List of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines

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List of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines. The compression-ignition diesel engines listed below were formerly used by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles of the German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group, [1] and also in Volkswagen Marine [2] and Volkswagen Industrial Motor [3] applications, but are now discontinued. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water-cooled. [1]

Contents

Since the Volkswagen Group is European, official internal combustion engine performance ratings are published using the International System of Units (commonly abbreviated "SI"), a modern form of the metric system of figures. Motor vehicle engines will have been tested by a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) accredited testing facility, to either the original 80/1269/ EEC , or the later 1999/99/EC standards.[ citation needed ] The standard initial measuring unit for establishing the rated power output is the kilowatt (kW);[ citation needed ] and in their official literature, the power rating may be published in either the kW, or the 'Pferdestärke' (PS, which is sometimes incorrectly referred to as 'metric horsepower'), or both, and may also include conversions to imperial units such as the horsepower (hp) or brake horsepower (bhp). (Conversions: one PS ≈ 735.5 watts (W), ≈ 0.98632 hp (SAE)). In case of conflict, the metric power figure of kilowatts (kW) will be stated as the primary figure of reference. For the turning force generated by the engine, the Newton metre (Nm) will be the reference figure of torque. Furthermore, in accordance with European automotive traditions, engines shall be listed in the following ascending order of preference:[ citation needed ]

  1. Number of cylinders,
  2. Engine displacement (in litres),
  3. Engine configuration, and
  4. Rated power output (in kilowatts).

The diesel engines which Volkswagen Group currently manufactured and installed in today's vehicles, and Marine and Industrial applications, can be found in the list of Volkswagen Group diesel engines article.

Three-cylinder diesels

1.2 R3 PD TDI 3L

This inline three-cylinder Turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine is the powerplant of the Volkswagen Lupo 3L and Audi A2 3L, with a low fuel consumption of only 2.99 L/100 km (94.5 mpgimp; 78.7 mpgUS) - hence the "3L" tag. It is based on the 1.4 TDI version, but the cylinder block is made of aluminium alloy, and some of the other components are lighter.

identification
class: EA188, parts code prefix: ???, ID codes: ANY, AYZ
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline three-cylinder (R3/I3) Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) turbodiesel; 1,191 cc (72.7 cu in), bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 19.5:1
cylinder block & crankcase
cast aluminium alloy (saving 16 kg (35 lb)); simplex-chain-driven balance shaft and oil pump, four main bearings
piston and piston rods
Alcan aluminium pistons, trapezoid bearings shared with rods
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, 6 valves in total, each with two concentric valve springs, belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
Garrett GT1541V turbocharger [Family 15, 41 mm (1.6 in) compressor wheel (exducer diameter), VNT (Variable-Nozzle Turbine)], side-mounted intercooler (upright),
water cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system integrated in heating cooling circuit (not in 1.4 TDI)
cooling system
increased engine coolant temperature of 90 °C (194 °F) (in 1.4 TDI: 85 °C (185 °F)), oil cooler integrated in engine cooling circuit (heating cooling circuit in 1.4 TDI)
fuel system
camshaft-actuated Pumpe Düse (PD) direct injection Unit Injectors, injection pressure up to 2,050 bar (29,733 psi) (approx. 180 bar (2,611 psi) pre-injection, min. 300 bar (4,351 psi) main-injection), increased recirculated fuel temperature from underfloor cooler of 60 °C (140 °F) (in 1.4 TDI: 30 °C (86 °F))
engine management
Bosch EDC 15P (variant spelling: EDC 15+) electronic engine control unit (ECU) (some few old ones EDC 15 only)
exhaust system
lightweight construction: reduced wall thickness and steel sheet exhaust manifold (instead of cast-iron),
one near-engine-mounted catalytic pre-converter, one main catalytic converter and an end muffler
(instead of one underfloor catalytic converter, one underfloor muffler and an end muffler attached to 1.4 TDI)
starter
strengthened Bosch starter motor (12V, 150A, 1800W with 9 tooth pinion) for stop-start system with quick-start-function and voltage stabiliser for airbag-system, radio and instrument cluster
dimensions
100 kg (220 lb)
DIN-rated power & torque output
SPORT mode:
45 kW (61 PS; 60 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 140 N⋅m (103 lbf⋅ft) at 1,800-2,400 rpm, 80% available from 1,300 rpm
ECO mode:
33 kW (45 PS; 44 bhp) at 3,000 rpm; 120 N⋅m (89 lbf⋅ft) at 1,600-2,400 rpm, "redline" is 3,000 rpm (instead of 4,800 rpm)
idling speed
reduced while the car freewheels (above 13 km/h (8 mph)) to 770 rpm (otherwise 850 rpm)
mean effective pressure
14.8 bar (215 psi) (in SPORT mode)
mean efficiency in driving cycle
slightly over 30%
applications
Audi A2 3L (ANY:- A2: 03/01-08/05), Volkswagen Lupo 3L (ANY: 06/99-11/00, AYZ: 11/00-07/05)
references
"Audi A2 1.2 TDI: the three-litre car from Audi". AudiWorld.com. Audi AG - press release. 1999-11-28. Retrieved 2009-08-22.

