|Three Arch National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness|
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
|Location||Tillamook County, Oregon, United States|
|Nearest city||Oceanside, Oregon|
|Area||15.00 acres (6.07 ha)|
|Established||October 14, 1907|
|Governing body||U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service|
|Website||Three Arch Rocks NWR|
Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge is a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge off the northern Oregon Coast. It is located on the central coast of Tillamook County, in the northwestern part of Oregon. It is one of six National Wildlife Refuges within the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex and was the first National Wildlife Refuge west of the Mississippi River. In 1970 the Refuge was designated as wilderness. It is one of the smallest wilderness areas in the United States.
Three Arch Rocks consists of 15 acres (6 ha) on three large and six small rocky islands located about a half mile (1 km) offshore from Oceanside. It is one of the smallest designated wilderness areas in the U.S., but features the largest colony of breeding tufted puffins and the largest common murre colony south of Alaska. It is the only northern Oregon pupping site for the threatened Steller sea lion.
The refuge was established by President Theodore Roosevelt after being persuaded by two young conservationists — William L. Finley and Herman Bohlman — who studied and photographed Three Arch Rocks from Oceanside beginning in 1901. They recorded hunters killing dozens of sea lions at a time for skin and oil, and sportsmen shooting seabirds purely for sport. Due to a scarcity of regional chicken farms at the time, seabird eggs were priced at up to a dollar per dozen, encouraging egg harvesting and reducing the bird colony population. Finley and Bohlman suggested a wildlife refuge to Roosevelt to protect dwindling populations and ensure survival of seabird and marine mammal populations. Roosevelt declared the Three Rocks area a National Wildlife Refuge in 1907.In 1970 the United States Congress designated the Refuge wilderness. In 1994, there was a sighting of a group of 2 or 3 North Pacific right whales, the most rare and endangered of all large whales at the Rocks.
The Three Arch Rocks Refuge has provided protection for Oregon's largest seabird nesting colony of more than 230,000 birds since October 14, 1907.The entire Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex protect over a million nesting seabirds, including common murres, tufted puffins, cormorants, and storm-petrels.
The islands are closed to public access. Boats must remain at least 500 ft (150 m) away during summer months, and aircraft must maintain at least 2,000 ft (600 m) clearance. The area is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
The Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge comprising 2,400 islands, headlands, rocks, islets, spires and reefs in Alaska, with a total area of 4.9 million acres (20,000 km2), of which 2.64 million acres (10,700 km2) is wilderness. The refuge stretches from Cape Lisburne on the Chukchi Sea to the tip of the Aleutian Islands in the west and Forrester Island in the southern Alaska Panhandle region in the east. The refuge has diverse landforms and terrains, including tundra, rainforest, cliffs, volcanoes, beaches, lakes, and streams.
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The Passage Key National Wildlife Refuge is part of the United States National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) System, located offshore from St. Petersburg. The 64-acre (0.26 km2) refuge was established in 1905 by President Theodore Roosevelt to preserve nesting colonies of native seabirds and wading birds. The Passage Key Wilderness Area is part of the refuge, and consists of 36.37 acres (0.1472 km2) of its total area. It was established in 1970, to protect native birds and serve as a breeding ground for them.
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Cape Meares National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the Oregon Coast. It is one of six National Wildlife Refuges in the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Located on Cape Meares, the refuge was established in 1938 to protect a remnant of coastal old-growth forest and the surrounding habitat used by breeding seabirds. The area provides a home for a threatened bird species, the marbled murrelets. Peregrine falcons, once at the brink of extinction, have nested here since 1987. The refuge, with the exception of the Oregon Coast Trail, was designated a Research Natural Area in 1987.
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Oceanside Beach State Recreation Site is a state park in the U.S. state of Oregon. Administered by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department, the park is open to the public and is fee-free. Amenities at the site, in the unincorporated community of Oceanside, include picnicking, wildlife watching, fishing, windsurfing, and kite flying. Beachcombing is popular in summer, and agate hunting is best in winter, when ocean currents remove sand. Oceanside is about 11 miles (18 km) west of Tillamook off U.S. Route 101.
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Protection Island National Wildlife Refuge is located near the mouth of Discovery Bay in the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Jefferson County, Washington. Approximately 70 percent of the nesting seabird population of Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca nest on the island, which includes one of the largest nesting colonies of rhinoceros auklets in the world and the largest nesting colony of glaucous-winged gulls in Washington. The island contains one of the last two nesting colonies of tufted puffins in the Puget Sound area. About 1,000 harbor seals depend upon the island for a pupping and rest area.
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The Wisconsin Islands Wilderness is a 29-acre (12 ha) wilderness area located in Door County in northeastern Wisconsin. It is one of the smallest wilderness areas in the United States. Managed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, the wilderness area is composed of three islands in Lake Michigan.
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