS Navy were being retained in full commission at any time. [26] In 1932, the British naval attaché reported that Yugoslav ships were engaging in little gunnery training, and few exercises or manoeuvres, due to reduced budgets. [27]

Sava was based at Dubovac when the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia began on 6 April 1941. She was assigned to the 1st Monitor Division, [28] and was responsible for the Romanian border on the Danube, under the operational control of the 3rd Infantry Division Dunavska. [29] Her commander was Poručnik bojnog broda [lower-alpha 7] S. Rojos. [28]

During their withdrawal towards Belgrade, Sava and Vardar were repeatedly attacked by German Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers. Junkers Ju 87Ds in flight Oct 1943.jpg
During their withdrawal towards Belgrade, Sava and Vardar were repeatedly attacked by German Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers.

On that day, Sava and her fellow monitor Vardar fought off several attacks by individual Luftwaffe aircraft on their base. [31] Over the next three days, the two monitors laid mines in the Danube near the Romanian border. [32] On 11 April, they were forced to withdraw from Dubovac towards Belgrade. [33] During their withdrawal, they came under repeated attacks by Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers. [34] Sava and her fellow monitor were undamaged, and anchored at the confluence of the Danube and Sava near Belgrade at about 20:00, where they were joined by the Morava. The three captains conferred, and decided to scuttle their vessels due to the high water levels in the rivers and low bridges, which meant there was insufficient clearance for the monitors to navigate freely. The crews of the monitors were then transshipped to two tugboats, but when one of the tugs was passing under a railway bridge, charges on the bridge accidentally exploded and the bridge fell onto the tug. Of the 110 officers and men aboard the vessel, 95 were killed. [33] [35]

After the scuttling of the monitors, around 450 officers and men from the Sava and various other riverine vessels gathered at Obrenovac. Armed only with personal weapons and some machine guns stripped from the scuttled vessels, the crews started towards the Bay of Kotor in the southern Adriatic in two groups. The smaller of the two groups reached its objective, but the larger group only made it as far as Sarajevo by 14 April before they were obliged to surrender. [36] The remainder made their way to the Bay of Kotor, which was captured by the Italian XVII Corps on 17 April. [37]

Sava was raised and repaired by the navy of the Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia, [35] and served alongside her fellow monitor Morava, which was raised, repaired, and renamed Bosna. Along with six captured motorboats and ten auxiliary vessels, they made up the riverine police force of the Croatian state. [38] Sava was part of the 1st Patrol Group of the River Flotilla Command, headquartered at Zemun. [39] Her crew scuttled her near Slavonski Brod on the night of 8 September 1944 and defected to the Yugoslav Partisans. [40]

Post-war period

Sava was again raised and refurbished after World War II. Armed with two single 105 mm (4.1 in) gun turrets, three single 40 mm (1.6 in) gun mounts and six 20 mm (0.79 in) weapons, [41] she served in the Yugoslav Navy from 1952 to 1962. Afterwards, she was placed into the hands of a state-owned company, which was privatised after the breakup of Yugoslavia. In 2005, the government of Serbia granted her limited heritage protection after citizens demanded that she be preserved as a floating museum, though little else had been done to restore her as of 2014, by which time she was serving as a gravel barge. [21] In December 2015, Sava was acquired by the Serbian Ministry of Defence and Belgrade's Military Museum, which planned on restoring her. [42] The ship is one of only two surviving Austro-Hungarian river monitors that served during World War I. [43] The other is SMS Leitha, a much older monitor, which has been a museum ship anchored alongside the Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest since 2014. [44] Sava was restored by early 2019 and is slated to become a floating museum. [45]

Notes

  1. According to Pawlik, Christ and Winkler, her length overall was 56.2 m (184 ft 5 in). [1]
  2. According to Pawlik, Christ and Winkler, her crew totalled only 77 officers and men. [1]
  3. L/35 denotes the length of the gun. In this case, the L/35 gun is calibre, meaning that the gun was 35 times as long as the diameter of its bore.
  4. According to Pawlik, Christ and Winkler, her gun turrets also had armour 75 mm (3.0 in) thick. [1]
  5. Equivalent to an Austro-Hungarian Army Hauptman (captain). [6]
  6. Equivalent to a British Army field marshal. [19]
  7. This is equivalent to a United States Navy lieutenant commander. [30]

