Antonov An-2

Last updated
An-2
Antonov AN-2 (cropped).jpg
An-2 formerly used by the Estonian Air Force
Role Agricultural and utility aircraft
Manufacturer Antonov
Designer Oleg Antonov
First flight31 August 1947 [1]
StatusSeries production may still continue in China as the Shijiazhuang Y-5; [2] engine refitting project underway [3]
Primary users Soviet Union (historical)
North Korea
China
Cuba
Produced1947–2001
Number built18,000+ [4]
Variants Antonov An-3

The Antonov An-2 (Russian nickname: "Annushka" or "Annie"; "kukuruznik"—corn crop duster; USAF/DoD reporting name Type 22, [5] NATO reporting name Colt [6] ) is a Soviet mass-produced single-engine biplane utility/agricultural aircraft designed and manufactured by the Antonov Design Bureau beginning in 1946. [4] Its remarkable durability, high lifting power, and ability to take off and land from poor runways have given it a long service life. The An-2 was produced up to 2001 and remains in service with military and civilian operators around the world.

Contents

The An-2 was designed as a utility aircraft for use in forestry and agriculture. However, the basic airframe is highly adaptable and numerous variants of the type have been developed; these include hopper-equipped versions for crop-dusting, scientific versions for atmospheric sampling, water-bombers for fighting forest-fires, flying ambulances, float-equipped seaplane versions and lightly armed combat versions for dropping paratroops. [7] The most common version is the An-2T 12-seater passenger aircraft. All versions (other than the An-3 and the An-2-100) are powered by a 750 kW (1,010 hp) nine-cylinder Shvetsov ASh-62 radial engine, which was developed from the Wright R-1820. [4] The An-2 typically consumes 2.5 l/min (0.66 US gal/min; 0.55 imp gal/min). [8]

Design and development

Origins

The Antonov An-2 was designed to meet a 1947 Soviet Ministry of Forestry requirement for a replacement for the much lighter, largely wooden-airframed Polikarpov Po-2, which was used in large numbers in both agricultural and utility roles. Antonov designed a large single bay biplane of all-metal construction, with an enclosed cockpit and a cabin with seats for twelve passengers. The first prototype, designated SKh-1 and powered by a Shvetsov ASh-21 radial engine, flew on 31 August 1947. The second prototype was fitted with a more powerful Shvetsov ASh-62 engine, which allowed the aircraft's payload to be significantly increased from 1,300 to 2,140 kg (2,870 to 4,720 lb), and in this form it was ordered into production. [9]

On the static display of "Oldtimer Fliegertreffen" Hahnweide 2011 An-2 OK-HFL EDST 02.jpg
On the static display of "Oldtimer Fliegertreffen" Hahnweide 2011

Initial Soviet production was at State Factory 473 in Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, where the bulk of up to 5,000 units had been produced by 1960. Later Soviet production (after 1965, of model An-2M especially) was at State Factory 464 at Dolgoprudniy, Russian SFSR. After 1960, however, most An-2s were constructed at Poland's WSK factory in Mielec; it is believed that over 13,000 aircraft were built in Poland before principal manufacturing activity ended during 1991. However, up until 2001, limited production was undertaken using remaining stocks of components, spares and maintenance coverage, such as a small batch of four aircraft that were produced for Vietnam. [10] China also builds the An-2 under licence as the Shijiazhuang Y-5. [4] It has been occasionally and erroneously reported that there was East German production of the An-2, however, while An-2s often underwent extensive refurbishment in East German facilities, no new aircraft were constructed there.[ citation needed ]

The An-2 is commonly used as a light utility transport, parachute drop aircraft, agricultural work and other tasks suited to a large slow biplane. Its slow flight and good short field performance make it suited for short, unimproved fields, and some specialized variants have also been built for cold weather and other extreme environments. The Guinness Book of World Records states that the 45-year production run for the An-2 was for a time the longest ever for any aircraft and challenged the well over two decades-long run of the much lighter, late-1920s origin Polikarpov Po-2 biplane it was intended to replace. But the An-2's production duration run record was exceeded by the four-turboprop, 1954-origin, Lockheed C-130 Hercules military transport. [4]

Further development

Closeup of a private An-2TP Antonov.an-2.ha-mkf.arp.jpg
Closeup of a private An-2TP

