Enrique Hector Scalabroni (born 20 October 1949 in Alta Gracia, Córdoba, Argentina) is an Argentinian race car designer, technical director, and team racing boss. He was employed by Dallara, Williams, Ferrari, Lotus and Peugeot Sport between 1985 and 2002, before setting up his own F3000 and GP2 team in 2003, BCN Competicion, which lasted till the end of 2008.[ citation needed ]
Alta Gracia is a city located in the north-centre of the province of Córdoba, Argentina. Its name means "High Grace". It is built upon the Sierras Chicas, in a region that the Comechingón Indians used to call Paravachasca. It has about 43,000 inhabitants.
Córdoba is a province of Argentina, located in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are : Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, La Rioja and Catamarca. Together with Santa Fe and Entre Ríos, the province is part of the economic and political association known as the Center Region.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
Scalabroni was born in Cordoba and studied mechanical engineering at the National Technological University in Buenos Aires before being recruited by the Formula Renault Fama team in 1975. He later worked for the Osvaldo Antelo Renault F2 and Miguel Herceg's Ford Turismo Carretera factory-backed teams. In Argentina he designed and built his own Formula Renault and national F2 single seater cars.
Córdoba is a sprawling city in the geographic center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about 700 km (435 mi) northwest of the Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census. It was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, who named it after Córdoba, Spain. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region that is now Argentina. The National University of Córdoba is the oldest university of the country and the seventh to be inaugurated in Spanish America. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order. Because of this, Córdoba earned the nickname La Docta.
The National Technological University, Buenos Aires, also called UTN-FRBA or UTN.BA, is the Buenos Aires-based regional faculty of the National Technological University.
Formula Renault is two classes of formula racing popular in Europe and elsewhere. Regarded as an entry-level series to motor racing, it was first founded in 1971, and is a respected series where drivers can learn advanced racecraft before moving on to higher formulas.
Scalabroni arrived in Europe in 1982 from Argentina at the age of 32. He evolved to become one of the principal designers at Williams, chief designer at Ferrari and Lotus, and the Technical Director with the Asiatech F1 engine manufacturing company.
Asiatech was the trade name of Asia Motor Technologies France, a company founded in 2000 by Japanese private capital under the leadership of Dr. John Gano and Enrique Scalabroni, which purchased the assets of the Peugeot Formula One programme at the end of the 2000 season. Its mandate was to acquire top-level European engine technology for Asia and to create an Asian-themed F1 team. It increased staffing from 170 to 221 employees, supplied its engines in development for testing at no cost to minor teams in 2001 and 2002, and had designed and presented the wind-tunnel model of its original F1 chassis when its Japanese private funding failed in 2002. Asiatech returned the staff and facilities it had acquired back to Peugeot and wound down at the end of the 2002 season.
Scalabroni moved to Italy in 1982, finding a job with the Dallara Automobili group. There he designed the first company wind tunnel and one of the pioneer carbon monocoque chassis for small single seaters: a trend setting Formula 3 car with rearward sloping sidepods, for the 1983 season.
Monocoque, also structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell" or "single hull". First used in boats, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load-carrying internal frame.
In 1985, Williams F1 recruited Scalabroni as a designer. At Williams, Scalabroni contributed a substantial part of the six speed sequential gearbox design that Williams pioneered for F1 racing. As design leader, and under the direction of Patrick Head, he was a key member of the team that developed the FW11 and FW11B Honda-powered cars that won the F1 World Constructors Championships in 1986 and 1987.[ citation needed ]
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.
Sir Patrick Head is co-founder and former Engineering Director of the Williams Formula One team. For 27 years from 1977 Head was technical director at Williams Grand Prix Engineering, and responsible for many innovations within Formula One. Head oversaw the design and construction of Williams cars until May 2004 when his role was handed over to Sam Michael.
The Williams FW11 was a Formula One car designed by Frank Dernie as a serious challenger to McLaren and their MP4/2 car. The car took over from where the FW10 left off at the end of 1985, when that car won the last three races of the season. The FW11's most notable feature was the Honda 1.5 Litre V6 turbo engine, one of the most powerful in F1 at the time producing 800 bhp at 12,000rpm and well over 1,200 bhp at 12,000 rpm in qualifying. Added to the engine's power were the aerodynamics, which were ahead of the MP4/2 and the Lotus 97T. That and its excellent driving pairing of Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell made it a force to be reckoned with. The car was an instantly recognisable product of the turbo era of F1.
