Expo 2015

Last updated

2015 Milan
Expo 2015 Logo.svg
Logo
Overview
BIE-classUniversal exposition
CategoryInternational Registered Exhibition
NameExpo Milano 2015
MottoFeeding the Planet, Energy for Life
Area200 hectares (490 acres)
Visitors22,200,000
Participant(s)
Countries145
Organizations17
Business21
Location
CountryItaly
City Milan
VenueMilan-Rho
Coordinates 45°31′7″N9°6′24″E / 45.51861°N 9.10667°E / 45.51861; 9.10667 Coordinates: 45°31′7″N9°6′24″E / 45.51861°N 9.10667°E / 45.51861; 9.10667
Timeline
AwardedMarch 31, 2008 (2008-03-31)
OpeningMay 1, 2015 (2015-05-01)
ClosureOctober 31, 2015 (2015-10-31)
Universal expositions
Previous Expo 2010 in Shanghai
Next Expo 2020 in Dubai
Specialized expositions
Previous Expo 2012 in Yeosu
Next Expo 2017 in Astana
Horticultural expositions
Previous Floriade 2012 in Venlo
Next Expo 2016 in Antalya
Internet
Website expo2015.org

Expo 2015 was a universal exposition hosted by Milan, Italy. It opened on May 1 at 10:00 CEST and closed on October 31. [1] [2] Milan hosted an exposition for the second time; the first was the 1906 Milan International.

Worlds fair Large international exhibition

A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world. The most recent international exhibition, Expo 2017, was held in Astana, Kazakhstan. Dubai, United Arab Emirates has been selected to host WORLD EXPO 2020. Buenos Aires, Argentina has been selected to host World Expo 2023. Osaka, Japan has been selected to host World Expo 2025.

Milan Italian city

Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,395,274 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres. The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age.

Central European Summer Time daylight savings time in the central european time zone

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Contents

The Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) general assembly in Paris decided in favour of Milan on March 31, 2008. [3] On November 23, 2010, the event was announced by the BIE. [4] Expo 2015's theme was "Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life". [5] [6] [7]

Bureau International des Expositions Organization to supervise international exhibitions

The Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) is an intergovernmental organization created to supervise international exhibitions falling under the jurisdiction of the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Themes

Expo 2015's theme was "Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life", encompassing technology, innovation, culture, traditions and creativity and how they relate to food and diet. The exposition developed themes introduced in earlier expos (such as water at Expo 2008 in Zaragoza) in light of new global scenarios and emerging issues, focusing on the right to healthy, secure and sufficient food for the world's inhabitants. Futuristic concerns about food security are compounded by forecasts of increasing uncertainty about the quantity of food which will be available globally. The exposition had seven sub-themes: [8]

Innovation in its modern meaning is a "new idea, creative thoughts, new imaginations in form of device or method". Innovation is often also viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. Such innovation takes place through the provision of more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are made available to markets, governments and society. An innovation is something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society. Innovation is related to, but not the same as, invention, as innovation is more apt to involve the practical implementation of an invention to make a meaningful impact in the market or society, and not all innovations require an invention. Innovation often manifests itself via the engineering process, when the problem being solved is of a technical or scientific nature. The opposite of innovation is exnovation.

Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible or a physical object.

Expo 2008 international exposition in Zaragoza

Expo 2008 was an international exposition held from Saturday, 14 June to Sunday, 14 September 2008 in Zaragoza, Spain, with the theme of "Water and Sustainable Development". The exposition was placed in a meander of the river Ebro. It was coordinated by the Bureau International des Expositions, the organization responsible for sanctioning World's Fairs.

Site

Albero della vita (Tree of Life) Albero della vita, spettacolo notturno delle Expo 2015.jpg
Albero della vita (Tree of Life)

The Expo 2015 site is about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northwest of Milan, in the municipalities of Rho and Pero, and covers an area of 1.1 km2 (0.42 sq mi). It is adjacent to the Fiera Milano fairgrounds, designed by Massimiliano Fuksas, which may be considered the cornerstone of the area's urban redevelopment. It had long been an industrial zone before its conversion to logistical and municipal services and agriculture. The fairgrounds and the Expo site were connected by a pedestrian bridge adjacent to the Rho-Pero high-speed rail station. Originally-planned bicycle paths were never constructed, and several motorways were built (or expanded) to allow access to the site.

Rho, Lombardy Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Rho is a town and comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Milan in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 14 kilometres northwest of Milan.

Pero, Lombardy Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Pero is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 9 kilometres (6 mi) northwest of Milan. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 10,378 and an area of 5.0 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi).

Fiera Milano Trade fair and exhibition organiser headquartered in Milan, Italy

Fiera Milano SpA is a trade fair and exhibition organiser headquartered in Milan, Italy. It is the most important trade fair organiser in Italy and one of the largest in the world.

The area is oblong in shape with an overall length of nearly 3 km (1.9 mi), suggesting a boulevard along which the pavilions would be located. The design of pools and waterways in and around the Expo area was an element of primary importance.

Initial plan

Expo 2015 bid logo Expo2015Milan.jpg
Expo 2015 bid logo

The initial plan had the following elements:

A 100-hectare (250-acre) service area was planned near the main Expo site with hotels, parking facilities, stores, a convention centre, green areas, a business centre available to Expo participants and a 12-hectare (30-acre) Expo Village to house staff, volunteers and security and administrative personnel.