During the early 1980s, Antonov experimented with a development of the An-2 powered by a modern turboprop engine. The unit used was a 1,080-kilowatt (1,450 hp) Glushenkov engine. Aircraft fitted with this engine had a longer, more streamlined nose to accommodate it. It received the designation of Antonov An-3. [4]

During 2013, Antonov announced that it had successfully flown for the first time a new version of the An-2, dubbed the An-2-100, which was fitted with a three-blade reversible propeller and a 1,100-kilowatt (1,500 shp) Motor Sich MS-14 turboprop running on kerosene rather than Avgas, which is no longer produced in CIS countries. [11] That same year, the company stated that it had received orders for upgrading "hundreds" of the An-2 planes still in operation in Azerbaijan, Cuba and Russia to the An-2-100 upgrade version. [3]

The Siberian Research Institute of Aviation (SIBNIA) has test flown a highly modified Antonov An-2 with carbon fibre winglet-like braces and carbon fibre wing structures. It was equipped with a five-bladed turboprop engine, most probably the Honeywell TPE331 already installed on a modernized version of the An-2 that entered service in 2014. According to Russian aviation company Sukhoi, this aircraft was built to demonstrate the aerodynamic and structural changes that were planned for an eventual An-2 replacement announced on 10 June 2015. The autoclave-cured carbonfibre composite materials – including wing panels, spars and ribs – were produced by the Novosibirsk Aviation Plant. Sukhoi says the design change improved the speed of the An-2 by 50%, and testing also has shown the minimum flying speed of the aircraft is "close to zero". [12]

Design

An-2 on skis at Volosovo air field, Chekhovsky District, Moscow region An-2 on skis.jpg
An-2 on skis at Volosovo air field, Chekhovsky District, Moscow region
An-2 at Grand Junction aviation show. An-2 GJT.jpg
An-2 at Grand Junction aviation show.

The Antonov An-2 is a mass-produced single-engine biplane that has been commonly used as a utility and agricultural aircraft. It is deliberately furnished with a minimum of complex systems. The crucial wing leading edge slats that give the aircraft its slow flight ability are fully automatic, being held closed by the airflow over the wings. Once the airspeed drops below 64 km/h (40 mph), the slats will extend because they are on elastic rubber springs. [4] Under typical conditions, the take-off is complete within 170 m (560 ft) while the landing run requires 215 m (705 ft); these figures will vary dependent upon various factors, such as the aircraft's take-off/landing weight, the external air temperature, surface roughness, and headwind. [4]

The An-2 is equipped with various design features which make it suitable for operation in remote areas with unsurfaced airstrips. It is fitted with a pneumatic brake system (similar to those used on heavy road vehicles) to stop on short runways, along with an air line attached to the compressor, so the pressure in the tires and shock absorbers can be adjusted without the need for installing specialised equipment. [4] The batteries, while sizable, are relatively easy to remove, so the aircraft does not need a ground power unit to supply power for starting the engine. Likewise, there is no need for an external fuel pump to refuel the aircraft as it is provided with an inbuilt onboard pump, which allows the tanks to be filled from simple fuel drums. [4]

Antonov An-2 (An2-TP) An2TP-Rusalka.jpg
Antonov An-2 (An2-TP)

The An-2 has no stall speed, a fact which is quoted in the operating handbook. A note from the pilot's handbook reads: "If the engine quits in instrument conditions or at night, the pilot should pull the control column full aft and keep the wings level. The leading-edge slats will snap out at about 64 km/h (40 mph) and when the airplane slows to a forward speed of about 40 km/h (25 mph), the airplane will sink at about a parachute descent rate until the aircraft hits the ground." [4] As such, pilots of the An-2 have stated that they are capable of flying the aircraft in full control at 48 km/h (30 mph) (as a contrast, a Cessna four-seater light aircraft has a stall speed of around 80 km/h (50 mph)).[ citation needed ] This slow stall speed makes it possible for the aircraft to fly backwards relative to the ground: if the aircraft is pointed into a headwind of roughly 56 km/h (35 mph), it will travel backwards at 8 km/h (5 mph) whilst under full control. [4]

The An-2's ability, looks and flying characteristics, and its status as one of the world's biggest single-engined production biplanes, mean that demand for the An-2 is increasing in Western Europe and the United States, where they are prized by collectors of classic aircraft, making it an increasingly common sight at airshows. Many western countries prohibit the use of the An-2 commercially because the aircraft has not been certified by the relevant national aviation authorities. These restrictions vary by country, but all prevent the An-2 being used for any 'for profit' purpose, with the exception of the United States, where An-2s imported since 1993 are limited to experimental certification, [7] but PZL-built An-2s are exempt from this restriction due to a bilateral agreement with Poland. [4]

