Toogee language

Last updated
Toogee
Southwestern Tasmanian
RegionSouth-western coast of Tasmania
Ethnicity Toogee
Extinct 19th century
NorthernWestern Tasmanian?
Language codes
ISO 639-3 xpx
Glottolog None
west2205  included
AIATSIS [1] T10

Southwestern Tasmanian, or Toogee, is a possible aboriginal language of Tasmania. It is the most poorly attested known variety of Tasmanian, and it is not clear how distinct it was. It was apparently spoken along the west coast of the island, south of Macquarie Harbour.

Southwestern Tasmanian is attested from a single word list, collected in Port Davey by George Augustus Robinson from the Ninenee Tribe of the Bathurst Harbour area. There are 131 words, but some of these may be from Southeastern Tasmanian languages. The data are consistent with a Western Tasmanian language, but were not clean enough to allow classification by Bowern (2012); [2] [3] Dixon & Crowley (1981) had likewise left it alone. [4]

History

The Toogee were Tasmanian aborigines that lived in Western Tasmania, Australia, before European settlement. Their area of inhabitation included Macquarie Harbor. This tribe consisted of two different bands, the Lowreenne and Ninegin. [5] They made stone tools, including those from Darwin Glass - a natural glass formed from a meteorite impact. The archeological record for this region goes back to 20,000 years, with relics found in the Kuti Kina Cave. The Toogee also left behind middens of shells along the coast.

Related Research Articles

Macquarie Harbour

Macquarie Harbour is a large, shallow, inlet, located in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. It is approximately 315 sq.km, and has an average depth of 15m, with deeper places up to 50m. The inlet is navigable by shallow-draft vessels. The main channel is kept clear by the presence of a rock wall on the outside of the channel's curve. This man-made wall prevents erosion and keeps the channel deep and narrow, rather than allowing the channel to become wide and shallow. A reported Aboriginal name for the harbour is Parralaongatek.

Tasmanian languages

The Tasmanian languages were the languages indigenous to the island of Tasmania, used by Aboriginal Tasmanians. The languages were last used for daily communication in the 1830s, although the terminal speaker, Fanny Cochrane Smith, survived until 1905.

Port Davey

Port Davey is an oceanic inlet located in the south west region of Tasmania, Australia.

Palawa kani is a constructed language created by the Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre as a composite Tasmanian language, based on reconstructed vocabulary from the limited accounts of the various languages once spoken by the eastern Aboriginal Tasmanians. The centre wishes to keep the language private until it is established in the community, and claims copyright. However, languages are not copyrightable under Australian or international law.

The Toogee were an Aboriginal Tasmanian people who lived in Western Tasmania, Australia, before European settlement. Their area of inhabitation included Macquarie Harbor.

Maric languages Extinct branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family

Maran or Maric is an extinct branch of the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages formerly spoken throughout much of Queensland by many of the Murri peoples. The well attested Maric languages are clearly related; however, many languages of the area became extinct before much could be documented of them, and their classification is uncertain. The clear Maric languages are:

Northeastern Tasmanian languages

Northeastern Tasmanian is an aboriginal language family of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern.

Eastern Tasmanian languages

Eastern Tasmanian is an aboriginal language family of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern.

Northern Tasmanian languages

Northern Tasmanian is an aboriginal language family of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern.

Western Tasmanian languages

Western Tasmanian is an aboriginal language family of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern.

Northern Tasmanian, or Tommeginne (Tommeeginnee), is an aboriginal language of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern.

Port Sorell is an aboriginal language of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern. It was spoken near Port Sorell, in the center of the north coast, just east of Northern Tasmanian proper. Dixon & Crowley agree that there is unlikely to be a close connection to other varieties of Tasmanian.

Northwestern Tasmanian, or Peerapper ("Pirapa"), is an aboriginal language of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern. It was spoken along the west coast of the island, from Macquarie Harbour north to Circular Head and Robbins Island.

Northeastern Tasmanian, or Pyemmairre, is an aboriginal language of Tasmania.

North Midland Tasmanian, or Tyerrernotepanner ("Cheranotipana"), was an aboriginal language of northeastern Tasmania, along the Tamar River and inland of Ben Lomond and Great Oyster Bay.

A variety of aboriginal Tasmanian attested in a manuscript nicknamed the "Norman" vocabulary is identified as a distinct language in the reconstructions of Claire Bowern. The list of 386 words was recorded in Sorell, Tasmania in the 19th century by one Charles Sterling. The language was presumably spoken somewhere in the northeast of Tasmania, but the original location of the speakers was not recorded.

Little Swanport Tasmanian is an aboriginal language of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern. It was spoken near the modern town of Little Swanport on the east coast. Dixon & Crowley had noted that it appeared to be distinct, but were not sure if it constituted a separate language from other word lists collected near Oyster Bay.

Paredarerme ("Paritarami") or Oyster Bay Tasmanian is an aboriginal language of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern. It was spoken along the central eastern coast of the island by the Oyster Bay tribe, and in the interior by the Big River tribe. Records of the Big River dialect, Lairmairrener ("Lemerina"), indicate that it was no more distinct than the vocabularies collected along the coast around Oyster Bay; indeed, Little Swanport appears to have been a separate language.

Nuenonne ("Nyunoni") or Southeast Tasmanian, is an Aboriginal language of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern. It was spoken along the southeastern mainland of the island by the Bruny tribe.

Bruny Island Tasmanian, or Nuenonne ("Nyunoni"), a name shared with Southeast Tasmanian, is an Aboriginal language or pair of languages of Tasmania in the reconstruction of Claire Bowern. It was spoken on Bruny Island, off the southeastern coast of Tasmania, by the Bruny tribe.

References

  1. T10 Toogee at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  2. Claire Bowern, September 2012, "The riddle of Tasmanian languages", Proc. R. Soc. B, 279, 45904595, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1842
  3. Bowern (2012), supplement
  4. Crowley, T; Dixon, R. M. W. (1981). "Tasmanian". In Dixon, R. M. W.; Blake, B. J. (eds.). Handbook of Australian languages. Vol 2. Canberra: Australian National University Press. pp. 394–421.
  5. Tasmanian Parks. "Aboriginal people of Macquarie Harbour" . Retrieved 3 August 2010.