Land Rover

Last updated

Land Rover (marque)
Product typeAutomobiles
Owner Jaguar Land Rover (since 2013) [1]
Produced by Jaguar Land Rover
Introduced1948 [2]
Related brands Jaguar
Previous owners
Land Rover (company)
Industry Automotive
Fate2013 merged with Jaguar Cars to form Jaguar Land Rover
Predecessor British Leyland
Successor Jaguar Land Rover [3]
Founder British Leyland
Defunct31 December 2012 (2012-12-31)

Land Rover is a luxury car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008. [4] The Land Rover is regarded as a British icon, and was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI in 1951. [5] [6]

Multinational corporation large corporation doing business in many countries

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations. A multinational corporation can also be referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE), a transnational enterprise (TNE), a transnational corporation (TNC), an international corporation, or a stateless corporation. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise.

Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC is the holding company of Jaguar Land Rover Limited, a British multinational automotive company with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, United Kingdom, and a subsidiary of Indian automotive company Tata Motors. The principal activity of Jaguar Land Rover Limited is the design, development, manufacture and sale of vehicles bearing the Jaguar and Land Rover marques.

Tata Motors Limited, formerly Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company(TELCO), is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is a part of Tata Group, an Indian conglomerate. Its products include passenger cars, trucks, vans, coaches, buses, sports cars, construction equipment and military vehicles.


The Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for the Land Rover Series, launched in 1948. It developed into a brand encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport, and Range Rover Evoque.

The Rover Company Limited was a British car manufacturing company that operated from its base in Solihull in Warwickshire. Its lasting reputation for quality and performance was such that its first postwar model reviewed by Road & Track in 1952 was pronounced finer than any but a Rolls-Royce. Rover also manufactured the Land-Rover from 1948 onwards, which went on to become its most successful and profitable product — with Land Rover eventually becoming a separate brand in its own right.

Land Rover Defender car model

The Land Rover Defender is a British four-wheel drive off-road vehicle developed in the 1980s from the original Land Rover series which was launched at the Amsterdam Motor Show in April 1948.

Land Rover Discovery series of mid-size SUVs from Land Rover

Land Rover Discovery is a series of mid-size luxury SUVs, produced under the Land Rover marque, from the British manufacturer Land Rover. There have been five generations of the vehicle, the first of which was introduced in 1989, the second called the Series II update in 1998, the third generation, titled Discovery 3, launched in 2004 and was marketed in North America as the Land Rover LR3. The fourth in 2009 was the Discovery 4—Land Rover LR4 for North American markets. The fifth generation Discovery was introduced in 2017, and omits the numeric suffix of the previous two versions.

Land Rovers are currently assembled in England, India, China, and other markets.


Series I Land Rover Series 1 HT.jpg
Series I
Series II 88in Landrover2a.jpg
Series II 88in
Series IIA dashboard Andy's Landrover - Dash (2708153690).jpg
Series IIA dashboard
Land Rover conversion to fight forest fires, Cascina, Italy (August 2016) 2016-08-12 Veicolo per incendi boschivi Cascina.jpg
Land Rover conversion to fight forest fires, Cascina, Italy (August 2016)

The design for the original vehicle was started in 1947 by Maurice Wilks. It was simply called Land Rover (the terms "Series" and "Defender" are retroactive and only introduced in the 1990s). Wilks, chief designer at the Rover Company, on his farm in Newborough, Anglesey, working in conjunction with his brother Spencer who was the managing director of Rover. [7] The design may have been influenced by the Jeep [8] and the prototype, later nicknamed Centre Steer, was built on a Jeep chassis and axles. [9] The early choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint, so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green; all models until recently feature sturdy box section ladder-frame chassis. Early vehicles like the Series I were field-tested at Long Bennington and designed to be field-serviced.

Maurice Wilks British automobile designer

Maurice Fernand Cary Wilks (1904–1963) was an automotive and aeronautical engineer, and by the time of his death in 1963, was the chairman of the Rover Company, a British car manufacturer. He was responsible for the inspiration and concept work that led to the development of the Land Rover off-road utility vehicle.

Newborough, Anglesey village in Anglesey, Wales

Newborough is a village in the south-western corner of the Isle of Anglesey in Wales; it is in the community of Rhosyr, which has a population of 2,169, increasing to 2,226 at the 2011 census.