After John Barnard's tenure at Ferrari (1987–1989), Scalabroni joined the team as chassis and aerodynamics Chief Designer in September 1989. There he developed Barnard's Ferrari 640 carbon chassis. The Scalabroni-deisgned 641 and 641/2 Ferraris were designed in collaboration with Steve Nichols and won six races in 1990 with Alain Prost and Nigel Mansell. Ferrari took second place in the Constructors Championship.
John Barnard is a race car designer and is working with Terence Woodgate designing high specification carbon fibre furniture. Barnard is credited with the introduction of two new designs into Formula 1: the carbon fibre composite chassis first seen in 1981 with McLaren, and the semi-automatic gearbox which he introduced with Ferrari in 1989.
The Ferrari 640 was the Formula One racing car with which the Ferrari team competed in the 1989 Formula One World Championship. It was driven by Britain's Nigel Mansell, in his first season with the team, and Austria's Gerhard Berger.
The Ferrari 641 was the Formula One racing car with which the Ferrari team competed in the 1990 Formula One World Championship.
In 1991 Scalabroni was recruited by Lotus F1 Team, where he produced the Lotus 102B for drivers Johnny Herbert, Mika Häkkinen and Julian Bailey. Before leaving the Hethel team, Scalabroni left one audacious project: an F1 car with the four wheels set up as a cross or rhomboid, two at the sides, protruding from the middle section and one each at the front and rear. Lack of financing ended this project.
At the same time, the South American engineer was consultant for the De Tomaso Guarà, in charge of chassis and suspension design. In this role with the De Tomaso company Scalabroni also worked on the development of the Biguá, subsequently known as Qvale Mangusta, after the De Tomaso family sold the firm's assets to new American investors.
In 1992, Scalabroni went to Peugeot Sport, then concentrating on the World Sportscar Championship and the Le Mans 24 Hours.
There, Scalabroni assisted in the development of the Peugeot 905, working with André de Cortanze, and was in charge of the 1992 Le Mans-winning car of Derek Warwick, Yannick Dalmas and Mark Blundell. At the same time, Jean Todt, then team director, entrusted Scalabroni with the “avant projet” of the Peugeot Formula 1 car.
When the PSA top executives denied Todt the resources necessary for an F1 team, the mercurial racing boss left for Ferrari and, soon afterwards, Scalabroni was on his way to a company owned by Takeo Ikuzawa. Ikuzawa wanted to establish his own F1 team and during two years Scalabroni and a small team of engineers designed and aerodynamically tested the scale models of the future car.
That project was stopped, but Scalabroni remained with Ikuzawa till 1998 designing different systems for the Japanese automotive and motorcycle industry, claiming several patents in the process. Williams re-hired him in 1998 and the team's BTCC Renault Lagunas used efficient aerodynamic and mechanical solutions from Scalabroni.
When his consultancy agreement with Williams ended, Scalabroni started, late in 1999, what was to be the Asiatech engine Formula 1 project.
Scalabroni agreed a deal with Peugeot to purchase the assets of Peugeot's F1 engine program, renamed “Asiatech F1”, and kept the factory and personnel. While Asiatech gave its engines to Arrows in 2001, Scalabroni started a technical office to design an F1 chassis in the former Williams BTCC premises at Didcot, England, financed by the same group of companies which owned Asiatech, and headed by Hideo Morita, the heir of the Sony Corporation founder. In 2002 Asiatech was Minardi's engine supplier but, unable to find proper financing and customers, the company closed its door at the end of the year.
In 2003, Scalabroni established his own team, BCN Competición, based in Granollers, Barcelona, Spain, associated to his Spanish friend Jaume Pintanel. With Scalabroni at the helm, BCN Competición competed in Formula Nissan Lights in 2002, then in a Formula 3000 with which Enrico Toccacelo gave the team a victory and second position in the 2003 championship. Scalabroni got one of the GP2 licenses in 2004 and remained in that series till the end of 2008. At the end of the 2008 season, Scalabroni sold the GP2 license and cars to a group of companies represented by Portuguese driver Tiago Monteiro, who set up the new Ocean Racing Technology team. When the deal was clinched, Scalabroni concentrated on other new projects.
Renault is currently involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault F1 Team. They have been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977. In 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams. Although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986, then again from 1989 to 1997 and at various other times since then until the present.
Formula One automobile racing has its roots in the European Grand Prix championships of the 1920s and 1930s, though the foundation of the modern Formula One began in 1946 with the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's (FIA) standardisation of rules, which was followed by a World Championship of Drivers in 1950.