awards

was winner of two categories in the 1999 annual competition for International Engine of the Year - "Best Fuel Economy" and "1-litre to 1.4-litre"

Four-cylinder EA111 diesels

The EA111 series of internal combustion engines was introduced in the mid 1970s in the Audi 50, and shortly after in the original Volkswagen Polo. It is a series of water-cooled inline three- and inline four-cylinder petrol and diesel engines, in a variety of displacement sizes. This overhead camshaft engine features a crossflow cylinder head design, and directly driven auxiliary units.[ clarification needed ] The exhaust side is in driving direction, closest to the front of the vehicle.

1.3 R4 D 33kW

identification
parts code prefix: 031, ID codes: MN
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) diesel engine; 1,272 cc (77.6 cu in); bore/stroke 75 / 72 mm, 318.0 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 22.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, mechanical valve-play compensation, single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
fuel system
Bosch VerteilerPumpe VP25 mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl pre-combustion chamber
DIN-rated power & torque outputs
33 kW (45 PS; 44 bhp) at 4,900 rpm; 75 N⋅m (55 lbf⋅ft) at 2,800 rpm
application
Volkswagen Polo 1985-08 to 1990-07

1.4 R4 D 35kW

identification
parts code prefix: 031, ID codes: 1W
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) diesel engine; 1,398 cc (85.3 cu in); bore/stroke 75 / 79.1 mm, 347.75 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 22.3:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, mechanical valve-play compensation, single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
fuel system
Bosch VerteilerPumpe VP25 mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl pre-combustion chamber
DIN-rated power & torque outputs
35 kW (48 PS; 47 bhp) at 4,500 rpm; 82 N⋅m (60 lbf⋅ft) at 2,700–3,500 rpm
application
Volkswagen Polo Mk2 1990-10 to 1994-07

NB. Not all technical details given in document showing the main characteristics of the 1391cc engine; they are assumed to be similar as it otherwise appears to be a longer-stroke version of the 1272cc.

Four-cylinder EA827 diesels

The following are all part of the EA827 engine series with 88 mm (3.46 in)cylinder spacing[ when defined as? ].

1.5 R4 D 33-37kW

identification
parts code prefix: 068
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline-four engine (R4/I4); 1,471 cc (89.8 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 80.0 mm (3.01 in × 3.15 in), stroke ratio: 0.96:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 367.7 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.5:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
two valves per cylinder, each with two concentric valve springs, 8 valves total, shim-adjustable bucket tappets, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
EWG-rated power & torque output, application, ID code
33 kW (45 PS; 44 bhp)Volkswagen Industrial Motor (682: 12/77-01/82)
DIN-rated power & torque output, ID code
37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp) at 4,400 rpm; 90 N⋅m (66 lbf⋅ft) at 2,800 rpm — CK
applications
Volkswagen Golf Mk1 (08/76-7/80), Volkswagen Passat B1 (08/77-7/80)

1.6 R4 D 36-40kW

identification
parts code prefix: 068
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline-four engine (R4/I4); 1,588 cc (96.9 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.5:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
two valves per cylinder, each with two concentric valve springs, 8 valves total, shim-adjustable bucket tappets, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
EWG-rated power & torque output, application, ID codes
36 kW (49 PS; 48 bhp)Volkswagen Industrial Motor (685: 12/81-10/88, 68D: 03/89-03/94)
40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp)Volkswagen Industrial Motor (ADK: 04/94-07/96)
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp) at 4,200 rpm; 100 N⋅m (74 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm — CS
40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) at 4,800 rpm; 100 N⋅m (74 lbf⋅ft) at 2,300 rpm — CR
40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) at 4,800 rpm; 102 N⋅m (75 lbf⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm — JK
40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) at 4,580 rpm; 100 N⋅m (74 lbf⋅ft) at 2,300 rpm — JP
applications
Audi 80 (CR: 8/80-7/82, JK: 8/82-7/89), Volkswagen Polo (JK), Volkswagen Golf (CR: 8/80-7/82, JP: 8/83-10/91), Volkswagen Jetta (CR: 8/80-7/82, JP: 12/83-10/91), Volkswagen Passat (CR: 8/80-7/82), Volkswagen Type 2 (CS: 01/81-07/87)

