|A version of the Android operating system|
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean running on a Nexus 4
| Released to |
|July 13, 2012|
|Latest release||4.3.1 (JLS36I) / October 7, 2013|
|Kernel type||Monolithic Kernel (Linux Kernel)|
|Preceded by||Android 4.0.4 "Ice Cream Sandwich"|
|Succeeded by||Android 4.4 "KitKat"|
|Official website|| www|
Android Jelly Bean is the codename given to the tenth version of the Android mobile operating system developed by Google, spanning three major point releases (versions 4.1 through 4.3.1). Among the devices that run Android 4.3 are the Asus Nexus 7 (2013) and the LG Nexus 4.
The first of these three releases, 4.1, was unveiled at Google's I/O developer conference in June 2012. It focused on performance improvements designed to give the operating system a smoother and more responsive feel, improvements to the notification system allowing for expandable notifications with action buttons, and other internal changes. Two more releases were made under the Jelly Bean name in October 2012 and July 2013 respectively, including 4.2—which included further optimizations, multi-user support for tablets, lock screen widgets, quick settings, and screen savers, and 4.3—which contained further improvements and updates to the underlying Android platform.
Jelly Bean versions are still supported by Google Play Services. As of September 2020 [update] , 0.46% of Android devices run Jelly Bean.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was first unveiled at the Google I/O developer conference on June 27, 2012, with a focus on "delightful" improvements to the platform's user interface, along with improvements to Google's search experience on the platform (such as Knowledge Graph integration, and the then-new digital assistant Google Now), the unveiling of the Asus-produced Nexus 7 tablet, and the unveiling of the Nexus Q media player.
For Jelly Bean, work was made on optimizing the operating system's visual performance and responsiveness through a series of changes referred to as "Project Butter": graphical output is now triple buffered, vsync is used across all drawing operations, and the CPU is brought to full power when touch input is detected—preventing the lag associated with inputs made while the processor is in a low-power state. These changes allow the operating system to run at a full 60 frames per second on capable hardware.
Following 4.1, two more Android releases were made under the Jelly Bean codename; both of these releases focused primarily on performance improvements and changes to the Android platform itself, and contained relatively few user-facing changes. Alongside Android 4.1, Google also began to decouple APIs for its services on Android into a new system-level component known as Google Play Services, serviced through Google Play Store. This allows the addition of certain forms of functionality without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself, addressing the infamous "fragmentation" problems experienced by the Android ecosystem.
Attendees of the Google I/O conference were given Nexus 7 tablets pre-loaded with Android 4.1, and Galaxy Nexus smartphones which could be upgraded to 4.1. Google announced an intent to release 4.1 updates for existing Nexus devices and the Motorola Xoom tablet by mid-July. The Android 4.1 upgrade was released to the general public for GSM Galaxy Nexus models on July 10, 2012. In late 2012, following the official release of Jelly Bean, a number of third-party Android OEMs began to prepare and distribute updates to 4.1 for their existing smartphones and tablets, including devices from Acer, HTC, LG, Motorola, Samsung, Sony, and Toshiba. In August 2012, nightly builds of the aftermarket firmware CyanogenMod based on 4.1 (branded as CyanogenMod 10) began to be released for selected devices, including some Nexus devices (the Nexus S and Galaxy Nexus), the Samsung Galaxy S, Galaxy S II, Galaxy Tab 2 7.0, Motorola Xoom, and Asus Transformer.
On October 29, 2012, Google unveiled Android 4.2, dubbed "a sweeter tasting Jelly Bean", alongside its accompanying launch devices, the Nexus 4 and Nexus 10. Firmware updates for the Nexus 7 and Galaxy Nexus were released in November 2012.Android 4.3 was subsequently released on July 24, 2013 via firmware updates to the Galaxy Nexus, 2012 Nexus 7, Nexus 4, and Nexus 10.
Visually, Jelly Bean's interface reflects a refinement of the Holo appearance introduced by Android 4.0.The default home screen of Jelly Bean received new features, such as the ability for other shortcuts and widgets on a home screen page to re-arrange themselves to fit an item being moved or resized. The notification system was also improved with the addition of expandable and actionable notifications; individual notifications can now display additional content or action buttons (such as Call back or Message on a missed call), accessible by dragging open the notification with a two-finger gesture. Notifications can also be disabled individually per app.
Android 4.2 added additional features to the user interface; the lock screen can be swiped to the left to display widget pages, and swiped to the right to go to the camera. A pane of quick settings toggles (a feature often seen in OEM Android skins) was also added to the notification area— accessible by either swiping down with two fingers on phones, swiping down from the top-right edge of the screen on tablets, or pressing a button on the top-right corner of the notifications pane. The previous Browser application was officially deprecated on 4.2 in favor of Google Chrome for Android. 4.2 also adds gesture typing on the keyboard, a redesigned Clock app, and a new screensaver system known as Daydreams. On tablets, Android 4.2 also supports multiple users.