Operational history

Military service

Ukrainian Hryvna depicting the An-2 airplane AN2 R.jpeg
Ukrainian Hryvna depicting the An-2 airplane
An AN-2 of the Laos air force Antonov An-2 Vientiane.jpg
An AN-2 of the Laos air force

The An-2 was adopted in bulk by both the Soviet Air Force and other Eastern Bloc military forces. It was first used in a military context during the Korean War of the early 1950s.[ citation needed ]

The Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) was another prolific user of the AN-2; during the Vietnam War, the service occasionally used the type as an attack aircraft. During the 1960s, a single An-2 that was attempting to engage South Vietnamese naval units was shot down by a United States Air Force McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II fighter, under the control of an Air Intercept Controller on the USS Long Beach. [4]

On 12 January 1968, a clandestine TACAN site (call sign: Lima Site 85 /Phou Pha Ti) installed by the United States Air Force in Northern Laos for directing USAF warplanes flying from Thailand to Vietnam was attacked by three North Vietnamese An-2s. A pair of An-2s fired on the outpost using a mixture of machine guns and rockets while a third An-2 orbited overhead to survey the assault. An Air America Bell UH-1B, XW-PHF that had been resupplying the site gave chase to the two attacking aircraft; using an AK-47, the American crew (Ted Moore Captain, Glen Wood Kicker) succeeded in shooting down one of the An-2s while the second aircraft was forced down by combined ground and air fire, eventually crashing into a mountain. The surviving Antonov returned to its home base, Gia Lam, near Hanoi. [14]

During the Croatian War of Independence in 1991, a number of aged An-2 biplanes previously used for crop-spraying were converted by the Croatian Air Force to drop makeshift barrel bombs; they were also used to conduct supply missions to the town of Vukovar and other besieged parts of Croatia. [15] The chief advantage for the An-2 was that they could take off and land in small or improvised airstrips; they were also frequently used to drop supplies by parachute on isolated garrisons. At least one AN-2 was shot down on 2 December 1991 over Vinkovci, eastern Slavonia, by a Serbian surface to air missile (SAM) emplacement which purportedly launched a salvo of SA-6s at the aircraft. [16] [17] Following the shootdown, the flights over Serbian lines ceased, due to the presence of Serb SA-6's. The previous radar guided AA systems were avoided by keeping the airplane's speed below 140 km/h (87 mph), the speed of objects that radars were programmed to erase from the screen.

Reportedly, North Korea has operated a number of the AN-2s. The Korean People's Army Special Operation Force is known to use the An-2 to facilitate the infiltration of paratroopers. [18] It has been speculated that in wartime, these aircraft could possibly be used to deliver troops behind enemy lines for sabotage operations. [4]

As October, 2020 during the ongoing 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war Azerbaijan Forces have been operating unmanned AN-2 for surveillance and bombing of Armenian defenses, [19] [20] [21] however the type of the drone remaining unknown for Armenian sources. [22] Armenian forces revealed footage of the alleged shotdown of Azerbaijani An-2, according to video evidence at least 11 An-2 have been destroyed, with 10 confirmed as shot down and one crashing after takeoff. [23] [24]

Civil aviation

An-2 sprays pesticide on wheat crops during Operation Barnstormer (May 2006). An-2 plane spraying wheat crops.jpg
An-2 sprays pesticide on wheat crops during Operation Barnstormer (May 2006).

Over the years, dozens of nations and companies alike have employed the An-2 in civil roles. The type was heavily used throughout the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc nations; in particular, Russian airline Aeroflot has operated a large number of the An-2s. During the Soviet era, the An-2 was used as a short-range airliner in Estonia, performing regular flights between the towns of Kuressaare and Kärdla, which reside on separate islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa.[ citation needed ]