Dallara Automobili is an Italian chassis manufacturer for various motor racing series, being most notable for its near-monopoly in Formula Three since 1993. Dallara also produces the chassis used by the IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, FIA Formula 2 Championship, World Series by Renault, GP3 Series, Super Formula, Formula E and ADAC Formel Masters and is one of the manufacturers in the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. In recent years their engineering activities have expanded considerably, both in terms of the racing cars and high performance road cars.
Kauhsen was a Formula One constructor from Germany, founded by former sportscar driver Willi Kauhsen. The team started in Formula Two in 1976, purchasing Renault cars, and raced with an assortment of drivers with limited success. Kauhsen then entered the 1979 Formula One season, spending 1978 designing their own chassis with Cosworth engines. They participated in two World Championship Grands Prix with Gianfranco Brancatelli, failing to qualify on both occasions, before the team was shut down.
The GP2 Series was a form of open wheel motor racing introduced in 2005 following the discontinuation of the long-term Formula One feeder series, Formula 3000. The GP2 format was conceived by Bernie Ecclestone and Flavio Briatore, while Ecclestone also has the rights to the name GP1. In 2010, the GP3 Series class was launched, as a feeder class for the GP2 series. In 2017, the series was rebranded as the FIA Formula 2 Championship.
Mecachrome SAS is a precision engineering company involved in aviation, the automotive industry, motor racing and industrial engineering, but is most famous for assembling the engines designed by Renault for the Renault Formula One team.
Formula racing is any of several forms of open-wheeled single-seater motorsport road racing. The origin of the term lies in the nomenclature that was adopted by the FIA for all of its post-World War II single-seater regulations, or formulae. The best known of these formulae are Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Three and Formula Four. Common usage of "formula racing" encompasses other single-seater series, including the GP2 Series, which replaced Formula 3000.
The 2005 GP2 Series season started in Imola, Italy on 23 April, and ended in Manama, Bahrain on 30 September. The season was won by the German Nico Rosberg, with the Finn Heikki Kovalainen finishing second.
Honda is currently involved in Formula One as an engine manufacturer, supplying the Red Bull Racing and Toro Rosso teams. They have participated in Formula One, as an entrant, constructor and engine supplier, for various periods since 1964. Honda's involvement in Formula One began with the 1964 season; their withdrawal in 1968 was precipitated by the death of Honda driver Jo Schlesser during the 1968 French Grand Prix. They returned in 1983 as an engine supplier, a role that ended in 1992. They returned again in 2000, providing engines for British American Racing (BAR). By the end of 2005 they had bought out the BAR team, based at Brackley, United Kingdom, and renamed their new subsidiary Honda Racing.
The 2006 GP2 Series season began at Cheste, Spain on 8 April 2006 and ended in Monza, Italy on 10 September 2006. The season was won by Briton Lewis Hamilton, with Brazilian Nelson Angelo Piquet finishing second.
The Qvale Mangusta is a sports car produced in limited numbers by the Italian automaker Qvale between 1999 and 2002. During development and very early production, it was developed from the De Tomaso Biguá concept car shown to the general public at the 1996 Geneva Motor Show. When the car started production, it was renamed De Tomaso Mangusta before De Tomaso became disassociated from the project and all subsequent cars received Qvale badging.
Since its inception in 1947, Formula One has used a variety of engine regulations. "Formulae" limiting engine capacity had been used in Grand Prix racing on a regular basis since after World War I. The engine formulae are divided according to era.
Formula One sponsorship liveries have been used since the late 1960s, replacing the previously used national colours. With sponsors becoming more important with the rising costs in Formula One, many teams wanted to be able to display the logos of their sponsors as clearly as possible.
The Honda RA099 was a prototype Formula One racecar, commissioned by Honda, designed by ex-Ferrari and Tyrrell designer Harvey Postlethwaite and built by Dallara in 1999. Its purpose was similar to the one surrounding the Toyota TF101 of 2001, in that it was supposed to be a working test car used in preparation for a full-scale assault on Grand Prix racing in the following years.
The Ferrari F1/86 was a Formula One car created by Scuderia Ferrari for use in the 1986 Formula One season. It was designed by Harvey Postlethwaite who had designed its predecessor, the 156/85. The car was very uncompetitive, despite the engine being regarded as one of the strongest on the grid. It was replaced by the Ferrari F1/87 for the 1987 season.
Gian Paolo Dallara is an Italian businessman and motorsports engineer. He is the owner of Dallara Motorsports, a company that develops racing cars.
Peugeot Sport is the department of French carmaker Peugeot responsible for motorsport activities.
Colotti Trasmissioni is an Italian mechanical engineering firm located in Modena, Italy. It specializes in gears, limited-slip differentials and transmission systems for racing cars.