|70th Infantry Division|
|Active||10 October 1941 – 24 November 1943|
|Engagements|| Siege of Tobruk |
|Battle honours|| Defence of Tobruk |
| Ronald Scobie |
The 70th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. What would become the 70th Division originated with the 7th Infantry Division, which was formed in 1938 to serve in the British Mandate of Palestine during the Arab Revolt. This division then transferred to Egypt on the outbreak of the Second World War and soon became the 6th Infantry Division, which went on to take part in the Battle of Crete and the Syria–Lebanon Campaign. On 10 October 1941, the 6th Division was re-created as the 70th Infantry Division, in an attempt to deceive Axis intelligence concerning the strength of British forces in the Middle East.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, and typically bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 8,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.
The Royal Navy transported the division to Tobruk from 19 September to 25 October, in a politically controversial move to relieve the mainly Australian garrison which had been defending the port for almost seven months, since the beginning of the Siege of Tobruk. Under daily aerial and artillery attacks, the division defended the port and conducted nightly offensive patrols against German and Italian positions. On 18 November, the British Eighth Army launched Operation Crusader. The division was tasked with breaking out of Tobruk, following the destruction of the Axis armoured forces. Following unexpected early success, the division began its attacks on 21 November, before the armoured formations of Germans and Italians had been defeated. Heavy fighting soon followed as the division captured several well-defended and dug-in German and Italian strong points. The looming threat of the Axis tanks ended the break-out offensive the following day. Renewed fighting on 26 November saw the division link up with the approaching New Zealand Division, cutting the Axis lines of communication. In response, the Germans launched several counter-attacks to throw back the 70th Division from the territory they had gained. The failure of these attacks had a lasting strategic impact on Operation Crusader; the Axis forces began their retreat and lifted the siege of Tobruk. Two men—from units attached to the division—were awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions during Operation Crusader.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.
Tobruk or Tobruck is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District and has a population of 120,000.
The 9th Division was a division of the Australian Army that served during World War II. It was the fourth division raised for the Second Australian Imperial Force. The distinctions of the division include it being:
Following the fighting at Tobruk, the division was withdrawn from the front and placed in reserve. When Japan entered the war, the division was transferred to India. It was considered the most experienced and best trained British formation available in Asia. In India, the division formed a reserve to counter possible Japanese landings while it trained in jungle warfare. It also served as a police force, protecting railways and being used to suppress civil disobedience caused by the Quit India Movement. While it was requested that the division be sent to the front line in Burma, it was instead transferred to Special Force, commonly known as the Chindits. Such a move was opposed by the highest military commanders in India and Burma, and proved controversial with the troops themselves. Despite their pleas, the division was broken up and officially ceased to exist on 24 November 1943. Historian Woodburn Kirby and Lieutenant-General William Slim (who led the British troops in Burma) believed that the division could have had a greater impact against the Japanese had it been retained as a single formation.
The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War. It was dominated by land battles between British Commonwealth army units, and the Imperial Japanese Army with minor skirmishes at the beginning of the campaign between British Commonwealth and Royal Thai Armed Forces. The Japanese had air and naval supremacy from the opening days of the campaign. For the British, Indian, Australian and Malayan forces defending the colony, the campaign was a total disaster.
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The whole was also informally called the Indian Empire. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.
The Empire of Japan was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
In 1936, the Arab Revolt broke out in the British Mandate of Palestine. September 1938—calmed the rising tensions in Europe and averted war, allowing the British to resume their military build-up in Palestine.British troops were dispatched, ending the first phase of the war by the close of the year. Fighting soon resumed and reached its zenith during the summer of 1938. With rising tensions in Europe, the British began to withdraw troops from Palestine for use elsewhere. The conclusion of the Munich Agreement—on 30
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the region of Palestine as part of the Partition of the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the British Mandate for Palestine.
Among the causes of World War II were Italian fascism in the 1920s, Japanese militarism and invasion of China in the 1930s, and especially the political takeover in 1933 of Germany by Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party and its aggressive foreign policy. The immediate cause was Germany invading Poland on September 1, 1939, and Britain and France declaring war on Germany on September 3, 1939.
The Munich Agreement or Munich Betrayal was an agreement concluded at Munich, September 29, 1938, by Germany, Great Britain, France and Italy. It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory" of Czechoslovakia. Most of Europe celebrated because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland, a region of western Czechoslovakia inhabited by 800,000 people, mainly German speakers. Hitler announced it was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement.
