List of civilian radiation accidents

Last updated
2007 ISO radioactivity danger symbol intended for IAEA Category 1, 2, and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of causing death or serious injury. The symbols are meant to convey the danger better than the trefoil sign Logo iso radiation.svg
2007 ISO radioactivity danger symbol intended for IAEA Category 1, 2, and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of causing death or serious injury. The symbols are meant to convey the danger better than the trefoil sign

This article lists notable civilian accidents involving radioactive materials or involving ionizing radiation from artificial sources such as x-ray tubes and particle accelerators. Accidents related to nuclear power that involve fissile materials are listed at List of civilian nuclear accidents. Military accidents are listed at List of military nuclear accidents.

Radioactive decay Process by which an unstable atom emits radiation

Radioactive decay is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, or a gamma ray or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission.

Ionizing radiation Radiation that carries enough light energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules

Ionizing radiation is radiation that carries sufficient energy to detach electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them. Ionizing radiation is made up of energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds, and electromagnetic waves on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum.

X-ray tube vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays. The availability of this controllable source of X-rays created the field of radiography, the imaging of partly opaque objects with penetrating radiation. In contrast to other sources of ionizing radiation, X-rays are only produced as long as the X-ray tube is energized. X-ray tubes are also used in CT scanners, airport luggage scanners, X-ray crystallography, material and structure analysis, and for industrial inspection.

Contents

Scope of this article

In listing civilian radiation accidents, the following criteria have been followed:

  1. There must be well-attested and substantial health damage, property damage or contamination.
  2. The damage must be related directly to radioactive materials or ionizing radiation from a man-made source, not merely taking place at a facility where such are being used.
  3. To qualify as "civilian", the operation/material must be principally for non-military purposes.
  4. The event is not an event involving fissile material or a nuclear reactor.

Before 1950s

Clarence Madison Dally was an American glassblower, noted as an assistant to Thomas Edison in his work on X-rays and as an early victim of radiation dermatitis and its complications.

New Jersey U.S. state in the United States

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay and Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states with its biggest city being Newark. New Jersey lies completely within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income as of 2017.

France Republic with majority of territory in Europe and numerous oversea territories around the world

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

1950s

1970s

  • An earth/clay dike of a United Nuclear Corporation uranium mill settling/evaporating pond failed. The broken dam released 100 million U.S. gallons (380,000 m3) of radioactive liquids and 1,100 short tons (1,000 metric tonnes) of solid wastes, which settled out up to 70 miles (100 km) down the Puerco River [7] and also near a Navajo farming community that uses surface waters. As a result, the Navajo community suffered serious health implications. [8] The pond was past its planned and licensed life and had been filled two feet (60 cm) deeper than design, despite evident cracking.

1980s

1990s

2000s

2010s

See also

Related Research Articles

Background radiation is a measure of the level of ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.

Nuclear fallout residual radioactive material following a nuclear blast

Nuclear fallout, or fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust and ash created when a nuclear weapon explodes. The amount and spread of fallout is a product of the size of the weapon and the altitude at which it is detonated. Fallout may get entrained with the products of a pyrocumulus cloud and fall as black rain. This radioactive dust, usually consisting of fission products mixed with bystanding atoms that are neutron-activated by exposure, is a form of radioactive contamination.

Acute radiation syndrome Health problems caused by exposure to very high levels of ionizing radiation

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects due to exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation over a short period of time. Within the first days symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. This may then be followed by a few hours or weeks with little symptoms. After this, depending on the total dose of radiation, people may develop infections, bleeding, dehydration, and confusion, or there may be a period with few symptoms. This is finally followed by either recovery or death. The symptoms can begin within one hour and may last for several months.

Sievert SI derived unit of equivalent dose of ionizing radiation

The sievert is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body. The sievert is of importance in dosimetry and radiation protection, and is named after Rolf Maximilian Sievert, a Swedish medical physicist renowned for work on radiation dose measurement and research into the biological effects of radiation.

Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by an object, usually the human body. This applies both internally, due to ingested or inhaled radioactive substances, or externally due to irradiation by sources of radiation.

Radiation protection, also known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this". Exposure can be from a source of radiation external to the human body or due to internal irradiation caused by the ingestion of radioactive contamination.

Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility

A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactive isotopes are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.

Radioactive contamination US safety regulations for nuclear power and weapons

Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases, where their presence is unintended or undesirable.

Goiânia accident radioactive contamination accident in Brazil

The Goiânia accident[ɡojˈjɐniɐ] was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on September 13, 1987, in Goiânia, in the Brazilian state of Goiás, after a forgotten radiotherapy source was taken from an abandoned hospital site in the city. It was subsequently handled by many people, resulting in four deaths. About 112,000 people were examined for radioactive contamination and 249 were found to have significant levels of radioactive material in or on their bodies.

Radiation burn damage to the skin or other biological tissue caused by exposure to radiation

A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue as an effect of radiation. The radiation types of greatest concern are thermal radiation, radio frequency energy, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation.

Cobalt-60 isotope of cobalt

Cobalt-60 (60Co), is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2713 years. It is produced artificially in nuclear reactors. Deliberate industrial production depends on neutron activation of bulk samples of the monoisotopic and mononuclidic cobalt isotope 59
Co
. Measurable quantities are also produced as a by-product of typical nuclear power plant operation and may be detected externally when leaks occur. In the latter case the incidentally produced 60
Co
is largely the result of multiple stages of neutron activation of iron isotopes in the reactor's steel structures via the creation of 59
Co
precursor. The simplest case of the latter would result from the activation of 58
Fe
. 60
Co
decays by beta decay to the stable isotope nickel-60. The activated nickel nucleus emits two gamma rays with energies of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, hence the overall nuclear equation of the reaction is 59
27
Co
+ n → 60
27
Co
60
28
Ni
+ e +
ν
e
+ gamma rays.

The 1986 Chernobyl disaster triggered the release of substantial amounts of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere in the form of both particulate and gaseous radioisotopes. As of 2019 it is the most significant unintentional release of radioactivity into the environment.

The National Oncologic Institute or ION is a specialized hospital for cancer treatment, located in Panama City, Panama. Between August 2000 and March 2001, patients receiving radiation treatment for prostate cancer and cancer of the cervix received lethal doses of radiation, resulting in eight fatalities.

Radioactive scrap metal is created when radioactive material enters the metal recycling process and contaminates scrap metal.

Radiobiology is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation. Ionizing radiation is generally harmful and potentially lethal to living things but can have health benefits in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer and thyrotoxicosis. Its most common impact is the induction of cancer with a latent period of years or decades after exposure. High doses can cause visually dramatic radiation burns, and/or rapid fatality through acute radiation syndrome. Controlled doses are used for medical imaging and radiotherapy.

Samut Prakan radiation accident 2000 radiation accident in Thailand

A radiation accident occurred in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand in January–February 2000. The accident happened when an insecurely stored unlicensed cobalt-60 radiation source was recovered by scrap metal collectors who, together with a scrapyard worker, subsequently dismantled the container, unknowingly exposing themselves and others nearby to ionizing radiation. Over the following weeks, those exposed developed symptoms of radiation sickness and eventually sought medical attention. The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), Thailand's nuclear regulatory agency, was notified when doctors came to suspect radiation injury, some seventeen days after the initial exposure. The OAEP sent an emergency response team to locate and contain the radiation source, which was estimated to have an activity of 15.7 terabecquerels (420 Ci), and was eventually traced to its owner. Investigations found failure to ensure secure storage of the radiation source to be the root cause of the accident, which resulted in ten people being hospitalized for radiation injury, three of whom died, as well as the potentially significant exposure of 1,872 people.

Up to 10% of invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, the vast majority of non-invasive cancers are non-melanoma skin cancers caused by ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet's position on the electromagnetic spectrum is on the boundary between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radio frequency radiation from mobile phones, electric power transmission, and other similar sources have been described as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer, but the link remains unproven.