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the various communist states of Eastern European, most airlines in these regions have been withdrawing their An-2s from service. This is due to some of these aircraft being over 40 years old, as well as a result of the decline in the production of avgas to fuel the type. [7] Private operators are typically still using the An-2s, as their stability, capacity and slow-flying ability has made them relatively popular for some functions, such as for skydiving. [4] [7] Whilst their relatively high noise levels, increasing maintenance costs, high fuel consumption [7] and unsophisticated nature (the pre-flight checks alone take between 30 and 40 minutes) has rendered them obsolete for the majority of commercial routes in Europe, the large number of aircraft available means that unit prices are especially low in comparison to contemporaries (being available from as little as US$30,000 for a serviceable example). The price factor has made them highly attractive for continued use in the developing world, where their ability to carry large loads into short airstrips makes them assets to airlines on a budget. Many ex-Aeroflot An-2s have since found work with regional operators across Africa, Central and South America, Cuba and southeast Asia. [4]

In recent years[ vague ], the An-2 has also gained popularity in the U.S. and Canada, where it has often been used as a bushplane [ citation needed ]. Because of their reliability and robustness, several operators have continued to use the type to conduct scheduled passenger service between airstrips in Western countries; one example of such use being the air service between the North Sea islands of Sylt and Föhr. As of 2015, there were thousands of An-2s remaining in operation around the world, including over 1,500 in Russia, 294 in Kazakhstan and 54 in Ukraine. [3]

Variants

An-2 variants Antonov An-2M and An-2V side-view silhouettes.png
An-2 variants
Antonov An-2E WIG An-2E.jpg
Antonov An-2E WIG
passenger cabin Salon of the passenger An-2 plane. RA-07326 (7166512854).jpg
passenger cabin

Soviet / Polish production

SibNIA TVS-2DTS Antonov An-2MS (TVS-2MS).jpg
SibNIA TVS-2DTS

Chinese variants

Cockpit of a 1971 ex-Aeroflot An-2 at the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum. See also for a very high resolution image of this cockpit. Antonov-2 cockpit.jpg
Cockpit of a 1971 ex-Aeroflot An-2 at the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum. See also for a very high resolution image of this cockpit.

Ukrainian variants

An-2-100 is a 2013 Antonov upgrade version refitted with a Motor Sich MS-14 turboprop which first flew on 10 July 2013 in Kiev. [3]

Operators

The aircraft is popular with air charter companies and small airlines, and is operated by private individuals and companies.

Military operators

Current

Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia

Former

Flag of Albania.svg  Albania
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Antonov An-2 Soviet Air Force Antonov An-2 (cropped).jpg
Antonov An-2 Soviet Air Force
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen

Specifications (An-2)

Antonov An-2 3view.svg

Data from Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes [1]

General characteristics

Performance

Accidents and incidents

As of 19 December 2017 there have been 622 An-2 hull-loss accidents, claiming a total of 774 lives. [54] [55] One of the most recent accidents occurred around 15:00 on 2 July 2017 in the Black Sea, when an Antonov An-2R operated by Albatros crashed in the Kiliya District, Ukraine during an aerial application flight; both pilots survived.

In the second known post-WWII act of suicide by pilot, on September 26, 1976, Russian national Vladimir Serkov made an unauthorized takeoff with an Antonov An-2 (Reg # USSR-79868) from Novosibirsk-Severny Airport and crashed the aircraft into the stairwell of an apartment complex at Stepnaya st., house 43 / 1, where his ex-wife's parents lived, in an attempt to kill his ex-wife. After completing two laps around the scene, Serkov attempted to pilot the plane to the parents' apartment where his wife and two-year-old son were visiting. The aircraft pierced the stairwell between the 3rd and 4th floors, and being fueled with 800 liters of gasoline, ignited a large fire inside the stairwell that ultimately spread to damage 30 total apartments. Firefighters were on scene in five minutes, taking 57 minutes to extinguish the blaze. A four-year-old and two six-year-old children were killed at the scene from burns sustained. Another four-year-old child died eight days later as a result of burns sustained. In total, 11 residents were injured as a result of fire burns.

Serkov's ex-wife (and her parents) and his toddler son were not injured in the incident. [56] [57]

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related Research Articles

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 Air superiority fighter aircraft family

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 is a Soviet second generation, single-seat, twinjet fighter aircraft, the world's first mass-produced supersonic aircraft. It was the first Soviet production aircraft capable of supersonic speeds in level flight. A comparable U.S. "Century Series" fighter was the North American F-100 Super Sabre, although the MiG-19 primarily fought against the more modern McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II and Republic F-105 Thunderchief over North Vietnam.