The 7th Infantry Division was formed the following month and placed under the command of Major-General Richard O'Connor. October. The same day, the division seized Acre and by the end of the month were clearing Jaffa of rebels. Many Palestinians were detained and rebel activity significantly dropped off in the area. In the north, the 8th Infantry Division, under Major-General Bernard Montgomery, and Special Night Squads engaged in counter-terror operations, with O'Connor writing that one brigadier "always encouraged his men to be brutal". General Officer Commanding British Forces in Palestine and Trans-Jordan Robert Haining wrote in late 1938 that "unnecessary violence, vindictiveness ..., [and] killing in cold blood" had to be curbed. O'Connor was likewise opposed to the measures in the north, and wrote "harshness and unnecessary violence on the part of our soldiers" had to be curbed. During the operation in Jerusalem, only four to nineteen guerrillas were killed. In early 1939, the revolt finally came to an end.The division was deployed to Palestine on internal security duties as part of a build-up of 18,500 men in the region. This force then began to suppress the revolt. Meanwhile, Palestinian guerrillas had overrun the Old City of Jerusalem. O'Connor's men proceeded to sweep the area, declaring the Old City free of militants on 19
The 7th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army, first established by The Duke of Wellington as part of the Anglo-Portuguese Army for service in the Peninsular War, and was active also during the First World War from 1914–1919, and in the Second World War from 1938–1939 in Palestine and Egypt.
Major general, is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines. The rank was also briefly used by the Royal Air Force for a year and a half, from its creation to August 1919. In the British Army, a major general is the customary rank for the appointment of division commander. In the Royal Marines, the rank of major general is held by the Commandant General.
General Sir Richard Nugent O'Connor, was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars, and commanded the Western Desert Force in the early years of the Second World War. He was the field commander for Operation Compass, in which his forces destroyed a much larger Italian army – a victory which nearly drove the Axis from Africa, and in turn, led Adolf Hitler to send the German Africa Corps under Erwin Rommel to try to reverse the situation. O'Connor was captured by a German reconnaissance patrol during the night of 7 April 1941 and spent over two years in an Italian prisoner of war camp. He eventually escaped after the fall of Mussolini in the autumn of 1943. In 1944 he commanded VIII Corps in the Battle of Normandy and later during Operation Market Garden. In 1945 he was General Officer in Command of the Eastern Command in India and then, in the closing days of British rule in the subcontinent, he headed Northern Command. His final job in the army was Adjutant-General to the Forces in London, in charge of the British Army's administration, personnel and organisation.
On 1 September 1939, the Second World War began with the German Invasion of Poland, and two days later the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. On 31 August, the headquarters of the 7th Infantry Division gave up command of its troops. O'Connor and the divisional staff then left Jerusalem bound for Cairo, Egypt. From Cairo, the men moved forward to Mersa Matruh arriving on 7 September. The headquarters was then assigned all troops based there, with the exception of the 7th Armoured Division. The British Official Historian, I. S. O. Playfair, comments that this decision was undertaken to relieve the burden on Lieutenant-General Henry Maitland Wilson, GOC British Troops Egypt, of "direct control of operations which had been his in addition to the command of all troops in Egypt". Due to the logistical problems in maintaining substantial forces across the Western Desert and on the Libya–Egypt border, Mersa Matruh was the forward British base of operations and supplied by rail. Positioned 200 miles (320 km) west of Alexandria and 120 miles (190 km) from the border, the location had been chosen to shield forward Royal Air Force (RAF) landing strips behind it and to defend the Nile Delta. Mersa Matruh also offered the British the strategy of drawing Italian or other forces forward to them, to allow a counter-attack after they ran into supply difficulties.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign or the 1939 Defensive War, and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug), was an invasion of Poland by Germany that marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. The Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September following the Molotov–Tōgō agreement that terminated the Soviet and Japanese Battles of Khalkhin Gol in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty.
On 3 November, the division was renamed the 6th Infantry Division. The division initially commanded rear area personnel and the 22nd Infantry Brigade. Over the coming months, the 14th and 16th Infantry Brigades were assigned to the division as they arrived in Egypt from Palestine. On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war upon Britain and her allies. Seven days later, the 6th Infantry Division was dissolved and its headquarters transformed into the command staff of a corps known as the Western Desert Force (WDF). In early September 1940, Italian forces based in Libya invaded Egypt. Three months later, the WDF began a limited raid, Operation Compass. The raid succeeded and was expanded; in two months the WDF advanced 500 miles (800 km), occupied the Italian province of Cyrenaica and destroyed the Italian 10th Army. The operation was halted in February 1941 to give priority to the Battle of Greece.