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Pawlik, Christ & Winkler 1989, p. 60.
  2. 1 2 3 Greger 1976, p. 141.
  3. Jane's Information Group 1989, p. 315.
  4. Greger 1976, p. 10.
  5. 1 2 Halpern 2012, pp. 261–262.
  6. Deak 1990, Introduction.
  7. Keys 27 July 2014.
  8. Halpern 2012, pp. 263–265.
  9. Halpern 2012, p. 263.
  10. Halpern 2012, p. 265.
  11. 1 2 Halpern 2012, pp. 265–266.
  12. 1 2 3 Halpern 2012, p. 267.
  13. Halpern 2012, p. 266.
  14. Halpern 2012, pp. 270–271.
  15. Halpern 2012, p. 272.
  16. 1 2 Halpern 2012, p. 274.
  17. Halpern 2012, p. 275.
  18. Halpern 2012, p. 277.
  19. Mombauer 2001, p. xv.
  20. Pawlik, Christ & Winkler 1989, pp. 60–61.
  21. 1 2 San Diego Union-Tribune 14 April 2014.
  22. Fitzsimons 1977, p. 843.
  23. Gardiner 1985, p. 422.
  24. Gardiner 1985, p. 426.
  25. Pawlik, Christ & Winkler 1989, p. 61.
  26. Jarman 1997a, p. 732.
  27. Jarman 1997b, p. 451.
  28. 1 2 Niehorster 2013a.
  29. Terzić 1982, p. 168.
  30. Niehorster 2013b.
  31. Terzić 1982, p. 297.
  32. Terzić 1982, pp. 333–334.
  33. 1 2 Terzić 1982, pp. 391–392.
  34. Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 222.
  35. 1 2 Chesneau 1980, p. 357.
  36. Terzić 1982, pp. 405, 432.
  37. Terzić 1982, p. 457.
  38. Chesneau 1980, p. 359.
  39. Niehorster 2013c.
  40. Naval Records Club 1965, p. 44.
  41. Gardiner 1983, p. 392.
  42. Ministry of Defence Republic of Serbia 11 December 2015.
  43. Zarić 27 April 2014.
  44. Daily News Hungary 15 August 2014.
  45. Jakšić 3 April 2019.

Related Research Articles

River monitors are military craft designed to patrol rivers.

Flămânda Offensive

The Flămânda Offensive, which took place during World War I between 29 September and 5 October 1916, was an offensive across the Danube mounted by the Romanian 3rd Army supported by Romanian coastal artillery. Named after the hamlet of Flămânda, the battle represented a consistent effort by the Romanian Army to stop the Central Powers' southern offensive led by August von Mackensen. The battle ended as a tactical victory for the Central Powers.

The Royal Romanian Navy during World War I (1914–1918) was divided into two fleets and fought against the forces of the Central Powers. When Romania entered the war in August 1916, the Romanian Navy was officially divided as follows :

Royal Yugoslav Navy 1921–1945 maritime warfare branch of Yugoslavias military

The Royal Navy, commonly the Royal Yugoslav Navy, was the naval warfare service branch of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It was brought into existence in 1921, and initially consisted of a few former Austro-Hungarian Navy vessels surrendered at the conclusion of World War I and transferred to the new nation state under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The only modern sea-going warships transferred to the new state were twelve steam-powered torpedo boats, although it did receive four capable river monitors for use on the Danube and other large rivers. Significant new acquisitions began in 1926 with a former German light cruiser, followed by the commissioning of two motor torpedo boats (MTBs) and a small submarine flotilla over the next few years. When the name of the state was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929, the name of its navy was changed to reflect this. In the late 1920s, several of the original vessels were discarded.

SMS <i>Leitha</i>

SMS Leitha or Lajta Monitor Museumship was the first river monitor in Europe and the oldest and also the only remaining, fully restored warship of the Austro-Hungarian Navy.

Yugoslav torpedo boat <i>T1</i> Austro-Hungarian then Yugoslav torpedo boat operating between 1921 and 1959

T1 was a seagoing torpedo boat that was operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941. Originally 76 T, a 250t-class torpedo boat of the Austro-Hungarian Navy built in 1914, she was armed with two 66 mm (2.6 in) guns and four 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes, and could carry 10–12 naval mines. She saw active service during World War I, performing convoy, escort and minesweeping tasks, anti-submarine operations and shore bombardment missions. She was part of the escort force for the Austro-Hungarian dreadnought SMS Szent István during the action that resulted in the sinking of that ship by Italian torpedo boats in June 1918. Following Austria-Hungary's defeat later that year, 76 T was allocated to the Navy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which became the Royal Yugoslav Navy, and was renamed T1. At the time, she and seven other 250t-class boats were the only modern sea-going vessels of the fledgling maritime force.