References

  1. "New Symbol Launched to Warn Public About Radiation Dangers". 15 February 2007.
  2. Rollyson, Carl (2004). Marie Curie: Honesty In Science. iUniverse, prologue, x. ISBN   0-595-34059-8
  3. Bryson, A Short History of Nearly Everything, p. 148.
  4. Denver Radium Streets Program denvergov.org[ dead link ]
  5. "Eben M. Byers: The Effect of Gamma Rays on Amateur Golf, Modern Medicine and the FDA" (PDF). Allegheny Cemetery Heritage. Fall 2004. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  6. "UK | Dounreay: 'Waste dump for the world'". BBC News. 1998-04-22. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  7. Harvey Wasserman & Norman Solomon Killing Our Own (Chapter 9 – Uranium Milling and the Church Rock Disaster) A Delta Book, 1982
  8. United States. Congress. House. Committee on Oversight Government Reform. (2008). The health and environmental impacts of uranium contamination in the Navajo Nation: Hearing before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, first session, October 23, 2007. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.
  9. Thomas E. McKone and Kevin Brand Environmental Health-Risk Assessment for Tritium Releases at the NTLF at LBNL (Questions and Answers About Tritium) Archived 2008-02-29 at the Wayback Machine Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, April 1997
  10. Let the Facts Speak 1975–1979 prop1.org
  11. Harvey Wasserman & Norman Solomon Killing Our Own (Chapter 10) A Delta Book, 1982
  12. Possible Leakage of Tubes of Tritium Gas Used in Timepieces for Luminosity United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, September 5, 1979
  13. David Lochbaum Everything You Know Is Wrong The Disinformation Guide to Secrets and Lies Archived 2005-08-30 at the Wayback Machine The Disinformation Company, May 18, 2002 ISBN   0-9713942-0-2 (NRC Region 1 augmented inspection team (AIT) inspection report# (50-220/89-90) of the use of the Radwaste building sub-basement as a long term liquid retention facility at Nine Mile Point unit 1.) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 30, 2005. Retrieved 2005-11-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. Hwang, JY; B. H. Chang, Joseph; P. Chang, Wushou (2002). "Spread of Co-60 contaminated steel and its legal consequences in Taiwan". Health Physics .
  15. 1 2 Chiu Yu-Tzu (Apr 29, 2001). "Radioactive rebar linked to cancer". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
  16. Chen, W.L.; Luan, Y.C.; Shieh, M.C.; Chen, S.T.; Kung, H.T.; Soong, K.L; Yeh, Y.C.; Chou, T.S.; Wu, J.T.; Sun, C.P.; Deng, W.P.; Wu, M.F.; Shen, M.L. (2004). "Effects of Cobalt-60 Exposure on Health of Taiwan Residents Suggest New Approach Needed in Radiation Protection" (PDF). ecolo.org. Retrieved 2011-03-20. (ecolo.org and authors of the paper are not associated with one another.)
  17. Hwang, S-L; H-R Guo; W-A Hsieh; J-S Hwang; S-D Lee; J-L Tang; C-C Chen; T-C Chang; J-D Wang; W P Chang (December 2006). "Cancer risks in a population with prolonged low dose-rate gamma-radiation exposure in radiocontaminated buildings, 1983-2002". International Journal of Radiation Biology. 82 (12): 849–58. doi:10.1080/09553000601085980. PMID   17178625.
  18. Hwang, S-L; J-S Hwang; Y-T Yang; W A Hsieh; T-C Chang; H-R Guo; M-H Tsai; J-L Tang; I-F Lin; W P Chang (2008). "Estimates of Relative Risks for Cancers in a Population after Prolonged Low-Dose-Rate Radiation Exposure: A Follow-up Assessment from 1983 to 2005". Radiation Research. 170 (2): 143–148. doi:10.1667/RR0732.1. PMID   18666807.
  19. Sandra Blakeslee (1984-05-01). "Nuclear Spill At Juarez Looms As One of Worst". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-02-08.
  20. "El Cobalto". Bordering the Future. Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. July 1998. Archived from the original on 2008-03-14.
  21. 1 2 Llumá, Diego (May–June 2000). "Former Soviet Union: What the Russians left behind". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists . 56 (3): 14–17. doi:10.2968/056003005.
    Lluma, Diego (May–June 2000). "Former Soviet Union: What the Russians Left Behind". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 56 (3): 14–17. doi:10.2968/056003005. Archived from the original on 2002-11-12.