On 17 February 1941, the 6th Infantry Division was reformed in Egypt. It was initially made up of the 16th and the 22nd Guards Brigade, who were based in Egypt, but lacked artillery or other supporting arms. The 22nd Guards Brigade was soon withdrawn, and the division was assigned the 14th and 23rd Infantry Brigade. Here, the division trained for amphibious operations in the Dodecanese. The deteriorating situation in North Africa, which saw General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps retake the territory lost by the Italians during Operation Compass, resulted in the 6th Infantry Division being reassigned to defend Egypt. The division had been earmarked to deploy to Crete, where the 14th Brigade had been based since November, but instead took up defensive positions at Mersa Matruh. The 14th Brigade later defended the airfield at Heraklion during the Battle of Crete when 2,000 German paratroopers landed in the area on 20 May. The Germans were able to penetrate into Heraklion, before Anglo-Greek forces cleared the town following heavy fighting. Despite many losses, the paratroopers were able to dig-in on ridges around the brigade's positions. Due to the deteriorating situation on Crete, the 14th Brigade was evacuated by Royal Navy ships on 29 May. En route to Egypt, they were repeatedly bombed by the Luftwaffe, suffering 800 casualties.
By late April, British attention had shifted to the Middle East due to the Anglo-Iraqi War, although the situation was resolved by the end of May. A greater concern was that German and Italian forces had intervened in Iraq, using bases in Vichy Syria. With Germans and Italians threatening to gain full control of the French territory, thus jeopardising the British position in the Middle East, the Allies invaded Syria (Operation Exporter) on 8 June. June, the 6th Infantry Division (with two infantry brigades) was ordered to reinforce the effort. The leading elements of the 16th Infantry Brigade arrived on 17 June and captured Kuneitra. The 23rd Infantry Brigade arrived on 28 June. The division then took part in the Battle of Damascus. The campaign ended on 14 July and the division remained in Syria.In the face of stiff resistance from the Vichy French, the British realised that reinforcements were needed. On 13
Operation Sonnenblume, the counter-attack launched by Italian troops and the Afrika Korps across Cyrenaica, had forced the British and Commonwealth forces into retreat during March and April. 100 miles (160 km) east to Sollum on the Libyan–Egyptian border.Richard O'Connor—now General Officer Commanding British Troops Egypt—had been captured. The Australian 9th Infantry Division fell back to the fortress port of Tobruk and the remaining British and Commonwealth forces withdrew a further
These moves initiated the Siege of Tobruk. Although isolated by land, the garrison was supplied by the Royal Navy and the first Axis attacks failed to take the port. This failure was significant; Erwin Rommel's front line positions at Sollum were at the end of an extended supply chain that stretched back to Tripoli and was threatened by the Tobruk garrison.Besieging Tobruk also required a substantial commitment of troops and prevented Rommel from making further advances into Egypt. By maintaining possession of Tobruk, the Allies regained the initiative.
Australian policy for the use of the Second Australian Imperial Force (2AIF) was to have all forces concentrated in an Australian Corps, under Australian command. July, when Lieutenant-General Thomas Blamey (commander of the 2AIF, and deputy commander Middle East Command) wrote a letter to General Claude Auchinleck, the new commander of all forces in North Africa and the Middle East, stating "the agreed policy for the employment of Australian troops between the British and Australian Governments is that the ... troops should operate as a single force." Blamey also highlighted that the troops in Tobruk were showing a decline in health due to the siege and that the attrition rate they were suffering would result in "considerable" casualties, if they were not replaced by fresh troops. This caused a diplomatic row between Winston Churchill and the Australian Government that continued after the war, and turned what Graham Freudenberg called a "reasonable request in July" into "a risky one in October".By June, Australian troops were dispersed throughout the Middle East, Cyprus and North Africa. The subject had been of concern to the Australian Government since 18 April. The issue came to a head on 18
The relief of the garrison and replacement with fresh troops were finally agreed. The first stage saw the 1st Polish Carpathian Brigade replace the 18th Australian Infantry Brigade. Next came the 6th Infantry Division's 16th Infantry Brigade, during late September, with elements of the 32nd Army Tank Brigade, in lieu of the 24th Australian Infantry Brigade. October, for security reasons and in an attempt to confuse Axis intelligence as to when the division was fully redeployed, the 6th Infantry Division was renamed the 70th Infantry Division. Major-General Ronald Scobie was given command.On 10
The final stage of the relief effort took place between 12 and 25 October. The remaining elements of the 70th Division were transported into Tobruk and the remaining Australian garrison (save the 2/13th Battalion and elements of the 2/15th Battalion) were shipped out. In total, the relief effort evacuated 47,280 men (including prisoners) and brought in 34,113 men; it also brought the garrison's armour strength to 126 tanks. On 22 October, the 32nd Army Tank Brigade was attached to the 70th Division. With the relief effort over, command of the garrison was given to Scobie. Investing Tobruk were some German infantry and the Italian 27th Infantry Division Brescia, 25th Infantry Division Bologna, 17th Infantry Division Pavia, and 102nd Motorised Division Trento.