Ilyushin Il-18

The Ilyushin Il-18 is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and most durable Soviet aircraft of its era. The Il-18 was one of the world's principal airliners for several decades and was widely exported. Due to the aircraft's airframe durability, many examples achieved over 45,000 flight hours and the type remains operational in both military and civilian capacities. The Il-18's successor was the long range Il-62 jet airliner.

PZL was the main Polish aerospace manufacturer of the interwar period, and a brand of their aircraft. Based in Warsaw between 1928 and 1939, PZL introduced a variety of well-regarded aircraft, most notably the PZL P.11 fighter, the PZL.23 Karaś light bomber, and the PZL.37 Łoś medium bomber.

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 Fighter aircraft family; first jet-powered MiG

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 was the first turbojet fighter developed by Mikoyan-Gurevich in the years immediately after World War II. It used reverse-engineered German BMW 003 engines. Categorized as a first-generation jet fighter, it was moderately successful, but suffered from persistent problems with engine flameouts when firing its guns at high altitudes due to gun gas ingestion. A number of different armament configurations were tested, but nothing solved the problem. Several different engines were evaluated, but none were flown as the prototype of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 promised superior performance.

Antonov An-22 Strategic airlifter by Antonov

The Antonov An-22 "Antei" is a heavy military transport aircraft designed by the Antonov Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. Powered by four turboprop engines each driving a pair of contra-rotating propellers, the design was the first wide-body transport aircraft and remains the world's largest turboprop-powered aircraft to date. The An-22 first appeared publicly outside the Soviet Union at the 1965 Paris Air Show. Thereafter, the model saw extensive use in major military and humanitarian airlifts for the Soviet Union, and is still in service with the Russian Air Force.

Antonov An-24 Airliner and military transport aircraft family by Antonov

The Antonov An-24 is a 44-seat twin turboprop transport/passenger aircraft designed in 1957 in the Soviet Union by the Antonov Design Bureau and manufactured by Kiev, Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude Aviation Factories.

Antonov An-8

The Antonov An-8 is a Soviet-designed twin-turboprop, high-wing light military transport aircraft.

Antonov An-10

The Antonov An-10 is a four-engined turboprop passenger transport aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.

Antonov An-28 Utility transport aircraft by Antonov

The Antonov An-28 is a twin-engined light turboprop transport aircraft, developed from the Antonov An-14M. It was the winner of a competition against the Beriev Be-30, for use by Aeroflot as a short-range airliner. It first flew in 1969. A total of 191 were built and 16 remain in airline service as at August 2015. After a short pre-production series built by Antonov, it was licence-built in Poland by PZL-Mielec. In 1993, PZL-Mielec developed its own improved variant, the PZL M28 Skytruck.

Antonov An-30 Aerial survey aircraft

The Antonov An-30, is a development of the An-24 designed for aerial cartography.

PZL TS-11 Iskra

The PZL TS-11 Iskra is a Polish jet trainer, developed and manufactured by aircraft company PZL-Mielec. It has been used by the air forces of Poland and India. It is notable as being the first domestically-developed jet aircraft to be produced by Poland, its service for over 50 years as the principal training aircraft of the Polish Air Force, and as the oldest jet-propelled aircraft still in service in Poland.

PZL-Mielec M-18 Dromader

The PZL-Mielec M-18 Dromader is a single engine agricultural aircraft that is manufactured by PZL-Mielec in Poland. The aircraft is used mainly as a cropduster or firefighting machine.

PZL Mielec Polish aerospace manufacturer

PZL Mielec, formerly WSK-Mielec and WSK "PZL-Mielec" is a Polish aerospace manufacturer based in Mielec. It is the largest aerospace manufacturer in postwar Poland. In 2007, it was acquired by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, which retained the brand. Between 1948 and 2014, the company manufactured approximately 15,600 aircraft.

PZL M-15 Belphegor Polish jet-powered biplane

The PZL M-15 was a jet-powered biplane designed and manufactured by the Polish aircraft company WSK PZL-Mielec for agricultural aviation. In reference to both its strange looks and relatively loud jet engine, the aircraft was nicknamed Belphegor, after the noisy demon.

Yakovlev Yak-28

The Yakovlev Yak-28 is a swept wing, turbojet-powered combat aircraft used by the Soviet Union. Produced initially as a tactical bomber, it was also manufactured in reconnaissance, electronic warfare, interceptor, and trainer versions, known by the NATO reporting names Brewer, Brewer-E, Firebar, and Maestro respectively. Based on the Yak-129 prototype first flown on 5 March 1958, it began to enter service in 1960.

