Tin(IV) iodide

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Tin(IV) iodide
Photograph of a sample of tin tetraiodide Tin(IV)-iodide-sample.jpg
Photograph of a sample of tin tetraiodide
Ball-and-stick model of the unit cell of tin tetraiodide Tin-tetraiodide-unit-cell-3D-balls.png
Ball-and-stick model of the unit cell of tin tetraiodide
Structure and dimensions of the tin(IV) iodide molecule Tin(IV)-iodide-2D-dimensions.png
Structure and dimensions of the tin(IV) iodide molecule
Ball-and-stick model of the tin(IV) iodide molecule Tin(IV)-iodide-3D-balls.png
Ball-and-stick model of the tin(IV) iodide molecule
IUPAC name
tin(IV) iodide
Other names
tin tetraiodide
stannic iodide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.281 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 232-208-4
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/4HI.Sn/h4*1H;/q;;;;+4/p-4 X mark.svgN
  • InChI=1/4HI.Sn/h4*1H;/q;;;;+4/p-4
  • [Sn](I)(I)(I)I
Molar mass 626.328 g mol−1
Appearancered-orange solid
Density 4.56 g cm−3
Melting point 143 °C (289 °F; 416 K)
Boiling point 348.5 °C (659.3 °F; 621.6 K)
Cubic, cP40
Pa-3 No. 205
Related compounds
Other anions
Tin(IV) fluoride
Tin(IV) chloride
Tin(IV) bromide
Other cations
Carbon tetraiodide
Silicon tetraiodide
Germanium tetraiodide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Tin(IV) iodide, also known as stannic iodide, is the chemical compound with the formula SnI4. This tetrahedral molecule crystallizes as a bright orange solid that dissolves readily in nonpolar solvents such as benzene. [1]



The compound is usually prepared by the reaction of iodine and tin: [2]

Sn + 2I2 → SnI4

Chemical properties

The compound hydrolyses in water. [3] In aqueous hydroiodic acid, it reacts to form a rare example of a hexaiodometallate: [2]

SnI4 + 2 I → [SnI6]2−

Physical properties

Tin(IV) iodide is an orange solid under standard conditions. [3] It has a cubic crystal structure with the space group Pa3 (space group no. 205), the lattice parameter a = 1226 pm and eight formula units per unit cell. [4] This corresponds approximately to a cubic close packing of iodine atoms in which 1/8 of all tetrahedral gaps are occupied by tin atoms. This leads to discrete tetrahedral SnI4 molecules. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nitrogen triiodide</span> Chemical compound

Nitrogen triiodide is an inorganic compound with the formula NI3. It is an extremely sensitive contact explosive: small quantities explode with a loud, sharp snap when touched even lightly, releasing a purple cloud of iodine vapor; it can even be detonated by alpha radiation. NI3 has a complex structural chemistry that is difficult to study because of the instability of the derivatives. Although nitrogen is more electronegative than iodine, the compound was so named due to its analogy to the compound nitrogen trichloride.

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Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4. It is a colorless hygroscopic liquid, which fumes on contact with air. It is used as a precursor to other tin compounds. It was first discovered by Andreas Libavius (1550–1616) and was known as spiritus fumans libavii.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organotin chemistry</span> Branch of organic chemistry

Organotin chemistry is the scientific study of the synthesis and properties of organotin compounds or stannanes, which are organometallic compounds containing tin–carbon bonds. The first organotin compound was diethyltin diiodide, discovered by Edward Frankland in 1849. The area grew rapidly in the 1900s, especially after the discovery of the Grignard reagents, which are useful for producing Sn–C bonds. The area remains rich with many applications in industry and continuing activity in the research laboratory.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iodic acid</span> Chemical compound (HIO3)

Iodic acid is a white water-soluble solid with the chemical formula HIO3. Its robustness contrasts with the instability of chloric acid and bromic acid. Iodic acid features iodine in the oxidation state +5 and is one of the most stable oxo-acids of the halogens. When heated, samples dehydrate to give iodine pentoxide. On further heating, the iodine pentoxide further decomposes, giving a mix of iodine, oxygen and lower oxides of iodine.