Prior to their withdrawal, the Australians briefed the incoming British troops. The men of the division then took over from the Australians and settled into their task of defending Tobruk, with what the Black Watch Regiment described as a sense that it was "the main post of honour open to the British fighting man." – 4 December, whereas Auchinleck planned to relieve Tobruk with a slightly earlier start date.The soldiers' lives were uncomfortable: fresh water was scarce, washing was a luxury and done in sea-water, razor blades were in short supply, meals were basic and sand storms were common. The troops were engaged in a dull routine: daily artillery bombardments by both sides, Axis air raids every night on Tobruk harbour, and for the infantry, nightly patrols. These patrols, described by the Black Watch as "pure 1914–18 warfare", varied from reconnaissance missions—to identify what was located at a certain position—to capturing enemy soldiers and large scale trench raids on enemy positions. Auchinleck and Rommel had planned offensive operations simultaneously. The latter sought to capture Tobruk, aiming to launch an assault during the period of 20 November
Auchinleck planned for XXX Corps (under Lieutenant-General Willoughby Norrie), containing the British armour, to advance around the undefended southern Axis flank, south of Sidi Omar, before moving towards Tobruk and engaging the German and Italian armoured units in battle. Once the Axis armour was defeated, the British force would attack towards Tobruk aiming to capture Sidi Rezegh, while the garrison broke out aiming to capture Ed Duda, cutting the enemy lines of communication. November, the Eighth Army began the offensive. Rommel, believing the attack was an attempt to hinder his own plans to assault Tobruk, did little to counter the British offensive. This led to the capture of Sidi Rezegh and the suggestion that the 70th Division should begin its attack on 21 November, before the Axis armour had been defeated. The plan to break out of Tobruk had been well rehearsed; the 2nd Battalion, York and Lancaster Regiment, 2nd Black Watch, 2nd King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster) and 2nd Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) would lead the attack with tanks of the 32nd Army Tank Brigade in close support.On 18
Under cover of dark the men moved forward, creating gaps in the barbed wire and minefields in front of their positions and bridging Tobruk's anti-tank ditch. November, the division began its attack on the positions of the Bologna Division and the German 90th Light Division (although the latter had not been expected). The Axis positions were well dug-in, behind mines and barbed wire, supported by machine guns and artillery. The first position, codenamed "Butch", was captured by 09:00, shortly followed by "Jill", but two attempts to capture "Tugun" were repulsed by the Italian defenders. The mix of Italian and German troops holding "Tiger" offered up the most resistance of the day. The supporting Matilda tanks ran into undetected minefields and were engaged periodically by Axis anti-tank guns. The Black Watch, under flanking fire from other Axis strong points and being fired upon directly by the defenders of "Tiger", led a bayonet charge to the sound of bagpipes and captured the position, in conjunction with elements of the 1st Royal Tank Regiment (1 RTR) and the 4th Royal Tank Regiment (4 RTR). The Black Watch suffered 75 per cent casualties, being reduced to 165 men.At 06:30, on 21
Despite the losses, the Black Watch launched another attack to capture "Jack". Major Meythaler, the commanding officer of the German sector under attack, was positioned there and reported nine more British tanks lost to mines. Minutes after his report, at 10:30, the Black Watch overran the strong point. 1 RTR proceeded to overwhelm "Wolf", but were repulsed by anti-tank fire when they attempted to attack "Freddie". During the afternoon, a further attack was launched that captured half of "Tugun", but further progress was impeded by Italian artillery fire. The planned final thrust, to seize Ed Duda, was called off, due to the changing situation to the south. By the end of the day, a salient 4,000 yards (3,700 m) deep and wide had been created, 550 German and 527 Italian soldiers had been captured, and 59 tanks of the 32nd Army Tank Brigade had been lost, of which half were repaired. The war diary of the German 90th Light Division described the day's actions as "very serious" concluding "that the next day 'would probably bring a crisis'".
The following day the division improved its position. Strong point "Lion", to the south west of "Tiger", was captured, but an attempt to capture the remaining sections of "Tugun" was repelled. As a result of the fighting, the division began to face a shortage of ammunition for its artillery.Due to the tank battle raging to the south, Scobie was ordered not to make a further advance. The author of the Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45 , W. E. Murphy, said the fighting by the British armour and 70th Division created much "confusion in the enemy camp" and that, had the 32nd Army Tank Brigade attempted, it "could certainly have got to Ed Duda" and in doing so would have thwarted the German plans, greatly aiding the beleaguered 7th Armoured Division.
To the south, having temporarily defeated the British armour, Rommel launched the Afrika Korps and the Italian mobile divisions towards Egypt in the "Dash to the Wire". He sought to relieve the besieged Italian garrisons along the border, cut the British supply lines and inflict an overwhelming defeat upon the Eighth Army. Despite causing panic amongst rear echelon troops, the attack was weak and ran into difficulties against prepared positions. November began an advance towards Tobruk. By the next day, the division had reached Zaafran and retaken the much-contested Sidi Rezegh airfield.The 2nd New Zealand Division had advanced around the Italian border defences and on 24
From these positions, the New Zealanders were ordered to capture Belhamed, Sidi Rezegh proper and Ed Duda. This was to precede a renewed break-out offensive by the 70th Division.Scobie had informed Lieutenant-General Alfred Godwin-Austen, the XIII Corps commander, responsible for all operations near Tobruk, that the positions between him and Ed Duda were strongly defended. Godwin-Austen assured Scobie that he was under no obligation to attack until the New Zealand Division had taken Ed Duda. Undertaking a night assault, the New Zealand infantry captured Belhamed despite strong resistance, but their attacks to take their other objectives were repulsed.