To promote consistency between device classes, Android tablets now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones by default, with centered navigation keys and a status bar across the top. These changes took effect for small tablets (such as the Nexus 7) on 4.1, and for larger tablets on 4.2. Small tablets on Android are optimized primarily for use in a portrait (vertical) orientation, giving apps expanded versions of the layouts used by phones. When used in a "landscape" (horizontal) orientation, apps adjust themselves into the widescreen-oriented layouts seen on larger tablets. On large tablets, navigation buttons were previously placed in the bottom-left of a bar along the bottom of the screen, with the clock and notification area in the bottom-right.
For developers, 4.1 also added new accessibility APIs, expanded language support with bi-directional text support and user-supplied keymaps, support for managing external input devices (such as video game controllers), support for multichannel, USB, and gapless audio, a new media routing API, low-level access to hardware and software audio and video codecs, and DNS-based service discovery and pre-associated service discovery for Wi-Fi. Android Beam can now also be used to initiate Bluetooth file transfers through near-field communication.
Android 4.2 added a rewritten Bluetooth stack, changing from the previous Bluez stack (GPL created by Qualcomm) to a rewritten Broadcom open source stack called BlueDroid.The new stack, initially considered "immature", promised several forward-looking benefits, including improved support for multiple displays, support for Miracast, native right-to-left support, updated developer tools, further accessibility improvements such as zooming gestures, and a number of internal security improvements such as always-on VPN support and app verification. A new NFC stack was added at the same time.
Android 4.3 consisted of further low-level changes, including Bluetooth low energy and AVRCP support, SELinux, OpenGL ES 3.0, new digital rights management (DRM) APIs, the ability for apps to read notifications, a VP8 encoder, and other improvements.
Android 4.3 also included a hidden privacy feature known as "App Ops", which allowed users to individually deny permissions to apps. However, the feature was later removed on Android 4.4.2; a Google spokesperson stated that the feature was experimental and could prevent certain apps from functioning correctly if used in certain ways.The concept was revisited as the basis of a redesigned permissions system for Android 6.0.
Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance and commercially sponsored by Google. It was unveiled in November 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008.
Google I/O is an annual developer conference held by Google in Mountain View, California. "I/O" stands for input/output, as well as the slogan "Innovation in the Open". The event's format is similar to Google Developer Day.
HTC Sense is a software suite developed by HTC, used primarily on the company's Android-based devices. Serving as a successor to HTC's TouchFLO 3D software for Windows Mobile, Sense modifies many aspects of the Android user experience, incorporating additional features, additional widgets, re-designed applications, and additional HTC-developed applications. The first device with Sense, the HTC Hero, was released in 2009. The HD2 running Windows Mobile 6.5, released later the same year, included Sense. Following the release of the Hero, all future Android devices by HTC were shipped with Sense, except for the Nexus One, the T-Mobile G2, the HTC First, the Google Pixel and Pixel 2, and the Nexus 9 which used a stock version of Android. Also some HTC smartphones that are using MediaTek processors come without HTC Sense.
Google Nexus was a line of consumer electronic devices that ran the Android operating system. Google managed the design, development, marketing, and support of these devices, but some development and all manufacturing were carried out by partnering with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The line also included tablets and streaming media players, though neither type of device are currently available. The most recent tablet was the Nexus 9, and the most recent streaming media player the Nexus Player.
The Nexus S 4G is a smartphone co-developed by Google and Samsung and manufactured by Samsung Electronics for release in 2010. It was the first smartphone to use the Android 2.3 "Gingerbread" operating system, and the first Android device to support Near Field Communication (NFC) in both hardware and software.
The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the public release of the Android beta on November 5, 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.
The Galaxy Nexus (GT-I9250) is a touchscreen Android smartphone co-developed by Google and Samsung Electronics. It is the third smartphone in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices built by an original equipment manufacturer partner. The phone is the successor to Google's previous flagship phones, the Nexus One and Nexus S.
Android Ice Cream Sandwich is the fourth major version of the Android mobile operating system developed by Google. Unveiled on October 19, 2011, Android 4.0 builds upon the significant changes made by the tablet-only release Android Honeycomb, in an effort to create a unified platform for both smartphones and tablets.
The first-generation Nexus 7 is a mini tablet computer co-developed by Google and Asus that runs the Android operating system. It is the first tablet in the Google Nexus series of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an original equipment manufacturer partner. The Nexus 7 features a 7.0-inch (180 mm) display, an Nvidia Tegra 3 quad-core chip, 1 GB of memory, Wi-Fi and near field communication connectivity, and 8, 16 or 32 GB of storage. The tablet was the first device to ship with version 4.1 of Android, nicknamed "Jelly Bean". By emphasizing the integration of the Google Play multimedia store with Android 4.1, Google intended to market the Nexus 7 as an entertainment device and a platform for consuming e-books, television shows, films, games, and music.
The Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 7.0 is a 7-inch Android tablet produced and marketed by Samsung Electronics. Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 is an Ice Cream Sandwich sequel. It belongs to the second generation of the Samsung Galaxy Tab series, which also includes a 10.1-inch model, the Galaxy Tab 2 10.1. It was announced on 13 February 2012, and launched in the US on 22 April 2012. It is the successor to the Samsung Galaxy Tab 7.0 Plus.
The Nexus 4 is an Android smartphone co-developed by Google and LG Electronics. It is the fourth smartphone in the Google Nexus product family, unveiled on October 29, 2012, and released on November 13, 2012, and succeeded the Samsung-manufactured Galaxy Nexus. As with other Nexus devices, the Nexus 4 was sold unlocked through Google Play, but was also retailed by wireless carriers.
The Nexus 10 is a tablet computer co-developed by Google and Samsung Electronics that runs the Android operating system. It is the second tablet in the Google Nexus series, a family of Android consumer devices marketed by Google and built by an OEM partner. Following the success of the 7-inch Nexus 7, the first Google Nexus tablet, the Nexus 10 was released with a 10.1-inch, 2560×1600 pixel display, which was the world's highest resolution tablet display at the time of its release. The Nexus 10 was announced on October 29, 2012, and became available on November 13, 2012.
A lock screen is a computer user interface element used by various operating systems. They regulate immediate access to a device by requiring that the user perform a certain action in order to receive access, such as entering a password, using a certain button combination, or performing a certain gesture using a device's touchscreen. There are various authentication methods to get past the lock screen, with the most popular and common ones being personal identification numbers (PINs), the Android pattern lock, and biometrics.
Facebook Home was a user interface layer for Android smartphones. Developed by Facebook, the software was designed to be a drop-in replacement for the device's existing home screen ("launcher"). It provided a replacement home screen that allowed users to easily view and post content on Facebook along with launching apps, a replacement lock screen that displayed notifications from Facebook and other apps, and an overlay which allowed users to chat via Facebook messages or SMS from any app. Facebook Home was unveiled at a press event on April 4, 2013, and was released on April 12, 2013 for a limited selection of devices from HTC and Samsung Electronics—including the HTC First, a new smartphone pre-loaded with the software. Facebook is no longer supporting or providing updates for Facebook home.
The second generation Nexus 7, also commonly referred to as he Nexus 7 (2013), is a mini tablet computer co-developed by Google and Asus that runs the Android operating system. It is the second of three tablets in the Google Nexus tablet series, the Nexus family including both phones and tablets running essentially stock Android which were originally marketed for developer testing but later marketed by Google to consumers as well, all of which were built by various original equipment manufacturer partners. Following the success of the original Nexus 7, this second generation of the device was released on July 26, 2013, four days earlier than the originally scheduled date due to early releases from various retailers. The tablet was the first device to ship with Android 4.3.
Android KitKat is the codename for the eleventh Android mobile operating system, representing release version 4.4. Unveiled on September 3, 2014, KitKat focused primarily on optimizing the operating system for improved performance on entry-level devices with limited resources.
Nexus 5 is an Android smartphone manufactured by LG Electronics for Google. Co-developed with and marketed by Google Inc. as part of its Nexus line of flagship devices and unveiled on October 31, 2013, the Nexus 5 served as the launch device for Android 4.4 "KitKat", which introduced a refreshed interface, performance improvements, increased Google Now integration, better battery life and other features.
AOKP, short for Android Open Kang Project, is an open-source replacement distribution for smartphones and tablet computers based on the Android mobile operating system. The name is a play on the word kang and AOSP. The name was a joke, but it stuck. It was started as free and open-source software by Roman Birg based on the official releases of Android Open Source Project by Google, with added original and third-party code, features, and control.
Android Lollipop is the fifth major version of the Android mobile operating system developed by Google and the 12th version of Android, spanning versions between 5.0 and 5.1.1. Unveiled on June 25, 2014 at the Google I/O 2014 conference, it became available through official over-the-air (OTA) updates on November 12, 2014, for select devices that run distributions of Android serviced by Google. Its source code was made available on November 3, 2014. It is the fifth major update and the twelfth version of Android.
Android Nougat is the seventh major version and 14th original version of the Android operating system. First released as an alpha test version on March 9, 2016, it was officially released on August 22, 2016, with Nexus devices being the first to receive the update. The LG V20 was the first smartphone released with Nougat.