1.6 R4 D 40kW

identification
parts code prefix: 068, ID code: ME
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline-four engine (R4/I4); 1,588 cc (96.9 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
two valves per cylinder, each with two concentric valve springs, 8 valves total, hydraulic valve-clearance compensation, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber, altitude corrector
DIN-rated power & torque output
40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp) at 4,800 rpm; 96 N⋅m (71 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm
applications
Volkswagen Golf (07/85-07/92), Volkswagen Jetta (07/85-07/91), Volkswagen Caddy (08/90-07/92)

1.6 R4 TD 44-51kW

identification
parts code prefix: 068
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) turbodiesel; 1,588 cc (96.9 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 391.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
two valves per cylinder, each with two concentric valve springs, 8 valves total, shim-adjustable bucket tappets, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
Garrett or Kühnle, Kopp & Kausch (KKK) turbocharger, cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
EWG-rated power & torque outputs, application and ID codes
45 kW (61 PS; 60 bhp)Volkswagen Industrial Motor (68A: 04/83-08/88), (686: 03/89-12/90)
50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp)Volkswagen Industrial Motor (68C: 04/83-03/94)
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
51 kW (69 PS; 68 bhp) at 4,500 rpm; 133 N⋅m (98 lbf⋅ft) at 2,600 rpm — CY, JR
51 kW (69 PS; 68 bhp) at 4,500 rpm; 138 N⋅m (102 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm — JX
applications
Audi 80 (CY: 02/82-03/87), Volkswagen Golf (CY: 8/81-7/84, JR: 08/83-10/91), Volkswagen Jetta (CY: 8/81-7/84, JR: 12/83-10/91), Volkswagen Passat (CY: 8/81-4/88), Volkswagen Type 2 (JX: 8/84-7/91), Volkswagen Type 2 Syncro (JX: 8/85-7/92), Volkswagen Type 2 (T3) (JX)

1.6 R4 TD 51kW

identification
parts code prefix: 068, ID code: MF
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) turbodiesel; 1,588 cc (96.9 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 391.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
two valves per cylinder, 8 valves total, hydraulic valve-clearance compensation, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
Garrett or Kühnle, Kopp & Kausch (KKK) turbocharger, cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
DIN-rated power & torque output
51 kW (69 PS; 68 bhp) at 4,500 rpm; 133 N⋅m (98 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm
application
Volkswagen Golf Mk2 5/88-10/91

1.6 R4 TD 59kW

identification
parts code prefix: ???
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) turbodiesel; 1,588 cc (96.9 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 391.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
RA: two valves per cylinder, 8 valves total, mechanical bucket tappets, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
SB: two valves per cylinder, 8 valves total, hydraulic valve-clearance compensation, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
Garrett turbocharger, intercooler, cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
59 kW (80 PS; 79 bhp) at 4,500 rpm; 152 N⋅m (112 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm — RA
59 kW (80 PS; 79 bhp) at 4,500 rpm; 155 N⋅m (114 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm — SB
applications
Audi 80/90 (RA: 04/88-07/90, SB: 04/89-12/91), Volkswagen Golf (RA: 04/89-02/90, SB: 08/89-10/91), Volkswagen Jetta Mk2 (RA: 04/89-02/90, SB: 08/89-10/91), Volkswagen Passat B2 (RA: 08/88-07/89), Volkswagen Passat B3 (SB: 08/89-10/93)

1.7 R4 D 42kW

identification
parts code prefix: 033, ID code: KY
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline-four engine (R4/I4); 1,716 cc (104.7 cu in); bore x stroke: 79.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.13 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.92:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 428.9 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
two valves per cylinder, 8 valves total, hydraulic valve-clearance compensation, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
DIN-rated power & torque output
42 kW (57 PS; 56 bhp) at 4,500 rpm; 103 N⋅m (76 lbf⋅ft) at 2,800 rpm
application
Volkswagen Type 2 10/86-5/92

1.7 R4 SDI 44kW

identification
parts code prefix: 028, ID codes: AHB, AHG, AKU, AKW
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) Suction Direct Injection (SDI); 1,716 cc (104.7 cu in); bore x stroke: 79.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.13 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.92:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 428.9 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 19.5:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, 8 valves total, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system & engine management
timing belt-driven Robert Bosch GmbH VP37 (VerteilerPumpe) distributor injection pump with direct injection (DI)
exhaust system
catalytic converter, European EU3 emissions compliant
DIN-rated power & torque output
44 kW (60 PS; 59 bhp) at 4,200 rpm; 115 N⋅m (85 lbf⋅ft) at 2,200 rpm
applications
Volkswagen Lupo, SEAT Arosa, Volkswagen Polo, Volkswagen Caddy Mk2