Aware that Ed Duda was still in Axis hands and that the New Zealand Division had bogged down attempting to advance upon the feature and was caught up in heavy fighting, Scobie ordered his men to capture Ed Duda. November. Axis artillery fire damaged two tanks before they crossed the start line but the remaining 4.5 miles (7.2 km) was covered without incident. The 4 RTR were able to silence several Axis gun positions, and were joined by Z Company of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, who helped eliminate a further position. Following the fighting, the Essex were ordered to join the tanks.The 1st Essex Regiment, with machine gun support from the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers and the 32nd Army Tank Brigade, began their attack just after midday on 26
The 1st Essex now advanced on Ed Duda, which was not a fortified position as previously faced by the division. An artillery bombardment and the approaching British troops persuaded the defending Italian platoon to surrender. By 15:00, Ed Duda was in British hands and the Essex began digging in to consolidate their position.Following the capture of the position, several Axis counterattacks were launched. Three German tanks inflicted heavy casualties upon a British detachment in front of the main Essex position, before being driven off. Two infantry companies advanced towards the Essex and "were badly shot up in their lorries at a range of some 200 yards." In following engagements, the Essex took upwards of 110 prisoners. By the end of the day, the position was secure for the loss of only 65 casualties. That evening, the New Zealanders renewed their attacks and succeeded in linking with the 70th Division and cutting the Axis lines of communication.
On 27 November, Rommel abandoned his attack and ordered the Afrika Korps and accompanying Italians to return to the Tobruk area. It was not until 29 November that the Axis armour launched its attack upon the 70th and New Zealand divisions. Around 50 tanks of the 15th Panzer Division advanced on the 1st Essex and were engaged by anti-tank guns and a handful of British infantry tanks. Several British tanks were hit and the rest retired. The anti-tank guns of the Essex were silenced, and 300 German soldiers from II Battalion, Infantry Regiment 115 advanced. Two companies of the Essex were overrun, with 150 men captured. As darkness fell, British and German tanks again clashed before the former withdrew. Under the cover of night, the Australian 2/13th Battalion was ordered to counter-attack along with the remnants of 4 RTR (eleven tanks in total). Elements of the Essex battalion spontaneously joined the assault, retaking the lost ground and capturing 167 prisoners for the loss of around 25 men. Less than 60 German troops were able to retreat to friendly units.
Axis attention now concentrated upon the New Zealand Division; after the recent fighting, the division, less 4,500 men who joined the 70th Division, withdrew towards the frontier in need of rest, refitting and re-organization; the 70th Division was again cut off. December, Godwin-Austen was concerned about the exposed British position at Ed Duda, as were the staff of 70th Division, who believed the area had become untenable. Infantry had reinforced the captured ground, the 14th Infantry Brigade holding a line from Ed Duda to roughly 3 miles (4.8 km) to the north-east. The Essex were still dug in at Ed Duda, with the 19th New Zealand Battalion to their north-east, then the 4th Border Regiment, the 18th New Zealand Battalion to their east and the 1st Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment to their north at Bir (Magen) Belhamed and the captured Axis strong point known as "Leopard". The commanding officer of the 1st Essex reported that the position was well prepared and he was confident of repelling any assault. Scobie sent word stating "Well done, I admire your spirit".On 1
For several days, the 70th Division was bombarded, and on 1 December an uncoordinated attack by the German 90th Division was repulsed by the 18th New Zealand Battalion. The following day, a larger attack was launched upon the 1st Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment. This attack was also repulsed inflicting heavy losses on one of the German battalions. On 4 December, elements of the 21st Panzer Division, supported by an ad hoc formation of 500 German infantry and Italian engineers and artillery support from the 90th Light Division, launched an assault on Ed Duda. This attack was met by the Essex, 4th Borders, 18th New Zealanders and elements of the 32nd Army Tank Brigade. The German attack was defeated and the 4th Borders, supported by tanks, counter-attacked taking 1,000 yards (910 m) of ground, for the loss of fifteen tanks.