Spencer Wilks motor car manufacturer

Spencer Bernau Wilks (1891-1971) was a British manager and administrator in the motor manufacturing industry. He served variously in positions including Managing Director, Chairman, and President of the Rover Company from 1929 until the 1960s. Previously he worked for the Hillman Motor Car Company in Coventry. His younger brother Maurice Wilks also worked at Rover as Chief Engineer, Technical Director and Managing Director from 1930.

Land Rover as a company has existed since 1978. Prior to this, it was a product line of the Rover Company which was subsequently absorbed into the Rover-Triumph division of the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BL) following Leyland Motor Corporation’s takeover of Rover in 1967. The ongoing commercial success of the original Land Rover series models, and latterly the Range Rover in the 1970s in the midst of BL's well-documented business troubles prompted the establishment of a separate Land Rover company but still under the BL umbrella, remaining part of the subsequent Rover Group in 1988, under the ownership of British Aerospace after the remains of British Leyland were broken up and privatised.

Rover Group former British car company

The Rover Group plc was the British vehicle manufacturing conglomerate known as "BL plc" until 1986, which had been a state-owned company since 1975. It initially included the Austin Rover Group car business, Land Rover Group, Freight Rover vans and Leyland Trucks. The Rover Group also owned the dormant trademarks from the many companies that had merged into BL and its predecessors such as Triumph, Morris, Wolseley, Riley and Alvis.

British Aerospace Aerospace and defense company

British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer. Its head office was at Warwick House in the Farnborough Aerospace Centre in Farnborough, Hampshire. Formed in 1977, in 1999 it purchased Marconi Electronic Systems, the defence electronics and naval shipbuilding subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc, to form BAE Systems.

In 1994 Rover Group plc, including Land Rover, was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW and Land Rover was sold to Ford Motor Company, becoming part of its Premier Automotive Group.

BMW automotive brand, manufacturer, and conglomerate

BMW AG is a German multinational company which currently produces automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.

Ford Motor Company American automobile manufacturer

Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors. It also has joint-ventures in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Russia. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power.

The Premier Automotive Group (PAG) was an organizational division within the Ford Motor Company formed in 1999 to oversee the business operations of Ford's high-end automotive marques. The PAG was gradually dismantled from 2006 to 2010 with the divestiture of its constituent brands.

Ford era

In 2006 Ford also purchased the Rover brand from BMW for around £6 million. BMW had retained ownership of the brand to protect the integrity of the Land Rover brand, with which 'Rover' might be confused in the US 4x4 market and allowed it to be used under licence by MG Rover until it collapsed in 2005, at which point it was offered to the Ford Motor Company, who by then owned Land Rover. On 11 June 2007, Ford announced that it planned to sell Land Rover along with Jaguar Cars. Private equity firms such as Alchemy Partners of the UK, TPG Capital, Ripplewood Holdings, Cerberus Capital Management and One Equity Partners of the US, Tata Motors of India and a consortium comprising Mahindra & Mahindra of India and Apollo Management all initially expressed interest in purchasing the marques from the Ford Motor Company. [10] [11] On 1 January 2008, Ford formally declared that Tata was the preferred bidder. [12] In 2008, On 26 March 2008, Ford announced that it had agreed to sell its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors, and that it expected to complete the sale by the end of the second quarter of 2008. [13]

Rover (marque) British car marque

Rover is a British automotive marque that was used between 1904 and 2005. It was launched as a bicycle maker called Rover Company in 1878, before manufacturing cars in 1904. The brand used the iconic Viking longship as its logo. The rights to the marque are currently part of Jaguar Land Rover, but no Rover vehicles are currently in production, and the marque is considered dormant.

Jaguar Cars Car marque and former British car company

Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England. Jaguar Cars was the company that was responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were fully merged with those of Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover on 1 January 2013.

Alchemy Partners is a British private equity firm, which specialises in investing in distressed and undervalued or underperforming businesses and other special situations through debt and equity throughout Europe.