Mil Mi-1

The Mil Mi-1 was a Soviet three- or four-seat light utility helicopter. It was the first Soviet helicopter to enter serial production. It is powered by one 575 hp Ivchenko AI-26V radial. It entered service in 1950 and was first seen on the 1951 Soviet Aviation Day, Tushino and was produced for 16 years. More than 1,000 were built in the USSR and 1,594 in Poland, as SM-1.

Antonov An-14 1958 utility aircraft family by Antonov

The Antonov An-14 Pchelka or Pchyolka is a Soviet utility aircraft which was first flown on 15 March 1958. It was a twin-engined light STOL utility transport, with two 300 hp Ivchenko AI-14RF radial piston engines. Serial production started in 1966, and about 300 examples were built by the time production ended in 1972. The An-14 failed to replace the more successful An-2 biplane, which was manufactured until 1990,. The An-14's successor, the An-28 with turboprop engines, is still manufactured at PZL Mielec factories in Poland, under the names PZL M28 Skytruck and PZL M28B Bryza.

PZL M28 Skytruck Utility aircraft

The PZL M28 Skytruck is a Polish STOL light cargo and passenger plane, produced by PZL Mielec, as a development of license-built Antonov An-28s. Early licence-built planes were designated PZL An-28. The maritime patrol and reconnaissance variants are named PZL M28B Bryza.