The 70th Division had been planning another attack to capture El Adem but the battle made these plans redundant. The inability of the Germans and Italians to defeat the 70th Division and push the unit back inside Tobruk had strategic consequences. Rommel had come to the conclusion that his troops could not maintain the siege due to being overstretched, and decided to withdraw all of the troops he could to the east of Tobruk. December it had returned to Tobruk. Over the course of December, Operation Crusader continued and the Axis forces retreated to El Agheila before fighting ceased. The 70th Division was withdrawn to Egypt for rest and refitting. Due to a lack of transport, the move took until mid-January. By the end of the month, the division had returned to Syria to camp near Damascus.The 70th Division initially joined other Eighth Army formations in advancing west in pursuit, but by 12
During the night of 7/8 December 1941, one hour prior to the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the Empire of Japan entered the war with the Japanese invasion of Malaya. Four hours following the strike on Pearl Harbor, the Battle of Hong Kong was launched; the city surrendered on Christmas Day. On 15 January 1942, the Japanese attack was expanded as their troops invaded Burma. Then, on 15 February, Singapore fell. During February, the 70th Division began moving back to Egypt. On 17 February the order was given for the division to be transferred to India. The next day, Major-General George Symes was given command of the division. They boarded ships at Suez, and had completely departed Egypt by 28 February. The division, without the 16th Brigade, reached Bombay on 10 March. With a Japanese invasion of British Ceylon expected, the 16th Brigade was sent in as reinforcements, arriving on 15 March. It remained until 1943, when it rejoined the division. In June 1942, the 70th Division was located near Ranchi; along with the 50th Indian Armoured Brigade, it formed part of the Eastern Army reserve. The division was seen as a well-trained formation and along with the 23rd Indian Infantry Division formed a mobile reserve against a Japanese landing or advance through Arakan in Burma. At Ranchi, the division also engaged in jungle warfare training.
In August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi's Quit India Movement resulted in civil disobedience spreading across Bihar, Orissa and Bengal. The division was deployed throughout these areas, suppressing the disturbances and protecting the railways of Bihar.After civil power was restored in the affected areas, the 70th Division was concentrated again at Ranchi and resumed training as part of XV Indian Corps. The corps commander, Lieutenant-General William Slim, wrote in his memoirs that the 70th Division "was one of the best British formations I have met, with a magnificent battle hardened spirit gained in the Middle East".
A member of the division, writing in May 1943, commented that it would not be
... enough for us to rest on our Middle East laurels [despite them being] "well deserved"... those days should only be regarded as a starting point in efficiency for only 100% trained tps ... will defeat the Japanese in Arakan or in any other theatre of operations.
In April 1943, Slim requested that the 70th Division be released from Eastern Army reserve to relieve other units on the Arakan front, but elements of the division were only slowly redeployed.The 23rd Infantry Brigade arrived in the Arakan area in May. As of June, the remainder of the division was still part of the army reserve.
On 14 February 1943, Brigadier Orde Wingate launched Operation Longcloth. This operation saw the 77th Indian Infantry Brigade operate behind the Japanese lines, supplied via air drops, ambushing Japanese troops and destroying rail lines. The force returned to Allied lines during April, having lost nearly a third of its troops; most of the remainder, as described by historian Christopher Chant, were "crippled by exhaustion, malnutrition, dysentery, and malaria." Despite this, the operation was deemed a success. In August 1943, Wingate (now a major-general) was sent to attend the Quebec Conference. Churchill and the Americans were so impressed by Wingate that Special Force, commonly known as the Chindits, were ordered to be expanded. Under this expansion, the 70th Division would be broken up and its units transferred to Special Force.
Auchinleck, now Commander-in-Chief, India, strongly opposed such a move preferring to retain the division as an entity. Instead, he proposed that the newly arrived 81st (West Africa) Division could be used in its place. Despite his arguments and the end of the division's availability for operations against the Japanese-occupied Ramree Island, he was over-ruled by Churchill's backing of Wingate. September, the division began reorganising for long-range penetration. It had been estimated that 10 percent of the men would be unsuitable but this had been based on an erroneous report given in London (believed to be from Wingate) that the division was not first class, even though the standard of its infantry was high.On 6
On 25 October, the division was broken up and all troops were transferred to Special Force. Symes, despite his seniority, became Wingate's second-in-command and tried to prevent the further break-up of the divisional units to retain the traditions, histories and esprit de corps of the British Army's regimental structure, which reconciled his men and helped to ensure a smooth transition to Special Force. Having ceased to exist, the 70th Division was officially disbanded on 24 November.