Tata Motors era

On 18 January 2008, Tata Motors, a part of the Tata Group, established Jaguar Land Rover Limited as a British-registered and wholly owned subsidiary. The new company was to be used as a holding company for the acquisition of the two businesses from Ford - Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover. That acquisition was completed on 2 June 2008 at a cost of £1.7 billion. [14] [15] [16] [17] Included in the deal to buy Land Rover and Jaguar Cars were the rights to three other British brands: the Daimler marque, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover. [18]

On 1 January 2013, the group, which had been operating as two separate companies (Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover), although on an integrated basis, underwent a fundamental restructuring. The parent company was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC, Jaguar Cars Limited was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Limited and the assets (excluding certain Chinese interests) of Land Rover were transferred to it. The consequence was that Jaguar Land Rover Limited became responsible in the UK for the design, manufacture and marketing of both Jaguar and Land Rover branded products, and Land Rover and Jaguar Cars ceased to be separate vehicle producing entities. [19]



Land Rovers were manufactured primarily at the Solihull plant, near Birmingham, but production of the Freelander was moved to the Halewood Body & Assembly plant near Liverpool, a former Ford car plant. The Freelander is also assembled in Knock-down kit (CKD) form at Land Rover's facility in Pune, India. [30] As of 2015, the company continued to expand by building locally in India as well as increasing the number of models made at JLR’s Chikhali facility near Pune to include the Discovery Sport and Evoque. [31]

Defender models are assembled under licence in several locations worldwide, including Spain (Santana Motors), Iran (Pazhan Morattab), Brazil (Karmann), and Turkey (Otokar). [32]

In May 2010, Tata Motors announced that it plans to build Land Rover and Jaguar models in Mainland China (PRC) as the company seeks to cut costs and expand sales. [33]

Global sales

Units sold144,371181,395223,602303,926348,338381,108403,079434,582



Land Rover Freelander Land Rover Freelander.jpg
Land Rover Freelander
The 1997 Defender 90 Defender90.JPG
The 1997 Defender 90
Series IIB Forward Control Land Rover Series IIB FC side.jpg
Series IIB Forward Control
Series II 109in 1959 Land Rover Series II Model 109 003.jpg
Series II 109in
6-wheel Land Rover Defender, Hong Kong Police Bomb Disposal Tsim Sha Tsui - 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in Hong Kong - 2008-05-02 10h50m54s SN207104.jpg
6-wheel Land Rover Defender, Hong Kong Police Bomb Disposal
2016 Land Rover Discovery 4 - front Land Rover Discovery 4 HSE 2016.jpg
2016 Land Rover Discovery 4 - front
2016 Land Rover Discovery 4 - rear Land Rover Discovery 4 HSE 2016 - rear.jpg
2016 Land Rover Discovery 4 - rear
2016 Land Rover Defender 110 Station Wagon Land Rover Defender 110 Station Wagon 2016 - left side.jpg
2016 Land Rover Defender 110 Station Wagon
2015 Land Rover Defender 110 XS TD DC Land Rover Defender 110 XS TD DC 2015 - rear.jpg
2015 Land Rover Defender 110 XS TD DC
2016 Range Rover Autobiography Land Rover Range Rover Autobiography 2016.jpg
2016 Range Rover Autobiography



2017 UK Land Rover model line-up
Discovery Sport Medium off-road 4x4
Discovery 5 Large off-road 4×4
Range Rover Evoque Small off-road 4×4
Range Rover Velar Large off-road 4×4
Range Rover Sport Large off-road 4×4
Range Rover Large off-road 4×4


Range Stormer – Land Rover's first concept vehicle, unveiled at the 2004 North American International Auto Show, later became the Range Rover Sport.(Gritzinger, 2004).

Land Rover LRX – Land Rover's second concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. Originally a vehicle with ERAD technology, the production version did not include this. The car was then launched in 2011 as the Range Rover Evoque, and was the first Range Rover branded product to be offered with front wheel drive, and no low ratio transfer box.

Land Rover DC100 – Land Rover's third concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show, designed to be a replacement for the Land Rover Defender, though it is unlikely that the Defender's replacement will be exactly the same as the DC100 concept.

Land Rover Discovery Vision Concept – Land Rover's fourth concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2014, was designed to be a replacement for the Land Rover Discovery, This concept features Transparent Bonnet, Suicide doors, and Laser assisted lamps (there is a very little chance this will be included in any future production vehicles).