PZL-106 Kruk

The PZL-106 Kruk is a Polish agricultural aircraft designed and built by WSK PZL Warszawa-Okęcie.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 Sharpe, Michael. Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes, p. 32. London, England: Friedman/Fairfax Books, 2000. ISBN   1-58663-300-7.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Gordon,Yefim & Komissarov, Dmitry. "Chinese Aircraft". Hikoki Publications. Manchester. 2008. ISBN   978-1-902109-04-6
  3. 1 2 3 4 Россия заказала у Антонова усовершенствованные кукурузники. Korrespondent (in Russian). 11 July 2013. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Gordon,Yefim & Komissarov, Dmitry. “Antonov An-2”. Midland. Hinkley. 2004. ISBN   1-85780-162-8
  5. "Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles". Designation-systems.net. 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  6. "Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles". Designation-systems.net. 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Harpole, Tom. "Antonovs in America" Archived 2012-08-03 at the Wayback Machine p2 Archived 2013-04-08 at the Wayback Machine p3 Archived 2013-04-08 at the Wayback Machine Air & Space/Smithsonian , August 2012. Retrieved: 31 July 2012.
  8. Совиет Унион. Министерство сельского хозяйства, Научно-техническое общество сельского хозяйства. Центральное правление, Государственный агропромышленный комитет СССР (publisher): Защита растений, Изд-во "Колос", 1989, p.36
  9. Gunston 1995, p. 20.
  10. (in Polish) Grzegorz Hołdanowicz: Polskie M28 uszczelnią Wietnam in: Raport-WTO nr.12/2003, p.23
  11. 1 2 Gethin, Howard. "Antonov flies turboprop-powered An-2-100." Archived 2013-08-08 at the Wayback Machine Flight Global, 5 August 2013.
  12. Trimble, Stephen (10 June 2015). "Modernised An-2 demonstrator completes first flight". Flight International. Archived from the original on 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  13. Volosov Airfield Archived 2017-07-13 at the Wayback Machine . World Airport Codes. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  14. "An Air Combat First". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  15. Mader 1996, p.145.
  16. Magaš, Branka and Žanić, Ivo (2001). The war in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1991–1995. Taylor & Francis, p. 58. ISBN   0-7146-8201-2
  17. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov 2 9A-BOP Vukovar". Aviation-safety.net. 2 December 1991. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  18. Bermudez, Joseph S. Jr., "North Korean Special Forces", Jane's Publishing Company, Surrey, United Kingdom, 1988.
  19. "Azerbaijani Military Retools Old Crop Duster Planes as Attack Drones". Hetq Online. 31 December 2020.
  20. https://www.defence24.pl/rakiety-przeciwlotnicze-kontra-antonowy-pulapki
  21. "The next frontier in drone warfare? A Soviet-era crop duster". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 2021-02-10. Retrieved 2021-02-15.
  22. "Azerbaijani Military Retools Old Crop Duster Planes as Attack Drones". Hetq Online . 14 October 2020.
  23. "The fight for Nagorno Karabakh". 1 October 2020.
  24. https://www.urdupoint.com/en/world/nagorno-karabakh-republic-claims-downed-azerb-1042185.html
  25. "MAI An-2e". Ruslet. Archived from the original on 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
  26. Mladenov, Alexander (September 2014). "An-2 Re-engining Progressing". Air International . Vol. 87 no. 3. p. 28. ISSN   0306-5634.
  27. 1 2 3 Butowski, Piotr (September 2017). "Composite Planes". Air International. Vol. 93 no. 3. pp. 20–21. ISSN   0306-5634.
  28. Broadbent, Mark (April 2018). "Russian commuterliner". Air International. Vol. 94 no. 4. p. 31. ISSN   0306-5634.
  29. "China Successfully Tests World's Largest Unmanned Transport Drone". 17 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  30. 1 2 3 4 "yang liwei « SinoDefence". Sinodefence.com. 2010-12-11. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  31. "Antonov An-2 cockpit, Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum". Gigapan.org. 2007-12-27. Archived from the original on 2011-10-01. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  32. "[2010珠海航展]插叙2-新运-15运输机亮相_彩虹熊_白玮_新浪博客". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  33. Discuz! Team and Comsenz UI Team. "网络快递,中国新型运15多用途飞机已在石家庄开始投入研发 - junzhuan.com!". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  34. "运15-2000基本参数_私人飞机网". www.sirenji.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
  35. "运15-2000_私人飞机网". www.sirenji.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
  36. "直击中航通飞展台 运15-2000飞机亮相通航大会_军事频道_凤凰网". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  37. "运15-2000飞机基本介绍_私人飞机网". www.sirenji.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
  38. 1 2 3 World Air Forces 2004 pg. 51. UK: FlightGlobal. 2004. p. 51. Archived from - 2344.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  39. "Bulgarian "Colt" back in Service". AirForces Monthly . Key Publishing. March 2019. p. 17.
  40. "The Air Force receives a second refurbished An - 2 aircraft". sargs.lv/lv/nbs. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  41. World Air Forces 2004 pg. 42. UK: FlightGlobal. 2004. p. 42. Archived from - 2335.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  42. World Air Forces 2004 pg. 43. UK: FlightGlobal. 2004. p. 43. Archived from - 2336.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  43. World Air Forces 2004 pg. 53. UK: FlightGlobal. 2004. p. 53. Archived from - 2346.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  44. World Air Forces 1994 pg. 38. UK: FlightGlobal. 1994. p. 38. Archived from - 2016.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  45. 1 2 World Air Forces 1994 pg. 39. UK: FlightGlobal. 1994. p. 39. Archived from - 2017.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  46. World Air Forces 2004 pg. 58. UK: FlightGlobal. 2004. p. 58. Archived from - 2351.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  47. World Air Forces 1971 pg. 930. UK: FlightGlobal. 1971. p. 930. Archived from - 1047.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  48. World Air Forces 1971 pg. 933. UK: FlightGlobal. 1971. p. 933. Archived from - 1050.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  49. World Air Forces 1971 pg. 932. UK: FlightGlobal. 1971. p. 932. Archived from - 1049.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  50. World Air Forces 1971 pg. 935. UK: FlightGlobal. 1971. p. 935. Archived from - 1052.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  51. "Aeroclubul României" (in Romanian). Facebook. 16 February 2020.
  52. 1 2 World Air Forces 2004 pg. 100. UK: FlightGlobal. 2004. p. 100. Archived from - 2393.html the original Check |url= value (help) on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  53. Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  54. Harro Ranter. "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety Database > Aircraft type index > Antonov 2 > Antonov 2 Statistics". Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  55. "Два человека погибли при падении самолета в аэропорту Нарьян-Мара". РБК. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  56. "Чрезвычайное происшествие (таран жилого дома) с Ан-2 Западно-Сибирского УГА в г. Новосибирск (борт СССР-79868), 26 сентября 1976 года. // AirDisaster.ru - авиационные происшествия, инциденты и авиакатастрофы в СССР и России - факты, история, статистика". airdisaster.ru. Archived from the original on 2017-10-24. Retrieved 2017-11-28.
  57. "Criminal Occurrence Description 26 September 1976". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.

Bibliography