The British Official Historian, Stanley Kirby, wrote that the best-trained and most-experienced British division had been broken up to reinforce Special Force, which eventually absorbed one-sixth of the infantry in South East Asia Command. He judged that had the division been retained, it could have reinforced the Fourteenth Army, making the defence of Imphal and Kohima in 1944 easier.Historian F. W. Perry wrote, "it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the results achieved by the force did not represent an adequate return for the resources invested". He further argued that the force was too lightly armed to capture strongly held positions or to hold one if captured, and concluded that Special Force "inflicted more damage and disruption on the British Army than it ever did on the Japanese." Similarly, Slim argued in his memoirs that it had been a mistake to break up the 70th Division as it was the only British division which had been trained in jungle warfare, and that it would have been twice as effective as an experienced conventional formation than it proved to be as part of Special Force.
|Appointed||General officer commanding|
|10 October 1941||Major-General Ronald Scobie|
|10 February 1942||Brigadier Cyril Lomax (acting)|
|18 February 1942||Major-General George Symes|
|70th Infantry Division (1941–43)|
14th Infantry Brigade
16th Infantry Brigade
23rd Infantry Brigade
32nd Army Tank Brigade (attached during the Siege of Tobruk)
The Second Battle of El Alamein was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. The First Battle of El Alamein and the Battle of Alam el Halfa had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt.
The Battle of Bir Hakeim took place at Bir Hakeim, an oasis in the Libyan desert south and west of Tobruk, during the Battle of Gazala. The 1st Free French Brigade defended the position from 26 May – 11 June against much larger Axis forces of Panzerarmee Afrika. The Panzerarmee captured Tobruk ten days later but the delay imposed on the Axis offensive by the defence of the fortress influenced the cancellation of Operation Herkules, the plan for an Axis invasion of Malta. Rommel continued to advance and invaded Egypt, slowed by British delaying actions until the First Battle of El Alamein in July, where the Axis advance was stopped. Both sides used the battle for propaganda, Winston Churchill renamed the Free French as the Fighting French and Hitler called the French the second best fighters after the Germans.
Fort Capuzzo(Ridotta Capuzzo) was a fort in the colony of Italian Libya, near the Libyan-Egyptian border, next to the Italian Frontier Wire. The Litoranea Balbo(Via Balbia) ran south from Bardia to Fort Capuzzo, 13 km (8 mi) inland, west of Sollum, then east across the Egyptian frontier to the port, over the coastal escarpment. The fort was built during Italian colonial repression of Senussi resistance in the Second Italo-Senussi War (1923–1931), as part of a barrier on the Libya-Egypt and Libya-Sudan borders.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War. British and other Commonwealth and Allied forces attacked Italian forces in western Egypt and Cyrenaica, the eastern province of Libya, from December 1940 to February 1941. The Western Desert Force with about 36,000 men, advanced from Mersa Matruh in Egypt on a five-day raid against the Italian positions of the 10th Army, which had about 150,000 men in fortified posts around Sidi Barrani in Egypt and in Cyrenaica.
Operation Sonnenblume was the name given to the dispatch of German troops to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War. German troops reinforced the remaining Italian forces in Libya, after the Italian 10th Army was destroyed by British attacks during Operation Compass (9 December 1940 – 9 February 1941). The first units departed Naples for Africa and arrived on 11 February. On 14 February, the first units of the 5th Light Afrika Division, Aufklärungsbataillon 3 and Panzerjägerabteilung 39 arrived in Tripoli, Libya and were sent immediately to the front line at Sirte.
Operation Battleaxe was a British Army operation during the Second World War in June 1941, to clear eastern Cyrenaica of German and Italian forces and raise the Siege of Tobruk. It was the first time during the war that a significant German force fought on the defensive but the operation failed as British forces attacked strong defensive positions created by German General Erwin Rommel. The British lost over half of their tanks on the first day and only one of the three attacks succeeded.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War. In late 1940, the Allies had defeated the Italian 10th Army during Operation Compass (9 December 1940 – 9 February 1941) and trapped the remnants at Beda Fomm. During early 1941, much of the Western Desert Force (WDF) was sent to the Greek and Syrian campaigns. As German troops and Italian reinforcements reached Libya, only a skeleton Allied force remained, short of equipment and supplies.
The Western Desert Campaign, took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War. The campaign began in September 1940 with the Italian invasion of Egypt; Operation Compass, a British five-day raid in December 1940, led to the destruction of the Italian 10th Army. Benito Mussolini sought help from Adolf Hitler, who responded with a small German force sent to Tripoli under Directive 22. The German Afrika Korps was under nominal Italian command but Italian dependency on Nazi Germany made it the dominant partner.
Operation Brevity was a limited offensive conducted in mid-May 1941, during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. Conceived by the commander-in-chief of the British Middle East Command, General Archibald Wavell, Brevity was intended to be a rapid blow against weak Axis front-line forces in the Sollum–Capuzzo–Bardia area of the border between Egypt and Libya. Although the operation got off to a promising start, throwing the Axis high command into confusion, most of its early gains were lost to local counter-attacks, and with German reinforcements being rushed to the front the operation was called off after one day.
The Battle of Gazala was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942. Axis troops of the Panzerarmee Afrika consisted of German and Italian units. Allied forces were mainly British, Indian, South African and Free French.
The 78th Infantry Division, also known as the Battleaxe Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War II that fought, with great distinction, in Tunisia, Sicily and Italy from late 1942–1945.