1.9 R4 D 44-50kW

identification
parts code prefix: 028
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline-four engine (R4/I4); 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in), bore x stroke: 79.5 mm × 95.5 mm (3.13 in × 3.76 in), stroke ratio: 0.83:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 474.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 22.0:1 - 22.5:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings, die-forged steel crankshaft
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, 8 valves total, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Lucas AEF mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
EWG-rated power & torque output, ID codes, application
44 kW (60 PS; 59 bhp)ARD: Volkswagen Industrial Motor (01/02->)
48 kW (65 PS; 64 bhp)28B, ADG: Volkswagen Industrial Motor (28B: 01/90-03/94, ADG: 04/94->)
DIN-rated power & torque output, ID codes
47 kW (64 PS; 63 bhp) at 4,300 rpm; 124 N⋅m (91 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500-3,200 rpm — 1Y, AEF
50 kW (68 PS; 67 bhp) at 4,400 rpm; 127 N⋅m (94 lbf⋅ft) at 2,200-2,600 rpm — 1Y
applications
Audi 80 (1Y: 08/89-12/91), SEAT Ibiza Mk2 (1Y: 02/93-06/99), SEAT Cordoba (1Y: 09/93-06/99), SEAT Toledo (1Y: 05/91-03/99), SEAT Inca (1Y: 11/95-06/03), Škoda Felicia (AEF: 10/95-08/01), Volkswagen Golf, Volkswagen Passat B3 (1Y: 05/89-09/93), Volkswagen Polo 6N (1994–2001).

1.9 R4 TD 55kW

identification
parts code prefix:??? ID code: AAZ, ADE, ABL
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) turbodiesel; 1,896 cc (115.7 cu in); bore x stroke: 79.5 mm × 95.5 mm (3.13 in × 3.76 in), stroke ratio: 0.83:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 474.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 22.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, 8 valves total, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
Garrett turbocharger
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
EWG-rated power & torque output, ID code, application
55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp)ADE: Volkswagen Industrial Motor (04/94-01/02)
DIN-rated power & torque output, ID code
55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp) at 4,200 rpm; 150 N⋅m (111 lbf⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm — AAZ
applications
Audi 80 (09/91-07/95), Volkswagen Golf, Volkswagen Transporter (T4), Volkswagen Passat, SEAT Ibiza Mk2 (02/93-08/97), SEAT Córdoba (09/93-08/97), SEAT Toledo (05/91-04/97), Volkswagen Vento

Four-cylinder PERKINS and MWM diesels

The first engine was bought from Perkins while the latter was produced by MWM International Motores Brasil, and are the TCA 4.07 type

2.7 R4 D 48kW

identification
parts code prefix: 061; ID code: CG
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) diesel (D); 2,702 cc (164.9 cu in); bore x stroke: 92.0 mm × 101.6 mm (3.62 in × 4.00 in), stroke ratio: 0.91:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 675.4 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 21.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings; dieforged steel crankshaft, gear-driven camshaft, cast aluminium alloy oil sump
cylinder head & valvetrain
????; overhead valve (OHV): two valves per cylinder each with two concentric valve springs, 8 valves total, solid cam followers with pushrods, rocker arms with manual tappet adjustment
fuel system
camshaft-actuated mechanical fuel lift pump, gear-driven mechanical rotary injection pump with indirect fuel injection into pre-combustion chamber
DIN-rated power & torque output
48 kW (65 PS; 64 bhp) at 3,600 rpm; 152 N⋅m (112 lbf⋅ft) at 2,300 rpm
application
Volkswagen LT (01/76-11/82)

2.8 R4 12v TDI 92-116kW

identification
parts code prefix: 062; ID codes: AGK, ATA, AUH, BCQ
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline four-cylinder (R4/I4) Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) turbodiesel; 2,798 cc (170.7 cu in); bore x stroke: 93.0 mm × 103.0 mm (3.66 in × 4.06 in), stroke ratio: 0.90:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 699.7 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 19.1:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; five main bearings; dieforged steel crankshaft
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; three valves per cylinder (two inlet, one exhaust), 12 valves total, finger cam followers, gear-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
air mass meter, cast aluminium alloy inlet manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold, turbocharger, intercooler
fuel system
Bosch VE mechanical rotary injection pump with direct injection (DI); AUH and BCQ only with Bosch Common-Rail;exhaust gas recirculation (BCQ only)
DIN-rated power & torque outputs
92 kW (125 PS; 123 bhp) — AGK (07/97-12/98)
96 kW (131 PS; 129 bhp) — ATA (01/99-01/02)
116 kW (158 PS; 156 bhp) — AUH (02/02-07/06), BCQ (05/02-07/06)
application
Volkswagen LT

Five-cylinder diesels

2.0 R5 D 51kW

identification
parts code prefix: ???, ID code: CN
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline five engine (R5/I5); 1,986 cc (121.2 cu in); bore x stroke 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder; compression ratio: 22.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; six main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
DIN-rated power & torque output
51 kW (69 PS; 68 bhp) at 4,400 rpm; 140 N⋅m (103 lbf⋅ft) at 2,800 rpm
application
Audi 100 (10/78-7/89), Volvo 240