The 2nd Army Group was a Royal Yugoslav Army formation commanded by Armijski đeneral Milutin Nedić during the German-led Axis invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in April 1941 during World War II. It consisted of the 1st and 2nd Armies, comprising four infantry divisions, one horsed cavalry division, two brigade-strength infantry detachments, and one horsed cavalry regiment. It was responsible for the defence of the border with Hungary from Slatina to the Tisza river.

2nd Army (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) Royal Yugoslav Army formation (1941)

The 2nd Army was a Royal Yugoslav Army formation commanded by Armijski đeneral Dragoslav Miljković that opposed the German-led Axis invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in April 1941 during World War II. It consisted of three infantry divisions and one horsed cavalry regiment along with supporting units. It formed part of the 2nd Army Group, and was responsible for the defence of the Yugoslav–Hungarian border along the Drava river from Slatina to the Danube.

Yugoslav monitor <i>Drava</i> Yugoslav river monitor

The Yugoslav monitor Drava was a river monitor operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941. She was originally built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy as the name ship of the Enns-class river monitors. As SMS Enns, she was part of the Danube Flotilla during World War I, and fought against the Serbian and Romanian armies from Belgrade to the lower Danube. In October 1915, she was covering an amphibious assault on Belgrade when she was holed below the waterline by a direct hit, and had to be towed to Budapest for repairs. After brief service with the Hungarian People's Republic at the end of the war, she was transferred to the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and renamed Drava. She remained in service throughout the interwar period, but was not always in full commission due to budget restrictions.

Yugoslav monitor <i>Vardar</i> Austro-Hungarian monitor ship

Vardar was a Sava-class river monitor built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy as SMS Bosna, but was renamed SMS Temes (II) before she went into service. During World War I, she was the flagship of the Danube Flotilla, and fought the Serbian Army, the Romanian Navy and Army, and the French Army. She reverted to the name Bosna in May 1917, after the original SMS Temes was raised and returned to service. After brief service with the Hungarian People's Republic at the end of the war, she was transferred to the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and renamed Vardar. She remained in service throughout the interwar period, although budget restrictions meant she was not always in full commission.

SMS <i>Körös</i> River monitor built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy

SMS Körös was the name ship of the Körös-class river monitors built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Completed in 1892, the ship was part of the Danube Flotilla, and fought various Allied forces from Belgrade down the Danube to the Black Sea during World War I. After brief service with the Hungarian People's Republic at the end of the war, she was transferred to the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, and renamed Morava. She remained in service throughout the interwar period, although budget restrictions meant she was not always in full commission.

<i>Sava</i>-class river monitor

The Sava-class river monitors were built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy during the mid-1910s. The two ships of the class were assigned to the Danube Flotilla and participated in World War I. The ships survived the war and were transferred to Romania and the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as reparations.

<i>Enns</i>-class river monitor

The Enns-class river monitors were built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy during the mid-1910s. The two ships of the class were assigned to the Danube Flotilla and participated in World War I. The ships survived the war and were transferred to Romania and the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as reparations.

250t-class torpedo boat Boat of the Austro-Hungarian Navy

The 250t class were high-seas torpedo boats built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy between 1913 and 1916. A total of 27 boats were built by three shipbuilding companies, with the letter after the boat number indicating the manufacturer. There were small variations between manufacturers, mainly in the steam turbines used, and whether they had one or two funnels. The eight boats of the T-group, designated 74 T – 81 T, were built by Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino, located at Trieste. The sixteen boats of the F-group, 82 F – 97 F, were built by Ganz-Danubius at their shipyards at Fiume and Porto Re. The three M-group boats, 98 M – 100 M, were manufactured by Cantiere Navale Triestino at Monfalcone.

Yugoslav torpedo boat <i>T7</i> Sea-going torpedo boat operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy

T7 was a sea-going torpedo boat operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941, after spending World War I in Austro-Hungarian Navy service. Originally 96 F, she was a 250t-class torpedo boat, and saw active service during World War I, performing convoy, patrol, escort and minesweeping tasks, and anti-submarine operations. Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in 1918, 96 F was allocated to the Navy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which later became the Royal Yugoslav Navy, and was renamed T7. At the time, she and the seven other 250t-class boats were the only modern sea-going vessels of the fledgling maritime force.