The 2nd Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army, active during the Second World War. The division was created on 15 December 1939 and disbanded on 10 May 1941, after part of the division was captured at Mechili in Libya from 5 to 8 April 1941, by German and Italian forces during the Western Desert Campaign and part was lost in the Battle of Greece (6–30 April).
The 8th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army during the Second World War. It was deployed to Egypt in June 1942 but never operated as a complete formation and was disbanded in January the following year.
The 24th Army Tank Brigade was an armoured brigade of the British Army. It was embodied in the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II. On 1 November 1940 it was redesignated as the 24th Armoured Brigade and reorganized. In July 1942 it transferred to Egypt and took part in the Western Desert Campaign, notably the Second Battle of El Alamein. The Headquarters was disbanded in the Middle East on 1 March 1943.
The Battle of El Agheila was a brief engagement of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. It took place in December 1942 between Allied forces of the Eighth Army and the Axis forces of the German-Italian Panzer Army, during the long Axis withdrawal from El Alamein to Tunis. It ended with the German-Italian Panzer Army resuming its retreat towards Tunisia, where the Tunisia Campaign had begun with Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942).
Operation Skorpion or Unternehmen Skorpion was a military operation during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. The operation was fought by Axis forces under the command of Colonel Maximilian von Herff and British forces under Lieutenant-General William "Strafer" Gott. A counter-attack was made on British positions at Halfaya Pass in north-western Egypt, which had been captured during Operation Brevity (15–16 May).Unternehmen Skorpion was the second offensive operation commanded by Rommel in Africa.
The 3rd Indian Motor Brigade was formed in 1940 by the Indian Army during World War II. In 1941, the brigade was surrounded at Mechili by Axis forces during Operation Sonnenblume and suffered many casualties, breaking out of the encirclement. One cavalry regiment then took part in the Siege of Tobruk and then the brigade was reconstituted in Egypt. In August, the brigade, under Brigadier A. A. E. Filose, was re-equipped at Mena in Egypt and in September moved to north-east Syria. In May 1942, during the Battle of Gazala the brigade held a defensive box at Point 171 near Bir Hakeim and was again overrun by units of the Afrika Korps and Italian forces. On 28 May, the remnants of the brigade were sent back to Buq Buq to reform and about 800 of the men taken prisoner rejoined soon afterwards. The Axis had released 600 prisoners from captivity after 48 hours, due to a water-shortage, who reached the Free French fighting the Battle of Bir Hakeim (26 May – 11 June) and another 200 men were liberated by a British column.
The Battle of Point 175 was a military engagement of the Western Desert Campaign that took place during Operation Crusader from 29 November – 1 December 1941, during the Second World War. Point 175 is a small rise just south of the Trigh Capuzzo, a desert track east of Sidi Rezegh and south of Zaafran, with a good view of the vicinity. In early November 1941, the feature was held by German infantry of Division z.b.V. Afrika. Troops of the 2nd New Zealand Division and Infantry tanks of the 1st Army Tank Brigade attacked and captured Point 175 on 23 November, during the Battle of Sidi Rezegh, at the start of Operation Crusader. The New Zealand troops then attacked westwards and made contact with the Tobruk garrison, which had broken out to meet them. From 29 November – 1 December, the New Zealanders defended the point and the area to the west against Axis attempts to sever the link with the Tobruk garrison and regain control of the local roads. The new 132nd Armoured Division Ariete re-captured Point 175 late on 29 November.
The Battle of Wadi Akarit was an Allied attack from 6–7 April 1943, to dislodge Axis forces from positions along the Wadi Akarit in Tunisia during the Tunisia Campaign of the Second World War. The Gabès Gap, north of the towns of Gabès and El Hamma, is a passage between the sea and impassable salt marshes. The 51st (Highland) Infantry Division breached the defences and held a bridgehead, allowing the passage of their main force to roll up the Axis defences. After several determined counter-attacks, the Axis forces withdrew and the Eighth Army, under General Bernard Montgomery, pursued toward Tunis, until reaching Axis defensive positions at Enfidaville.
The Battle of Sidi Barrani(10–11 December 1940) was the opening battle of Operation Compass, the first big British attack of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. Sidi Barrani on the Mediterranean coast in Egypt, had been occupied by the Italian 10th Army, during the Italian invasion of Egypt (9–16 September 1940) and was attacked by British, Commonwealth and imperial troops, who re-captured the port. While retreating from Sidi Barrani and Buq Buq, the 10th Army divisions crowded on the coast road and were easy targets for HMS Terror and two gunboats, which bombarded the Sollum area all day and most of the night of 11 December. By late on 12 December, the only Italian positions left in Egypt were at the approaches to Sollum and the vicinity of Sidi Omar. The British took 38,300 prisoners for a loss of 624 men and prolonged the five-day raid on Italian positions in Egypt, eventually capturing Cyrenaica and most of the 10th Army.