2.0 R5 TD 66kW

identification
parts code prefix: ???, ID code: DE
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline five engine (R5/I5) turbodiesel (TD); 1,986 cc (121.2 cu in); bore x stroke 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; six main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, mechanical valve-lifters, single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold, turbocharger
fuel system
mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
DIN-rated power & torque output
66 kW (90 PS; 89 bhp) at ?,??? rpm
application
Audi 100 (7/81-12/87)

2.0 R5 TD 75kW

identification
parts code prefix: ???, ID codes: NC, 694
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline five engine (R5/I5) turbodiesel (TD); 1,986 cc (121.2 cu in); bore x stroke 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; six main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, hydraulic valve-play compensation, single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold, turbocharger, intercooler
fuel system
mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
DIN-rated power & torque output
75 kW (102 PS; 101 bhp) at ?,??? rpm
applications
Audi 100 (NC: 03/88-12/90), Volkswagen Industrial Motor (694: 09/90-07/92)

2.4 R5 D 55-60kW

identification
parts code prefix: 074, ID codes: 3D, AAB, AAS, ACP, AJA
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline five engine (R5/I5); 2,370 cc (144.6 cu in); bore x stroke: 79.5 mm × 95.5 mm (3.13 in × 3.76 in), stroke ratio: 0.83:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 474.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio 22.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; six main bearings
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder each with two concentric valve springs, 10 valves total, solid bucket tappets, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold
fuel system
timing belt-driven Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump with electrical fuel cut-off, indirect fuel injection into whirl chamber
EWG-rated power outputs, ID codes & applications
55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp) at ?,??? rpm — 751: Volkswagen Industrial Motor (09/83-06/93)
57 kW (77 PS; 76 bhp) at ?,??? rpm — ACP: Volkswagen Industrial Motor (07/92-08/94)
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp) at ?,??? rpm — AJA (04/97-06/03)
57 kW (77 PS; 76 bhp) at ?,??? rpm — AAB (09/90-09/98), ACP (07/92-08/94)
60 kW (82 PS; 80 bhp) at 4,200 rpm; 160 N⋅m (118 lbf⋅ft) at 2,200 rpm — 3D, AAS
applications
Audi 100 (3D: 08/89-12/90, AAS: 05/91-07/94), Volkswagen Transporter (T4)

2.5 R5 TDI 85-103kW

This engine was never offered in North America.

identification
parts code prefix: 046
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline five engine (R5/I5), Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) turbodiesel; 2,461 cc (150.2 cu in); bore x stroke: 81.0 mm × 95.5 mm (3.19 in × 3.76 in), stroke ratio: 0.85:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 492.2 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 20.5:1, viscous-coupled engine cooling fan
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; six main bearings
cylinder heads & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder, 10 valves total, sliding finger cam followers, automatic hydraulic valve clearance compensation, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
aspiration
vane type air mass meter, cast aluminium intake manifold, KKK K16 (early versions) or K14 (later versions) turbocharger, side-mounted intercooler (SMIC)
fuel system & engine management
timing belt driven Bosch VE (ABP) or VP37 (AAT, AEL) mechanical distributor-type injection pump with direct injection (DI); Bosch EDC electronic ECU
exhaust system
cast iron exhaust manifold, catalytic converter
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 265 N⋅m (195 lbf⋅ft) at 2,250 rpm — ABP (K16 turbocharger, no air mass meter, no EGR, no catalytic converter)
85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 265 N⋅m (195 lbf⋅ft) at 2,250 rpm — AAT (K16 turbocharger, up to 04/94)
85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 265 N⋅m (195 lbf⋅ft) at 1,900 rpm — AAT (K14 turbocharger, 05/94 onwards)
103 kW (140 PS; 138 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 290 N⋅m (214 lbf⋅ft) at 1,900 rpm — AEL (K14 turbocharger)
applications
Audi 100 (AAT: 08/91-07/94, ABP: 06/91-07/92, Audi C4 A6 (AAT: 06/94-10/97, AEL: 10/94-10/97), Volvo 850, Volvo V70 Ph1
reference
ID and detail from ETKA and ELSA

Six-cylinder diesels

2.4 R6 D24 51-60kW

identification
parts code prefix: 075, 076
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline six (R6/I6) diesel (D); 2,383 cc (145.4 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 22.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; seven main bearings, dieforged steel crossplane crankshaft, pressed steel oil sump
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder each with two concentric valve springs, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC) directly acting on shim-adjustable bucket tappet valve lifters
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, two cast iron exhaust manifolds
fuel system
Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl pre-combustion chamber
EWG-rated power & torque output, application, ID codes
55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp)Volkswagen Industrial Motor (761: 01/81-01/84, 751: 09/83-06/93)
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
51 kW (69 PS; 68 bhp)1S, ACT
55 kW (75 PS; 74 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 155 N⋅m (114 lbf⋅ft) at 2,800 rpm — CP, DW
60 kW (82 PS; 80 bhp) at 4,700 rpm; 145 N⋅m (107 lbf⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm — Volvo D24
applications
Volkswagen LT (CP: 08/78-11/82, DW: 12/82-07/92, 1S: 08/88-07/92, ACT: 08/92-12/95), Volvo 240, Volvo 740
reference
ID and detail from ETKA and Volvo pocket data booklet TP 0302035 7000.05.96 English