Models developed for the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) include:

Models developed for the Australian Army


During the history of the Land Rover many different engines have been fitted:

As of August 2012, most Land Rovers in production are powered by Ford engines. [35] Under the terms of the acquisition, Tata has the right to buy engines from Ford until 2019. [36]

Electric vehicles

Integrated Electric Rear Axle Drive (ERAD) technology, dubbed e-terrain technology, [37] will allow the vehicle to move off without starting the engine as well as supplying extra power over tough terrain. [37] Land Rover's Diesel ERAD Hybrid was developed as part of a multimillion-pound project supported by the UK Government's Energy Saving Trust, under the low carbon research and development programme. ERAD programme is one of a broad range of sustainability-focused engineering programmes that Land Rover is pursuing, brought together by the company under the collective name "e TERRAIN Technologies". [38]

Land Rover presented at the 2008 London Motor Show its new ERAD diesel-electric hybrid in a pair of Freelander 2 (LR2) prototypes. The new hybrid system is being designed as a scalable and modular system that could be applied across a variety of Land Rover models and powertrains. [39]

Land Rover unveiled the LRX hybrid concept at the 2008 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, for it to be going into production. [40] An ERAD will enable the car to run on electric power at speeds below 20 mph (32 km/h). [41]

In September 2011, the Range Rover Evoque was launched, though it was based on the LRX hybrid concept presented at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, it did not include the ERAD system, included in the original concept.

In February 2013, Land Rover unveiled [42] [43] at the 83rd Geneva Motor Show an All-Terrain Electric Defender that produces zero emissions. The electric vehicle was developed for research purposes following successful trials of the Defender-based electric vehicle, Leopard 1. The vehicle is capable of producing 70  kW and 330  Nm of torque and has a range of 80 kilometres or in low speed off-road use it can last for up to eight hours before recharging.


Land-Rovers at AgQuip, Gunnedah, Australia Land-Rover.JPG
Land-Rovers at AgQuip, Gunnedah, Australia

Power take-off (PTO) was integral to the Land Rover concept from 1948, enabling farm machinery and many other items to be run with the vehicle stationary. Maurice Wilks' original instruction was " have power take-offs everywhere!" The 1949 report by British National Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Scottish Machinery Testing Station contained this description: "the power take-off is driven through a Hardy Spicer propeller shaft from the main gearbox output and two interchangeable pinions giving two ratios. The PTO gearbox casing is bolted to the rear chassis cross-member and an 8 by 8 inches (200 mm × 200 mm) belt pulley driven from the PTO shaft through two bevel gears can be bolted to the PTO gearbox casing." PTOs remained regular options on Series I, II and III Land Rovers up to the demise of the Series Land Rover in 1985. An agricultural PTO on a Defender is possible as a special order.

Land Rovers (the Series/Defender models) are available in a variety of body styles, from a simple canvas-topped pick-up truck to a twelve-seat fully trimmed station wagon. Both Land Rover and out-of-house contractors have offered conversions and adaptations to the basic vehicle, such as fire engines, excavators, 'cherry picker' hydraulic platforms, ambulances, snowploughs, and six-wheel-drive versions, as well as one-off special builds including amphibious Land Rovers and vehicles fitted with tracks instead of wheels.

Military use

British Land Rover near Pyongyang, November 1950, during the Korean War Commandeered British Land Rover Pyongyang.jpg
British Land Rover near Pyongyang, November 1950, during the Korean War
A mired Land Rover of the 1st Armoured Division being extracted during the Gulf War 1st Armoured Division Land Rover.jpg
A mired Land Rover of the 1st Armoured Division being extracted during the Gulf War
Ex-Australian Army Land Rover Series 2 "gunbuggy", with an M40 recoilless rifle used in the anti-tank role, at the Australian War Memorial. 106mm land rover.JPG
Ex-Australian Army Land Rover Series 2 "gunbuggy", with an M40 recoilless rifle used in the anti-tank role, at the Australian War Memorial.
Defenders of the Bermuda Regiment, 1994 Bermuda Regiment IS Training.jpg
Defenders of the Bermuda Regiment, 1994
Land Rovers on parade with the Italian Army, Navy and Air Force, June 2007 2june 2007 087e.jpg
Land Rovers on parade with the Italian Army, Navy and Air Force, June 2007

Various Land Rover models have been used in a military capacity, most notably by the British Army and Australian Army. Modifications may include military "blackout" lights, heavy-duty suspension, uprated brakes, 24 volt electrics, convoy lights, electronic suppression of the ignition system, blackout curtains and mounts for special equipment and small arms. Dedicated military models have been produced such as the 101 Forward Control and the air-portable 1/2 ton Lightweight. Military uses include light utility vehicle; communications platform; weapon platform for recoilless rifles, Anti-tank (e.g. TOW or M40 recoilless rifle) / Surface-to-Air Guided Weapons or machine guns; ambulances and workshops. The Discovery has also been used in small numbers, mostly as liaison vehicles.

