Aders's duiker

Last updated

Aders's duiker
TSbyvn Adrs (Cephalophus adersi) Ayvr SHl mSHtmSH-mnKHm.Al.png
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Genus: Cephalophus
C. adersi
Binomial name
Cephalophus adersi
Thomas, 1918
Cephalophus adersi.png
Distribution of Aders's duiker

Aders's duiker (Cephalophus adersi), also known as nunga in Swahili, kunga marara in Kipokomo and harake in Giriama, is a small, forest-dwelling duiker found only in Zanzibar and Kenya. It may be a subspecies of the red, Harvey's, or Peters's duiker or a hybrid of a combination of these. It is named after W. Mansfield Aders, a zoologist with the Zanzibar Government Service.



The Aders's duiker stands at around 30 cm (12 in) tall at the shoulder. Its weight varies greatly depending on geographical location; those in eastern Zanzibar weigh 12 kg (26 lb), while those in the south weigh only 7.5 kg (17 lb).[ citation needed ] Its coat is reddish-brown, grayer on the neck, and lighter down the backside and underneath. A small red crest runs along the head. It also has small, simple horns of 3 to 6 cm (1.2 to 2.4 in). The muzzle is pointed, and the nose has a flat front. The ears measure 7.0–8.3 cm (2.8–3.3 in) long, with a marked cowlick or whorl of hair on the nape of the neck.

Distribution and habitat

Aders's duikers live primarily in coastal forests and woodlands in Africa. The species can live in quite dry scrub near the sea or among coral outcrops; in Zanzibar, they are restricted to tall thicket forest growing on waterless coral rag.[ citation needed ] In Arabuko Sokoke (Kenya), they are most often trapped within Cynometra vegetation, especially on "red soil". C. adersi is sympatric with C. harveyi on the mainland and with C. monticola sundevalli on Zanzibar, although nothing is known regarding their ecological separation.

Ecology and behavior

The species is very shy, alert, and sensitive to sound. As a result, common methods of hunting include the brute-force method of driving the duikers into nets with dogs, or silent ambush at feeding sites.[ citation needed ]

Aders's duikers live in coastal forests, thickets and woodlands, where they eat flowers, leaves, and fruit which has fallen from the forest canopy. The species appears to be diurnal, as it is rarely seen active at night. Typical feeding patterns are from dawn to late morning, which is followed by a period of rest and rumination. At midafternoon, Aders's duikers generally become active, and will continue foraging until nightfall.

They are generally solitary or found in small groups of two or three. They often pick up scraps dropped by monkeys and birds foraging in the trees. [2]

The species shows a particular dependence on the flowers and berries which grow prolifically from trees common to the area, such as ebony ( Diospyros consolatae ), kudu berry ( Cassine aethiopica ) and bush guarri ( Euclea racemosa ), and bushes such as turkey berry ( Canthium spp.) and Polyspheria . In addition to these, they will eat sprouts, buds, and other fresh growth found at ground level. This duiker species can apparently manage without drinking, getting most of the hydration they need from their diets.

These duikers have extremely specific habitat requirements, being found only in areas of old-growth thicket, with the highest population densities (11.4±5.18 per km2) [3] recorded in relatively undisturbed high thicket. However, Kanga (1999) did report some Aders's duikers in secondary thicket. In the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest in Kenya, Aders's duikers inhabit regions of Cyanometra forest.

Not much is known of its reproductive habits, although they may breed all year long.[ citation needed ]


They are threatened by habitat destruction, feral dogs, and overhunting. They are particularly sought by humans due to their soft skin and meat.[ citation needed ] The population in Zanzibar had declined from 5000 in 1983 to 640 in 1999,[ citation needed ] and it will probably continue to decrease rapidly. They are listed as vulnerable by IUCN. [4] In Kenya, the duiker is present at very low densities, though the decline is probably not as severe as the other population.[ citation needed ]

Several conservation plans have been made, and a captive-breeding program has been proposed.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duiker</span> Subfamily of antelopes

A duiker is a small to medium-sized brown antelope native to sub-Saharan Africa, found in heavily wooded areas. The 22 extant species, including three sometimes considered to be subspecies of the other species, form the subfamily Cephalophinae or the tribe Cephalophini.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arabuko Sokoke National Park</span> National Park in Kenya

The Arabuko Sokoke Forest Reserve is located on the coast of Kenya, 110 km north of Mombasa and is protected as a national Forest Reserve. The Arabuko Sokoke National Park, situated at the north-western edge of the Arabuko Sokoke Forest Reserve, is only a few square kilometres in size and constitutes only a small portion of the latter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Golden-rumped elephant shrew</span> Species of mammal

The golden-rumped elephant shrew is a small African mammal. It is the largest species of the elephant shrew family along with its close relative the grey-faced sengi. It is classified as endangered.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abbott's duiker</span> Species of mammal

Abbott's duiker, also known as minde in Swahili, is a large, forest-dwelling duiker found only in a few scattered enclaves in Tanzania. It may be a subspecies of the yellow-backed duiker. It is very rare, and the first photograph of an Abbott's duiker in the wild was taken as recently as 2003.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Blue duiker</span> Species of mammal