2.4 R6 D24T 63-80kW

identification
parts code prefix: 075
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline six (R6/I6) turbodiesel (TD); 2,383 cc (145.4 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 22.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; seven main bearings, dieforged steel crossplane crankshaft, pressed steel oil sump
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder each with two concentric valve springs, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC) directly acting on shim-adjustable bucket tappet valve lifters
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold, turbocharger
fuel system
Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl pre-combustion chamber
EWG-rated power & torque output, application, ID code
66 kW (90 PS; 89 bhp)Volkswagen Industrial Motor (752: 09/83-06/93)
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
63 kW (86 PS; 84 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 152 N⋅m (112 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm — ???[ citation needed ]
68 kW (92 PS; 91 bhp)1G
75 kW (102 PS; 101 bhp); 195 N⋅m (144 lbf⋅ft)DV
79 kW (107 PS; 106 bhp) at 4,800 rpm; 190 N⋅m (140 lbf⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm — Volvo D24T (with EGR)
80 kW (109 PS; 107 bhp) at 4,800 rpm; 205 N⋅m (151 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm — Volvo D24T (non EGR)
applications
Volkswagen LT (DV: 12/82-07/92, 1G: 08/88-07/89), Volvo 740, Volvo 760, Volvo 940
reference
ID and detail from ETKA and Volvo pocket data booklet TP 0302035 7000.05.96 English

2.4 R6 D24TIC 70-90kW

identification
parts code prefix: 075
engine configuration & engine displacement
inline six (R6/I6) turbodiesel (TD); 2,383 cc (145.4 cu in); bore x stroke: 76.5 mm × 86.4 mm (3.01 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.89:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 397.1 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 23.0:1
cylinder block & crankcase
gray cast iron; seven main bearings, dieforged steel crossplane crankshaft, pressed steel oil sump
cylinder head & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; two valves per cylinder each with two concentric valve springs, timing belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC) directly acting on shim-adjustable bucket tappet valve lifters
aspiration
cast aluminium alloy intake manifold, cast iron exhaust manifold, turbocharger, intercooler
fuel system
Bosch mechanical distributor injection pump, indirect fuel injection into whirl pre-combustion chamber
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
70 kW (95 PS; 94 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 220 N⋅m (162 lbf⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm — ACL
85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 210 N⋅m (155 lbf⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm — ???[ citation needed ]
85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 220 N⋅m (162 lbf⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm — ???[ citation needed ]
90 kW (122 PS; 121 bhp) at 4,600 rpm; 240 N⋅m (177 lbf⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm — Volvo D24TIC (with EGR)
90 kW (122 PS; 121 bhp) at 4,800 rpm; 235 N⋅m (173 lbf⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm — Volvo D24TIC (non EGR)
applications
Volkswagen LT (ACL: 08/91-12/95), Volvo 740, Volvo 760, Volvo 940
reference
ID and detail from ETKA and Volvo pocket data booklet TP 0302035 7000.05.96 English

2.5 V6 24v TDI 110-132kW

This engine was never offered in North America.