Two models that have been designed for military use from the ground up are the 101 Forward Control from the early 1970s and the Lightweight or Airportable from the late 1960s. The latter was intended to be transported under a helicopter. The Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service (RAFMRS) teams were early users in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and their convoys of Land Rovers and larger military trucks are a sight often seen in the mountain areas of the United Kingdom. Originally RAFMRS Land Rovers had blue bodies and bright yellow tops, to be better seen from above. In 1981, the colour scheme was changed to green with yellow stripes. More recently, vehicles have been painted white, and are issued with fittings similar to civilian UK Mountain Rescue teams.

An adaptation of Land Rovers to military purposes is the "Pink Panther" models. Approximately 100 Series IIA models were adapted to reconnaissance use by British special operations forces the SAS. For desert use they were often painted pink, hence the name. The vehicles were fitted with among other gear a sun compass, machine guns, larger fuel tanks and smoke dischargers. Similar adaptations were later made to Series IIIs and 90/110/Defenders. [44]

The Australian Army adapted the Land Rover Series 2 into the Long Range Patrol Vehicle for use by the Special Air Service Regiment and as an anti-tank "gunbuggy" fitted with an M40 recoilless rifle.

The 75th Ranger Regiment of the United States Army also adapted twelve versions of the Land Rover that were officially designated the Ranger Special Operations Vehicle.

Series and Defender models have also been armoured. The most widespread of these is the Shorts Shorland, built by Shorts Brothers of Belfast. The first of these were delivered in 1965 to the Royal Ulster Constabulary, the Northern Ireland police force. They were originally 109-inch (2,800 mm) wheelbase models with an armoured body and a turret from the Ferret armoured car. By 1990, there had been more than 1,000 produced. [45] In the 1970s, a more conventional armoured Land Rover was built for the Royal Ulster Constabulary in Wales called the Hotspur. The Land Rover Tangi was built by the Royal Ulster Constabulary's own vehicle engineering team during the 1990s. The British Army has used various armoured Land Rovers, first in Northern Ireland but also in more recent campaigns. They first added protective panels to Series General Service vehicles (the Vehicle Protection Kit (VPK)). Later they procured the Glover Webb APV and finally the Courtaulds (later NP Aerospace) Composite Armoured Vehicle, commonly known as Snatch. These were originally based on heavy-duty V8 110 chassis but some have recently been re-mounted on new chassis from Otokar of Turkey and fitted with diesel engines and air-conditioning for Iraq. Although these now have more in common with the 'Wolf' (Defender XD) Land Rovers that many mistakenly confuse them with, the Snatch and the Wolf are different vehicles.

The most radical conversion of a Land Rover for military purposes was the Centaur half-track. It was based on a Series III with a V8 engine and a shortened belt drive from the Alvis Scorpion light tank. A small number was manufactured, and they were used by Ghana, among others.

The Land Rover is used by military forces throughout the world. The current generation of Land Rover used by British Army, the Snatch 2, have upgraded and strengthened chassis and suspension compared to civilian-specification vehicles. There is also the Land Rover WMIK (weapon mounted installation kit) used by British Army. The WMIK consists of a driver, a raised gun, usually a Browning heavy machine gun or a grenade machine gun, this used for ground support, and a GPMG (general-purpose machine gunner) located next to the driver, this used for vehicle protection.

Competitive use

Highly modified Land Rovers have competed in the Dakar Rally and won the Macmillan 4x4 UK Challenge almost every year, as well as having been the vehicle used for the Camel Trophy. Now, Land Rover has its own G4 challenge. [46]

Driver training

Land Rover Experience was established in 1990, and consists of a network of centres throughout the world, set up to help customers get the most out of their vehicles' on and off-road capability. The flagship centres are Land Rover's bases at Solihull, Eastnor, Gaydon and Halewood. Courses offered include off-road driving, winching and trailer handling, along with a variety of corporate and individual 'Adventure Days'. The factory centres at Solihull and Halewood have manufacturing tours, while Gaydon has an engineering tour.


Model-by-model road accident statistics from the UK Department for Transport show that the Land Rover Defender is one of the safest cars on British roads as measured by chance of death in two-car injury accidents. [47] The figures, which were based on data collected by police forces following accidents between 2000 and 2004 in Great Britain, showed that Defender drivers had a 1% chance of being killed or seriously injured and a 33% chance of sustaining any kind of injury. Other four-wheel-drive vehicles scored equally highly, and collectively these vehicles were much safer for their passengers than those in other classes such as passenger cars and MPVs. These figures reflect the fact that drivers of large mass vehicles are likely to be safer, often at the expense of other drivers if they collide with smaller cars.