An Expo Village is an accommodation center built for the Universal Exposition organized by BIE in the host city. Expo Villages are built to house all participating delegates, as well as officials. Expo Villages are similar to Olympic Villages.

The following thematic pavilions were also planned:

Concept

Expo 2015 logo in Corso Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan EXPO 2015 - Duomo di Milano - Milan, Italy.JPG
Expo 2015 logo in Corso Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan

Expo 2015's concept was presented on September 8, 2009. It was designed by a committee of four architects: Stefano Boeri, Richard Burdett, Mark Rylander and Jacques Herzog.

The main idea was to trace two avenues (a main and a secondary avenue), representing the ancient Roman layout of a cardo and a decumanus . The initial idea of a "classical" site composed of avenues and pavilions was replaced by the idea of a "light" Expo composed of exhibition areas arranged across the main boulevard. The exhibition areas, identical for each country, recreated the typical food cycle of each nation from production to consumption. The centre of the avenue was occupied by a table in front of the country pavilions extending the length of the site, where visitors could sample foods produced in each country's pavilion. The area would be covered by large, tent-like structures to convey the idea of a global marketplace.

A second idea was to build large greenhouses on the site to reproduce the earth's principal biomes. These would be thematic pavilions for the cultivation and production of basic foodstuffs used in the individual country pavilions. Each country would have a dedicated greenhouse in its exhibition area. In this version of the site, water remained an important element but was shifted toward the exterior as a large, navigable canal surrounding the site. A large lake was also included in the design. Additional elements included a large, excavated amphitheatre and a hill, one at each end of the boulevard; expo village facilities across the encircling canal from the site, and redevelopment of the post-office building as a centre for sustainable development.

Master plan

Expo gate in Piazza Castello EXPO 2015 - Milano - Piazza Castello, Expo Gate.JPG
Expo gate in Piazza Castello

The master plan for Expo 2015, coordinated by Stefano Boeri, was delivered to the BIE during its April 30, 2010 registration ceremony in Paris. Changes included:

Participants

Expo participants included 145 countries, three international organizations and several civil society organizations, corporations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). [9] Participants were hosted in individual or grouped pavilions.

Countries

Expo passport Expo 2015 Milano Passport.jpg
Expo passport

Each participating country was hosted in a self-constructed pavilion and included on the Expo website. [10] Some countries, such as Belarus, [11] Belgium, [12] Israel [13] and Germany, [14] created external websites. As part of a reciprocity protocol with Expo 2010 in Shanghai, on December 8, 2008, China was the first country to formalise its participation in Expo 2015. The first country outside the reciprocity protocol to confirm its participation was Switzerland, on February 3, 2011. [15] As in other years, during the Expo visitors could purchase a passport which could be stamped.

Two major countries which did NOT participate were Australia and Canada, who withdrew despite participating in the previous Expo in Shanghai, citing budgetary restrictions. [16]

The following countries participated: [17]

Agreements

An Etihad Airbus A330 aircraft, A6-EYH, in Expo 2015 and Alitalia livery Etihad Airways Airbus A330-200 landing at Perth Airport.jpg
An Etihad Airbus A330 aircraft, A6-EYH, in Expo 2015 and Alitalia livery

In preparation for Expo 2015, the City of Milan signed coordination agreements with other cities in Italy and Europe focusing on tourism, culture and infrastructure. Agreements were also been signed with other countries for the development of projects associated with food and education.

Partners

Controversy

Protest in Milan on the exposition's first day 2015-05-01 NO EXPO (16713643533).jpg
Protest in Milan on the exposition's first day

Expo 2015's opening on May 1 was met with protests by a black bloc of anti-austerity activists, with police using tear gas. [128] Although Vatican City invested €3 million in its pavilion before Pope Francis' election, he said that it was good for the church to be involved in causes which fight hunger and promote clean energy but too much money was wasted on the Expo by the Vatican. [129]

Italian analysts like Daniela Danna have analysed the massive cost overruns for the project, the inflated prices paid for the land (with conflict of interest, the sellers and buyers sometimes being the same), poor worker contracts, the presence of large multinationals, the pouring of huge amounts of cement on the site, pushing through three new road projects that had previously been blocked (one outer bypass, the TEEM A58 cost €1.7 billion or US$2bn for 30 km, [130] [ circular reference ] dubbed the most expensive highway in Europe), an abortive scenic canal network that was left incomplete, and the failure to find a buyer for the site after the event. [131] She says protest in Milan and across Italy was inevitable, because "organizing circuses is politically risky when bread is hard to come by".

Food

Several unusual (or unique) food choices were offered during the exposition, some normally not permitted in Italy. At Zimbabwe's pavilion, visitors could try burgers made from crocodile, zebra or python (named "crocoburger", "zebraburger" and "savanaburger" by their creator, consul Georges El Badaoui). The pavilion's food was some of the expo's most innovative and extravagant. [132] [133] [134] At the Japanese pavilion during the expo, European regulations were relaxed and it was possible to taste sashimi from pufferfish (fugu). [135] In the Future Food District were packs of canned insects, common in Southeast Asia but prohibited in the European Union. Italian chef Massimo Bottura and international colleagues created the Refettorio Ambrosiano, a gourmet soup kitchen using waste food from the fair. [136]

Sport

World Cup Expo, a football tournament of mixed teams composed of workers from individual pavilions (or clusters), was held during the event. [137]

Pavilions

See also

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