identification
parts code prefix: 059
engine configuration & engine displacement
90° V6 engine, Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) turbodiesel; 2,496 cc (152.3 cu in); bore x stroke: 78.3 mm × 86.4 mm (3.08 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.91:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 416.0 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 19.5:1, viscous-coupled engine cooling fan
cylinder block & crankcase
compacted vermicular graphite cast iron (GJV/CGI); four main bearings, dieforged steel crossplane crankshaft with split crankpins, light alloy pistons (Kolbenschmidt on 120 kW, Mahle or Kolbenschmidt on 132 kW), simplex roller chain-driven oil pump, two-part multi-baffled cast aluminium alloy oil sump, oil filter module (incorporating oil separator) mounted within the 'vee'
cylinder heads & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; four valves per cylinder, 24 valves total, initially: sliding finger cam followers, later: low-friction roller finger cam followers, both with automatic hydraulic valve clearance compensation, dual timing belt relay-driven 2x double overhead camshaft (2xDOHC - two overhead camshafts per cylinder bank - 'quad cam', one timing belt driven from the crankshaft drives both inlet camshafts, the second belt relay-drives the exhaust camshafts from the inlet), dual inlet ports
aspiration
hot-film air mass meter, one turbocharger mounted within the 'vee', two all-alloy side-mounted intercoolers (SMICs), two cast alloy intake manifolds
fuel system & engine management
timing belt driven Bosch VE VP44 mechanical distributor-type injection pump with direct injection (DI); early variants with proprietary electronic engine control unit (ECU) and European EU3 emissions compliant; later variants with water-cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), Bosch EDC15 electronic ECU and EU4
exhaust system
cast iron exhaust manifolds, catalytic converter
DIN-rated power & torque outputs, ID codes
110 kW (150 PS; 148 bhp) at ?,??? rpm; 310 N⋅m (229 lbf⋅ft) at 1,400 - 3,200 rpm — AFB, AKN
114 kW (155 PS; 153 bhp) at ?,??? rpm; 310 N⋅m (229 lbf⋅ft) at 1,400 rpm — AYM
120 kW (163 PS; 161 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 310 N⋅m (229 lbf⋅ft) at 1,400 - 3,600 rpm — BCZ, BFC
120 kW (163 PS; 161 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 350 N⋅m (258 lbf⋅ft) at 1,500 - 3,000 rpm — BDG
132 kW (179 PS; 177 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 370 N⋅m (273 lbf⋅ft) at 1,500 - 2,500 rpm — AKE, BAU, BDH
applications
Audi A4 (AFB: 11/97-06/00, AKN: 07/98-09/01, AYM: 12/00-06/02, AKE: 12/00-05/03, BFC: 07/02-05/03, BAU/BDH: 06/03-12/04, BCZ: 06/03-12/05, BDG: 06/03-05/06), Audi C5 A6 / Audi C5 allroad (AFB: 04/97-05/00, AKN: 10/98-05/01, AKE: 11/99-08/03, AYM: 06/01-06/02, BFC: 07/02-08/03, BDG/BDH: 02/03-01/05, BAU/BCZ: 02/03-08/05), Audi D2 A8 (AFB: 06/97-06/00, AKN: 11/97-09/02, AKE: 11/99-09/02), Škoda Superb B5 (AYM: 12/01-08/03, BDG: 08/03-03/08), Volkswagen Passat (B5.5) (AFB: 08/98-08/00, AKN: 05/99-05/03, BAU/BDH: 01/03-05/05, BDG: 05/03-05/05)
reference
ID and detail from ETKA

awards

was winner of the "2.0-litre to 2.5-litre" category in the 1999 annual competition for International Engine of the Year

Eight-cylinder diesels

3.3 V8 32v TDI CR 165kW

identification
parts code prefix: 057.A; ID code: AKF
engine configuration & engine displacement
90° V8 engine, Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) turbodiesel; 3,328 cc (203.1 cu in); bore x stroke: 78.3 mm × 86.4 mm (3.08 in × 3.40 in), stroke ratio: 0.91:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 416.0 cc per cylinder, compression ratio: 18.5:1, up to 160 bar (2,320 psi) cylinder pressure,
cylinder block & crankcase
compacted vermicular graphite cast iron (GJV/CGI); two-part cast aluminium alloy oil sump, five 86 mm (3.39 in) diameter main bearings, dieforged steel crossplane crankshaft with shared crankpins, diagonally split connecting rods, simplex roller chain-driven oil pump, pistons oil-cooled by cast-in cooling ducts
cylinder heads & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; four valves per cylinder, 32 valves total, sliding-finger cam followers with automatic hydraulic valve clearance compensation, 2x hybrid-driven double overhead camshafts (2xDOHC - two overhead camshafts per cylinder bank - 'quad cam', inlet camshafts are driven from a front-sited timing belt from the crankshaft, exhaust camshafts are gear-driven at the rear from the inlet camshafts)
aspiration
twin-turbo: two electronically controlled turbochargers with variable turbine geometry (VTG) (one turbo per cylinder bank), 2.2 bar (31.9 psi) maximum absolute pressure, combined 4-part inlet manifold and air-to-water intercooler mounted within the vee. With additional side-mounted coolant radiator and additional electric coolant pump
fuel system & engine management
(Common rail system) Low-pressure fuel lift pump mounted underneath the car turns on only when starter is being operated (when cranking); after that an electromagnetic valve bypass the pump. It uses a gear-type lift pump mounted on the passenger-side cylinder head driven by the camshaft; it is used to supply the high-pressure pump with sufficient pressure. Bosch CP3 high-pressure pump is used driven by the timing belt. Max rail pressure is 1350bar. Watercooled return line fuel cooler with an additional cooling pump (runs all the time) and side-mounted radiator and air-cooled return line cooler mounted on the bottom of the car. six-hole solenoid injection nozzles, CR electronic injection control. Dual Bosch EDC15 engine management computers running in master/slave configuration.
exhaust system
vacuum-operated water-cooled exhaust gas recirculation, two catalysts, European EU3 emissions standard compliant
dimensions
length: 717 mm (28.2 in), width: 842 mm (33.1 in), height: 688 mm (27.1 in)
DIN-rated power & torque output
165 kW (224 PS; 221 bhp) at 4,000 rpm; 480 N⋅m (354 lbf⋅ft) at 1,800-3,000 rpm
best specific consumption
205 g/kWh (41.1% energy efficiency)
application
Audi D2 A8 quattro (12/99-09/02)
reference
"Audi A8 3.3 TDI quattro: top TDI for the luxury class". AudiWorld.com. AUDI AG - press release. 10 July 2000. Retrieved 1 October 2009.[ dubious ][ unreliable source? ]
"Compacted Graphite Iron for diesel engine cylinder blocks" (PDF). Tupy.com.br. Tupy Fundições. May 2004. p. 9. Retrieved 18 January 2010.