The original Land Rover Owners Club was set up by the Rover Company in 1954. The company published the Land Rover Owners Club Review magazine for members from 1957 to 1968 when the club became the Rover Owners Association. This original association fell away when the company merged with British Leyland.

There are many Land Rover clubs throughout the UK and internationally. Land Rover clubs break down into a number of groups of varying interests.

Single Marque Clubs – Bring together owners of a specific model or series of vehicle such as the Land Rover Series One Club, [48] or the Discovery Owners Club. [49] Single marque clubs have a global membership.

Special Vehicle Clubs – At various times Land Rover have produced vehicles for specific events or on a specific theme, most notable are the Camel Trophy and G4 Challenge vehicles which have been sold on to the general public, and a range of Defenders that were loosely based on the custom vehicles produced for the Tomb Raider motion picture.

Regional Clubs in the UK break down into two groups, competitive and non-competitive. The non-competitive clubs activities generally relate to social events, off-road driving or green laning on un-surfaced public highways or 'pay and play' days at off-road centres. Competitive clubs are a phenomenon almost exclusively found within the UK, who as well as the non-competitive activities detailed above run competitive events such as Tyro, Road Taxed Vehicle (RTV) and Cross Country Vehicle (CCV) trials, winch and recovery challenges or speed events such as Competitive Safaries. All UK competitive events are run within the framework of rules created by the Motor Sports Association (MSA) with further vehicle specific rules applied by the host club or association. Outside of the UK regional clubs are independent and mostly non-competitive.

A number of clubs are affiliated to the Association of Land Rover Clubs (ALRC), [50] formerly known as the Association of Rover Clubs (ARC) the association applies its own vehicle regulations to all of its member clubs who have the opportunity to compete together at regional events and an annual national event with vehicles approved to the same standard. In recent years some non-competitive clubs have dropped their affiliation fifth ALRC. Few clubs outside of the UK are affiliated with ALRC. [51] Other than ALRC and the short lived Association of North American Rover Clubs (ANARC), which was created 1998 to celebrate Land Rover's 50th anniversary and disbanded in 2001, other groups of Land Rover clubs have affiliated with each other.

Land Rover owners were also early adopters of virtual clubs that are entirely based online. Bill Caloccia [52] created the original Land Rover Owner [53] email list (LRO) as single marque offshoot of the British Cars email list in May 1990. [54] Bill later created email lists in the mid 1990s for Range Rovers (RRO) and various regions (e.g., UK-LRO, AU-LRO, ZA-LRO, EU-LRO, IT-LRO, NL-LRO). In California members of the LRO list created mendo_recce in 1995. [55]

In 2005, under Ford ownership, Land Rover became more interested in the club environment. An internal club was formed, The Land Rover Club, [56] exclusive to employees of Ford's Premier Automotive Group (Now exclusive to the new 'Jaguar – Land Rover' group since the brand moved away from the Ford stable). Also, an agreement was generated to allow other clubs to use the Land Rover green oval logo under licence. In 2006, the Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire club were the pilot licensees for the new agreement, who now benefit from a reciprocal arrangement where their own logo is trade marked [57] and owned by Land Rover and they can refer to themselves as a 'Land Rover Approved Club'.

Brand extensions


In 1995, Land Rover endorsed the production of a hand-made bicycle using its logo. The bicycle, called the Land Rover APB and manufactured by Pashley Cycles of Stratford-upon-Avon, [58] was the collapsible version of Pashley Cycles' Moulton APB (All Purpose Bicycle) model, with leading link front suspension and adjustable damping and stroke. Two more models immediately followed: the Land Rover XCB V-20, aimed primarily at younger riders (children); and the Land Rover XCB D-26, also available as the M26 with hydraulic rim brakes, front suspension and suspension seat pillar.

In June 2004, Land Rover released a comprehensive 25 model range of bicycles. The three main ranges are the "Defender", the "Discovery", and the "Freelander", each with different attributes. The "Discovery" is an all-rounder bicycle suited to a variety of terrains, "Defender" is most suited to rugged terrain and off-road pursuits, whereas the "Freelander" is designed for an urban lifestyle. All bikes are made from lightweight aluminium.