The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern defined by the atoms around the central atom. The term is commonly applied in the field of inorganic chemistry, where diverse structures are observed. The coodination geometry depends on the number, not the type, of ligands bonded to the metal centre as well as their locations. The number of atoms bonded is the coordination number. The geometrical pattern can be described as a polyhedron where the vertices of the polyhedron are the centres of the coordinating atoms in the ligands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tin(IV) oxide</span> Chemical compound known as stannic oxide, cassiterite and tin ore

Tin(IV) oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2. The mineral form of SnO2 is called cassiterite, and this is the main ore of tin. With many other names, this oxide of tin is an important material in tin chemistry. It is a colourless, diamagnetic, amphoteric solid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Copper(I) iodide</span> Chemical compound

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium tetraiodide</span> Chemical compound

Titanium tetraiodide is an inorganic compound with the formula TiI4. It is a black volatile solid, first reported by Rudolph Weber in 1863. It is an intermediate in the van Arkel–de Boer process for the purification of titanium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zirconium(IV) iodide</span> Chemical compound

Zirconium(IV) iodide is the chemical compound with the formula ZrI4. It is the most readily available iodide of zirconium. It is an orange-coloured solid that degrades in the presence of water. The compound was once prominent as an intermediate in the purification of zirconium metal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tin(IV) sulfide</span> Chemical compound

Tin(IV) sulfide is a compound with the formula SnS
. The compound crystallizes in the cadmium iodide motif, with the Sn(IV) situated in "octahedral holes' defined by six sulfide centers. It occurs naturally as the rare mineral berndtite. It is useful as semiconductor material with band gap 2.2 eV.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tin(IV) bromide</span> Chemical compound

Tin(IV) bromide is the chemical compound SnBr4. It is a colourless low melting solid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tin(IV) fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Tin(IV) fluoride is a chemical compound of tin and fluorine with the chemical formula SnF4 and is a white solid with a melting point above 700 °C.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Germanium(IV) iodide</span> Chemical compound

Germanium(IV) iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeI4.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hexaiodobenzene</span> Chemical compound

Hexaiodobenzene is a chemical compound with the formula C6I6. Structurally, it is a derivative of benzene, in which all hydrogen atoms are replaced by iodine atoms. It forms orange crystals that are poorly soluble in all solvents. It adopts the expected structure with a central C6 ring.

Arsenide iodides or iodide arsenides are compounds containing anions composed of iodide (I) and arsenide (As3−). They can be considered as mixed anion compounds. They are in the category of pnictidehalides. Related compounds include the arsenide chlorides, arsenide bromides, phosphide iodides, and antimonide iodides.

Hafnium compounds are compounds containing the element hafnium (Hf). Due to the lanthanide contraction, the ionic radius of hafnium(IV) (0.78 ångström) is almost the same as that of zirconium(IV) (0.79 angstroms). Consequently, compounds of hafnium(IV) and zirconium(IV) have very similar chemical and physical properties. Hafnium and zirconium tend to occur together in nature and the similarity of their ionic radii makes their chemical separation rather difficult. Hafnium tends to form inorganic compounds in the oxidation state of +4. Halogens react with it to form hafnium tetrahalides. At higher temperatures, hafnium reacts with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boron, sulfur, and silicon. Some compounds of hafnium in lower oxidation states are known.

Protactinium compounds are compounds containing the element protactinium. These compounds usually have protactinium in the +5 oxidation state, although these compounds can also exist in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation states.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tantalum(IV) iodide</span> Chemical compound

Tantalum(IV) iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula TaI4. It dissolves in water to give a green solution, but the color fades when left in the air and produces a white precipitate.


  1. Chemistry : Periodic Table : tin : compound data [tin (IV) iodide]
  2. 1 2 Moeller, T.; Edwards, D. C. (1953). "Tin(IV) Iodide (Stannic Iodide)". Inorganic Syntheses . 4: 119–121. doi:10.1002/9780470132357.ch40.
  3. 1 2 Hickling, George G. (Aug 1990). "Gravimetric analysis: The synthesis of tin iodide". Journal of Chemical Education. 67 (8): 702. doi:10.1021/ed067p702. ISSN   0021-9584.
  4. Meller, F.; Fankuchen, I. (1955-06-10). "The crystal structure of tin tetraiodide". Acta Crystallographica. 8 (6): 343–344. doi: 10.1107/S0365110X55001035 . ISSN   0365-110X.
  5. Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (2007). Holleman, Arnold F.; Fischer, Gerd (eds.). Lehrbuch der anorganischen Chemie (102., stark umgearbeitete und verbesserte Auflage ed.). Berlin New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN   978-3-11-017770-1.