  22. Paul Fehribach SteriGenics: The Untold History organicconsumers.org March 20, 2001 Archived January 2, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  23. The Radiological Accident in San Salvador (PDF) (Report). IAEA. 1990. ISBN   92-0-129090-X . Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  24. "Security and Nonproliferation, Kyiv, 2005" (PDF). Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  25. Strom, Daniel J.; Watson, C.R. (1999-10-25), "Fool Irradiation: A Potential Unwanted Byproduct of Food Irradiation? (rev. 2/17/99)" (PDF), Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination Consequences, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-11
  26. The Radiological Accident of Soreq (PDF) (Report). IAEA. 1993. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  27. "Zaragoza radiotherapy accident, 1990". www.johnstonsarchive.net. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  28. The Radiological Accident at the Irradiation Facility in Nesvizh (PDF) (Report). IAEA. December 1996. ISBN   92-0-101396-5 . Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  29. "Accident Prevention". IAEA. 2001-06-01. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  30. Wm. Robert Johnston (26 October 2008). "Jilin orphaned source, 1992". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  31. Zhang, Zhao-hui; Liang, Li; Zhang, Shu-lan; Jia, Ting-zhen; Liu, Qing-jie; Ma, Li-wen; Su, Xu; Liu, Ying; Chen, Sen; Qing, Bin; Cao, Bao-Shan; Xiao, Yu; Ying, Wen-chen; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Wen-xue; Wang, Zuo-yuan (2011). "Follow-up study of a pregnant woman 16 years after exposure in the Xinzhou radiation accident". Journal of Radiological Protection. 31 (4): 489–494. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/31/4/N01. ISSN   0952-4746. PMID   22089365.
  32. Liang, Li; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Chen, Sen; Ma, Li-wen; Chen, Ya-mai; Zhang, Shu-luan; Jia, Ting-zhen; Liu, Ying; Liu, Qing-jie; Su, Xu; Qin, Bin; Wang, Zuo-yuan (2011). "Clinical observation of a 16-year-old female exposed to radiationin utero: follow-up after the Shanxi Xinzhou radiation accident". Journal of Radiological Protection. 31 (4): 495–498. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/31/4/N02. ISSN   0952-4746. PMID   22089422.
  33. Cui Zheng (April 6, 2011). "In Shanxi, lasting pain". chinadialogue. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
  34. 崔筝 (March 28, 2011). "辐射摧残忻州少女 放射源事故堪比核泄露" . Retrieved February 22, 2016.
  35. Ken Silverstein The radioactive boy scout: When a teenager attempts to build a breeder reactor Harper's Magazine, November 1998
  36. The Radiological Accident in Tammiku (PDF) (Report). IAEA. 1998. ISBN   92-0-100698-5 . Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  37. "Consternación por la tragedia con cobalto" (in Spanish). 1996. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  38. "Sobreirradiados conciliaron con fabricante de bomba de cobalto" (in Spanish). 2014. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  39. Radioactive Scrap Metal Archived March 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Nuclear Free Local Authorities
  40. The radiological accident in Istanbul (PDF) (Report). Vienna: IAEA. 2000. ISBN   92-0-101400-7 . Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  41. "World: Africa Kenyan 'radioactive road' scare". BBC News. 1999-10-24. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  42. Bangkok Post, 2009[ dead link ]
  43. The Radiological Accident at Samut Prakarn (PDF) (Report). IAEA. 2002. ISBN   92-0-110902-4 . Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  44. Investigation of an accidental Exposure of radiotherapy patients in Panama (PDF) (Report). IAEA. 2001. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  45. Accidental Overexposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Białystok (PDF) (Report). IAEA. 2004. ISBN   92-0-114203-X . Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  46. "Wyrok w sprawie poparzenia pacjentek" (in Polish). 2003. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  47. The radiological accident in Lia, Georgia (PDF) (Report). IAEA. 2014. ISBN   978-92-0-103614-8 . Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  48. A video documenting the training for the recovery and the recovery itself in Lia, Georgia, 10 minute silent documentation about the recovery.
  49. "Transport case prompts HSE reminder on the importance of radiation protection controls." Archived January 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Health and Safety Executive. 20 February 2006.