In 2010 the range was relaunched in conjunction with British manufacturer 2x2. [59]


Land Rover has had its name associated with coffee since 2005, when the Land Rover Coffee company was established. [60]


Land Rover gave UK pram company Pegasus a licence to produce a three-wheeler range of Land Rover ATP pushchairs. The design reflected the heritage of the marque, with a light metal frame with canvas seating, held together with push-studs and tough simple parts like brakes and hinges. They could be collapsed completely flat, with wheels removed in seconds. The basic frame could be adapted with modules to allow a baby to lie flat or a bubble windscreen to completely enclose the child. The frame also came in long or short-handled versions, and could be repaired with home tools. The design was simple, light, and rugged and able to travel in all terrains (hence the ATP for all-terrain pushchair.) It came in three military looking colours: a light blue, a sand colour and olive drab. Production was discontinued in 2002. [61]

See also

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The Land Rover Freelander is a compact sport utility vehicle (SUV) which was produced by the British manufacturer Land Rover, in both two-wheel and four-wheel drive versions, from 1997 to 2014. The second generation, launched in 2007, was marketed as the LR2 in North America and as the Freelander 2 in Europe.

Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17

The Lion engine family was developed and manufactured at Ford's Dagenham Diesel Centre for use in PSA Peugeot Citroën vehicles, Jaguar Cars, and Land Rover vehicles. The engines share the same bore/stroke ratio, with the V6 displacing 2.7 L (2,720 cc) and the V8 displacing 3.6 L (3,630 cc). The V6 was launched in 2004 and as of 2011 also serves in Ford Australia's Territory SUV; the V8 in 2006. The V6 engine meets the Euro IV emissions standards. A 3.0 L (2,993 cc) was added in 2009 and is based on the 2.7 L (2,720 cc).

British Motor Museum Transport Museum in Warwickshire, England

The British Motor Museum, is the World's largest collection of historic British cars in Warwickshire, England. There are over 300 Classic cars on display from the British Motor Industry Heritage Trust and the Jaguar Heritage Trust.

Halewood Body & Assembly

Halewood Body & Assembly is a Jaguar Land Rover production facility in Halewood, Merseyside, England.

Range Rover Evoque series of compact SUV models from Land Rover

The Land Rover Range Rover Evoque is a compact luxury crossover SUV produced by the British manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, a subsidiary of Tata Motors, under their Land Rover marque. The Evoque is similar to the Land Rover LRX concept vehicle, which was unveiled at the North American International Auto Show in January 2008. It has been produced since July 2011 in three- and five-door versions, with both two-wheel and four-wheel drive.

<i>Car Mechanics</i>

Car Mechanics is a British motoring magazine published monthly by Bauer Media in Peterborough and edited by Martyn Knowles who took over in 2008 from long standing editor Peter Simpson. It is aimed at DIY motorists and the motor repair trade. The coverage ranges across all major car manufacturers and models sold in the UK chiefly in the last five to thirty years. It is the only news stand magazine of this type covering servicing, repair and restoration, with its nearest equivalent Practical Motorist having ceased publication in 1997.

Land Rover engines

Engines used by the British company Land Rover in its 4×4 vehicles have included 4-cylinder petrol engines, and 4-cylinder and 5-cylinder diesel engines. 6-cylinder engines have been used for Land Rover vehicles built under licence. Land Rover have also used various 4-cylinder, V8 engines and V6 engines developed by other companies, but this article deals only with engines developed specifically for Land Rover vehicles.

The Land Rover Range Rover is a full-sized luxury sport utility vehicle (SUV) from Land Rover, a marque of Jaguar Land Rover. The Range Rover was launched in 1970 by British Leyland. This flagship model is now in its fourth generation.

Range Rover (L322) SUV model from Land Rover

The Range Rover (L322) is the third-generation Range Rover model from British car maker Land Rover and was originally developed under the codename 'L30'.

Solihull plant

Solihull plant is a car manufacturing factory in Lode Lane, Solihull, UK, owned by Jaguar Land Rover.

Land Rover Discovery Sport compact SUV model from Land Rover

The Land Rover Discovery Sport is a compact luxury crossover SUV produced by British automotive company Jaguar Land Rover under their Land Rover marque.

The Jaguar Land Rover car platforms are the major structures, designed by Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), which underpin their Jaguar and Land Rover cars. The D8 platform is also used by Tata Motors.


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