4.0 V8 32v TDI CR 202kW

When introduced in May 2003, this 4.0 litre V8 was the highest power and highest torque diesel V8 fitted in any production car worldwide. This was the second 'new' V engine from Audi which utilises new technologies - including chain-driven overhead camshafts and ancillary units, following the 4.2 40-valve V8 petrol engine first seen in the B6 S4. This engine was discontinued in July 2005, superseded by the bored-out and updated but fundamentally identical 4.2 V8 TDI.

identification
parts code prefix: 057.B, ID code: ASE
engine configuration & engine displacement
90° V8 engine, Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) turbodiesel; 3,937 cc (240.3 cu in), bore x stroke: 81.0 mm × 95.5 mm (3.19 in × 3.76 in), stroke ratio: 0.85:1 - undersquare/long-stroke, 492.1 cc per cylinder, 88 mm (3.46 in) cylinder spacing, compression ratio: 17.5:1, water-cooled alternator
cylinder block & crankcase
compacted vermicular graphite cast iron (GJV/CGI); cast reinforcing bed-plate lower frame incorporating five main bearings with each bearing affixed by four bolts, three-part oil sump consisting of cast alloy upper section, a middle baffle section and pressed steel lower section, dieforged steel crossplane crankshaft with shared crankpins, diagonally fracture-split connecting rods, chain-driven ancillaries, oil filter module (incorporating oil separator and water-to-oil cooler) mounted within the 'vee'
cylinder heads & valvetrain
cast aluminium alloy; four valves per cylinder, 32 valves total, operated by low-friction roller finger cam followers with automatic hydraulic valve clearance compensation, 2x double overhead camshafts (2xDOHC - two overhead camshafts per cylinder bank - 'quad cam') - the inlets driven in a relay method at the rear (flywheel) end of the engine by four simplex roller chains and the exhausts driven from the inlets by automatic slack adjusting spur gears at the front end, two unequal-length swirl-inducing switchable inlet ports, siamesed unequal-length exhaust ports
aspiration
two air filters, two hot-film air mass meters, 'biturbo': two water-cooled Garrett GT1749 turbochargers with electrically actuated Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG) (one turbo per cylinder bank) operating up to 210,000 rpm with a maximum boost of 2.2 bar (32 psi), two air-to-air fan-assisted side-mounted intercoolers (SMICs), two separate cast alloy intake manifolds interconnected by a "feedthrough" system to equalise the turbo boost pressure in the two cylinder banks, two-position variable swirl flaps integrated into the intake tract
fuel system & engine management
electric low-pressure fuel lift pump, one toothed belt driven 1,600 bar (23,210 psi) injection pump, one central fuel distributor supplying two common rail (CR) fuel rails (one per cylinder bank), Bosch solenoid-valve injectors with seven-hole nozzles for homogenous fuel delivery, single and double pilot injection; Bosch EDC16 electronic engine control unit (ECU)
exhaust system
twin water-cooled exhaust gas recirculation (mounted within the 'vee'), air-gap insulated fan-branch alloy steel exhaust manifolds, two close-coupled primary catalytic converters plus two main underfloor converters, Euro3 emissions standard
dimensions
length: 516 mm (20.3 in), mass: 270 kg (595 lb)
DIN-rated power & torque output
202 kW (275 PS; 271 bhp); 650 N⋅m (479 lbf⋅ft) at 1,800-2,500 rpm
application
Audi D3 A8 4.0 TDI quattro (05/03-07/05)
reference
"Audi A8 4.0 TDI quattro". AudiWorld.com. AUDI AG - press release. 4 March 2003. Retrieved 20 February 2010.[ dubious ][ unreliable source? ]
"Audi A8 4.0 TDI quattro - in detail". WorldCarFans.com. AUDI AG - press release. 12 May 2003. Retrieved 20 February 2010.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 ETKA official factory data[ clarification needed ]
  2. "Volkswagen Marine > Engines <". www.vw-m.de. Volkswagen Group. 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  3. "The SDI 1.9 Industrial Engine" (PDF), mi-uk.com, Volkswagen AG, March 2005, archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2011, retrieved 4 November 2009