  50. 1 2 3 "Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators – Bellona". Bellona. 2005-04-02. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  51. "UK | Scotland | Dounreay hit by radioactive spill". BBC News. 2005-09-26. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  52. Archived December 19, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  53. "UK | Scotland | Fresh safety alert at Dounreay". BBC News. 2005-10-17. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  54. "À Épinal, 5 500 personnes ont été victimes de surirradiation". Le Figaro. 2008-04-12. Retrieved 2016-09-13.
  55. "Employee Accident at Sterigenics' Fleurus, Belgium Facility" (Press release). Archived from the original on September 3, 2006. Retrieved May 25, 2006.
  56. "Fleurus irradiator accident, 2006". Johnston's Archive. 2011-11-19. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  57. https://web.archive.org/web/20070220173522/http://www.fanc.fgov.be/fr/news_2006_04_11_dossier_streigenics.htm. Archived from the original on February 20, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2006.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  58. Archived January 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  59. "Apology for radiation error girl". BBC News. 2006-02-08. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  60. Kirsty Scott (2006-10-20). "Teenage cancer patient dies after radiation blunder | Society". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  61. "Teen Girl dies from Overdose of Radiation in the Hospital". Health Jockey. 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  62. "Unintended overexposure of patient Lisa Norris during radiotherapy treatment at the Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow in January 2006" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  63. 1 2 Domino, Donna (2008-11-10). "Two-second CT scan turns into 65-minute ordeal for toddler". UBM Medica. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  64. Bogdanich, Walt (15 October 2009). "Radiation Overdoses Point Up Dangers of CT Scans". New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  65. "AFP: Belgium reduces safety zone near nuclear iodine leak site". AFP. 2008-08-30. Archived from the original on 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  66. "Reuters.com | Africa". Reuters. 2009-02-09. Archived from the original on 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  67. "ECURIE ALERT: Belgian nuclear authorities alert the Commission about measures taken after releases of radioactive iodine". Communication department of the European Commission. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
  68. IAEA NEWS database: Iodine-131 release in the environment Archived June 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  69. Safety Investigation of CT Brain Perfusion Scans: Initial Notification:
  70. Yardley, Jim (27 April 2010). "Indian Man Dies After Radiation Exposure" . Retrieved 3 January 2018 via NYTimes.com.
  71. Yardley, Jim (23 April 2010). "Scrap Metal Radiation Raises Concerns in India" . Retrieved 3 January 2018 via NYTimes.com.
  72. "Origin of Cobalt-60 traced to Delhi University – Times of India" . Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  73. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2014-01-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  74. Curry, Andrew (2011-10-21). "Why Is This Cargo Container Emitting So Much Radiation?". Wired.com. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  75. "Hospital Apura Morte de Menina Queimada em Radioterapia no Rio". Globo.com. 2 Jun 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
  76. "Asos Belts Seized Over Radioactive Studs". Sky News. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
  77. "Truck with dangerous radioactive materials hijacked in Mexico – IAEA – RT News". RT. 2013-12-04. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  78. "Mexico Informs IAEA of Theft of Dangerous Radioactive Source". IAEA. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  79. 1 2 "Mexico Says Stolen Radioactive Source Found in Field". IAEA. 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  80. Will Grant (2013-12-05). "BBC News – Mexico radioactive material found, thieves' lives 'in danger'". BBC. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  81. "Not first time radioactive device has gone missing: Malaysia police chief". Channel News Asia. 2018-08-21. Retrieved 2018-08-21.