The blue duiker is a small antelope found in central, southern and eastern Africa. It is the smallest species of duiker. The species was first described by Swedish naturalist Carl Peter Thunberg in 1789. 12 subspecies are identified. The blue duiker reaches 32–41 centimetres (13–16 in) at the shoulder and weighs 3.5–9 kilograms (7.7–19.8 lb). Sexually dimorphic, the females are slightly larger than the males. The dark tail measures slightly above 10 centimetres (3.9 in). It has short, spiky horns, around 5 centimetres (2.0 in) long and hidden in hair tufts. The subspecies show a great degree of variation in their colouration. The blue duiker bears a significant resemblance to Maxwell's duiker.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harvey's duiker</span> Species of mammal

The Harvey's red duiker is one of 19 species of duiker found in Tanzania and scattered through Kenya, southern Somalia and possibly central Ethiopia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Common duiker</span> Species of mammal

The common duiker, also known as the gray duiker or bush duiker, is a small antelope and the only member of the genus Sylvicapra. This species is found everywhere in Africa south of the Sahara, excluding the Horn of Africa and the rainforests of the central and western parts of the continent. Generally, they are found in habitats with sufficient vegetation cover to allow them to hide—savannah and hilly areas, including the fringes of human settlements.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black-fronted duiker</span> Species of mammal

The black-fronted duiker is a small antelope found in central and west-central Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red-flanked duiker</span> Species of mammal

The red-flanked duiker is a species of small antelope found in western and central Africa in countries as far apart as Senegal and Sudan. Red-flanked duikers grow to almost 15 in (38 cm) in height and weigh up to 31 lb (14 kg). They have russet coats, with greyish-black legs and backs, and white underbellies. They feed on leaves, fallen fruits, seeds and flowers, and sometimes twigs and shoots. The adults are territorial, living in savannah and lightly wooded habitats, and the females usually produce a single offspring each year. They have lifespans of ten to fifteen years in captivity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zebra duiker</span> Species of mammal

The zebra duiker is a small antelope found primarily in Liberia, as well as the Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and occasionally Guinea. They are sometimes referred to as the banded duiker or striped-back duiker. It is believed to be one of the earliest duiker species to have evolved.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red forest duiker</span> Species of mammal

The red forest duiker, Natal duiker, or Natal red duiker is a small antelope found in central to southern Africa. It is one of 22 extant species form the subfamily Cephalophinae. While the red forest duiker is very similar to the common duiker, it is smaller in size and has a distinguishing reddish coloring. Additionally, the red forest duiker favors a denser bush habitat than the common duiker. The Natal red duiker is more diurnal and less secretive than most forest duikers, so therefore it is easier for them to be observed. In 1999, red forest duikers had an estimated wild population of 42,000 individuals.

<i>Cephalophus</i> Genus of mammals

Cephalophus is a mammal genus which contains at least fifteen species of duiker, a type of small antelope.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crested guineafowl</span> Species of bird

The crested guineafowl are a group of three species and members of the Numididae, the guineafowl bird family. They are found in open forest, woodland and forest-savanna mosaics in sub-Saharan Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coastal forests of eastern Africa</span> Tropical moist forest region in Africa

The Coastal forests of eastern Africa, also known as the East African Coastal Forests or Zanzibar–Inhambane forests, is a tropical moist forest region along the east coast of Africa. The region was designated a biodiversity hotspot by Conservation International.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sokoke scops owl</span> Species of owl

The Sokoke scops owl is a highly localized species of scops owl found in lowland forests of Kenya and Tanzania. The greatest population of this species of owl is in the Cynometra-Manilkara forest, which is less than one-third of the Sokoke Forest. It is also found in the Afzelia-Cynometra forest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pale batis</span> Species of bird

The pale batis, also known as the Mozambique batis or East coast batis is a species of small bird in the wattle-eyes family, Platysteiridae. It occurs in eastern Africa, mostly in lowland miombo woodland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zanj sun squirrel</span> Species of rodent

The Zanj sun squirrel is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae found in eastern Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park</span> National park in Tanzania

The Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park is a 50 km2 (19 sq mi) national park in Tanzania located on the island of Zanzibar. It is the only national park in Zanzibar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wildlife of Zanzibar</span>

The wildlife of Zanzibar consists of terrestrial and marine flora and fauna in the archipelago of Zanzibar, an autonomous region of Tanzania. Its floral vegetation is categorized among the coastal forests of eastern Africa as the Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic and the Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic. Its faunal species are mostly small animals, birds, and butterflies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern Zanzibar–Inhambane coastal forest mosaic</span> Tropical forest ecoregion of East Africa

Northern Zanzibar–Inhambane coastal forest mosaic, also known as the Northern Swahili coastal forests and woodlands, is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of coastal East Africa. The ecoregion includes a variety of habitats, including forest, savanna and swamps.


  1. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Archived 17 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved Aug 2020
  2. (Swai 1983; Imani pers. comm. to Williams 1998)
  3. "Aders' duiker at ARKive". Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  4. "Tip of the Week: Encyclopedia of Life". SciVee. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2023.