Yugoslav torpedo boat <i>T5</i> sea-going torpedo boat

The Yugoslav torpedo boat T5 was a sea-going torpedo boat operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941. Originally 87 F, a 250t-class torpedo boat of the Austro-Hungarian Navy built in 1914–1915, she was armed with two 66 mm (2.6 in) guns and four 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes, and could carry 10–12 naval mines. She saw active service during World War I, performing convoy, patrol, escort and minesweeping tasks, anti-submarine operations and shore bombardment missions. Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in 1918, 87 F was allocated to the Navy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which became the Royal Yugoslav Navy, and was renamed T5. At the time, she and the seven other 250t-class boats were the only modern sea-going vessels of the fledgling maritime force.

Yugoslav torpedo boat <i>T6</i> Royal Yugoslav Navy sea-going torpedo boat

T6 was a sea-going torpedo boat that was operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941, after spending World War I in Austro-Hungarian Navy service. Originally 93 F, she was a 250t-class torpedo boat built in 1915–1916. She saw active service during World War I, performing convoy, escort, patrol and minesweeping tasks, and anti-submarine operations. Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in 1918, 93 F was allocated to the Navy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which later became the Royal Yugoslav Navy, and was renamed T6. At the time, she and the seven other 250t-class boats were the only modern sea-going vessels of the fledgling maritime force.

Yugoslav torpedo boat <i>T8</i> Yugoslav torpedo boat

T8 was a sea-going torpedo boat that was operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy between 1921 and 1941, after spending World War I in Austro-Hungarian Navy service. Originally 97 F, she was a 250t-class torpedo boat, which saw active service during World War I, performing convoy, patrol, escort and minesweeping tasks, and anti-submarine operations. Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in 1918, 97 F was allocated to the Navy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which later became the Royal Yugoslav Navy, and was renamed T8. At the time, she and the seven other 250t-class boats were the only modern sea-going vessels of the fledgling maritime force.

<i>Temes</i>-class monitor

The Temes class was a class of originally Austro-Hungarian river monitor warships used during World War I. A notable member was Bodrog.

History of the Serbian River Flotilla Military unit

The Serbian River Flotilla is a tactical brigade-level brown water naval branch of the Serbian Armed Forces headquartered in Novi Sad. Additional units of the River Flotilla are based in the Serbian capital Belgrade and in Šabac. Subordinate to the Serbian Land Forces since 2006, the River Flotilla is tasked with range of missions within the territorial boundaries of the Republic of Serbia, including: environmental policing, counter-terrorism, and border security along 406 kilometers of Serbia's international borders and 1565.9 kilometers of Serbia's waterways.

References

Books and journals

  • Chesneau, Roger, ed. (1980). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922–1946. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN   978-0-85177-146-5.
  • Deak, Istvan (1990). Beyond Nationalism: A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1848–1918. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-992328-1.
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. (1977). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare. 8. New York: Columbia House. OCLC   732716343.
  • Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1985). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN   978-0-85177-245-5.
  • Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1983). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1947–1982 . Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN   978-0-87021-919-1.
  • Greger, René (1976). Austro-Hungarian Warships of World War I. London: Allan. ISBN   978-0-7110-0623-2.
  • Halpern, Paul G. (2012). A Naval History of World War I. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN   978-0-87021-266-6.
  • Jane's Information Group (1989) [1946/47]. Jane's Fighting Ships of World War II. London: Studio Editions. ISBN   978-1-85170-194-0.
  • Jarman, Robert L., ed. (1997a). Yugoslavia Political Diaries 1918–1965. 1. Slough, Berkshire: Archives Edition. ISBN   978-1-85207-950-5.
  • Jarman, Robert L., ed. (1997b). Yugoslavia Political Diaries 1918–1965. 2. Slough, Berkshire: Archives Edition. ISBN   978-1-85207-950-5.
  • Mombauer, Annika (2001). Helmuth von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-79101-4.
  • Pawlik, Georg; Christ, Heinz; Winkler, Herbert (1989). Die K.u.K. Donauflottille 1870–1918[The K.u.K. Danube Flotilla 1870–1918] (in German). Graz, Austria: H. Weishaupt Verlag. ISBN   978-3-900310-45-5.
  • Shores, Christopher F.; Cull, Brian; Malizia, Nicola (1987). Air War for Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete, 1940–41. London: Grub Street. ISBN   978-0-948817-07-6.
  • Terzić, Velimir (1982). Slom Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1941: Uzroci i posledice poraza[The Collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941: Causes and Consequences of Defeat] (in Serbo-Croatian). 2. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Narodna knjiga. OCLC   10276738.
  • Naval Records Club (1965). "The Independent Croatian Navy". Warship International. Rutland, Massachusetts: International Naval Research Organization. 2. ISSN   0043-0374.

Online sources