Caesium hydride

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Caesium hydride
  Caesium cation, Cs+
  Hydrogen anion, H
IUPAC name
Caesium hydride
Other names
Cesium hydride
3D model (JSmol)
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/Cs.H/q+1;-1 Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1S/Cs.H/q+1;-1
  • [H-].[Cs+]
Molar mass 133.91339 g/mol
AppearanceWhite or colorless crystals or powder [1]
Density 3.42 g/cm3 [1]
Melting point ~170 °C (decomposes) [1]
Face centered cubic
Related compounds
Other anions
Other cations
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)

Caesium hydride or cesium hydride is an inorganic compound of caesium and hydrogen with the chemical formula Cs H . It is an alkali metal hydride. It was the first substance to be created by light-induced particle formation in metal vapor, [2] and showed promise in early studies of an ion propulsion system using caesium. [3] It is the most reactive stable alkaline metal hydride of all. It is a powerful superbase and reacts with water extremely vigorously.

The caesium nuclei in CsH can be hyperpolarized through interactions with an optically pumped caesium vapor in a process known as spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP). SEOP can increase the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal of caesium nuclei by an order of magnitude. [4]

It is very difficult to make caesium hydride in a pure form. Caesium hydride can be produced by heating caesium carbonate and metallic magnesium in hydrogen at 580 to 620 °C. [5]

Crystal structure

At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, CsH has the same structure as NaCl.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alkali metal</span> Group of highly reactive chemical elements

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Together with hydrogen they constitute group 1, which lies in the s-block of the periodic table. All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital: this shared electron configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterised homologous behaviour. This family of elements is also known as the lithium family after its leading element.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caesium</span> Chemical element, symbol Cs and atomic number 55

Caesium is a chemical element; it has symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Caesium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. It is pyrophoric and reacts with water even at −116 °C (−177 °F). It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale. It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite. Caesium-137, a fission product, is extracted from waste produced by nuclear reactors. It has the largest atomic radius of all elements whose radii have been measured or calculated, at about 260 picometers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lawrencium</span> Chemical element, symbol Lr and atomic number 103

Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element; it has symbol Lr and atomic number 103. It is named in honor of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, a device that was used to discover many artificial radioactive elements. A radioactive metal, lawrencium is the eleventh transuranic element and the last member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, lawrencium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. Fourteen isotopes of lawrencium are currently known; the most stable is 266Lr with half-life 11 hours, but the shorter-lived 260Lr is most commonly used in chemistry because it can be produced on a larger scale.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rubidium</span> Chemical element, symbol Rb and atomic number 37

Rubidium is a chemical element; it has symbol Rb and atomic number 37. It is a very soft, whitish-grey solid in the alkali metal group, similar to potassium and caesium. Rubidium is the first alkali metal in the group to have a density higher than water. On Earth, natural rubidium comprises two isotopes: 72% is a stable isotope 85Rb, and 28% is slightly radioactive 87Rb, with a half-life of 48.8 billion years—more than three times as long as the estimated age of the universe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ununennium</span> Chemical element, symbol Uue and atomic number 119

Ununennium, also known as eka-francium or element 119, is a hypothetical chemical element; it has symbol Uue and atomic number 119. Ununennium and Uue are the temporary systematic IUPAC name and symbol respectively, which are used until the element is discovered, confirmed, and a permanent name is decided upon. In the periodic table of the elements, it is expected to be an s-block element, an alkali metal, and the first element in the eighth period. It is the lightest element that has not yet been synthesized.

Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor. This phase was predicted in 1935 on theoretical grounds by Eugene Wigner and Hillard Bell Huntington.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium hydride</span> Chemical compound

Sodium hydride is the chemical compound with the empirical formula NaH. This alkali metal hydride is primarily used as a strong yet combustible base in organic synthesis. NaH is a saline (salt-like) hydride, composed of Na+ and H ions, in contrast to molecular hydrides such as borane, methane, ammonia, and water. It is an ionic material that is insoluble in all solvents (other than molten Na), consistent with the fact that H ions do not exist in solution. Because of the insolubility of NaH, all reactions involving NaH occur at the surface of the solid.

Hyperpolarization is the nuclear spin polarization of a material in a magnetic field far beyond thermal equilibrium conditions determined by the Boltzmann distribution. It can be applied to gases such as 129Xe and 3He, and small molecules where the polarization levels can be enhanced by a factor of 104-105 above thermal equilibrium levels. Hyperpolarized noble gases are typically used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs. Hyperpolarized small molecules are typically used for in vivo metabolic imaging. For example, a hyperpolarized metabolite can be injected into animals or patients and the metabolic conversion can be tracked in real-time. Other applications include determining the function of the neutron spin-structures by scattering polarized electrons from a very polarized target (3He), surface interaction studies, and neutron polarizing experiments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium borohydride</span> Chemical compound

Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4. It is a white crystalline solid, usually encountered as an aqueous basic solution. Sodium borohydride is a reducing agent that finds application in papermaking and dye industries. It is also used as a reagent in organic synthesis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caesium fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Caesium fluoride or cesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula CsF and it is a hygroscopic white salt. Caesium fluoride can be used in organic synthesis as a source of the fluoride anion. Caesium also has the highest electropositivity of all known elements and fluorine has the highest electronegativity of all known elements.

Laser snow is the precipitation through a chemical reaction, condensation and coagulation process, of clustered atoms or molecules, induced by passing a laser beam through certain gasses. It was first observed by Tam, Moe and Happer in 1975, and has since been noted in a number of gases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iron(II) fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Iron(II) fluoride or ferrous fluoride is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula FeF2. It forms a tetrahydrate FeF2·4H2O that is often referred to by the same names. The anhydrous and hydrated forms are white crystalline solids.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caesium cadmium bromide</span> Chemical compound

Caesium cadmium bromide (Cs Cd Br3) is a synthetic crystalline material. It belongs to the AMX3 group (where A = alkali metal, M = bivalent metal, X = halogen ion). Unlike most other bromides, CsCdBr3 is non-hygroscopic, giving it applications as an efficient upconversion material in solar cells. As a single crystal structure doped with rare-earth ions, it can be also used as active laser medium. It is highly transparent in the visible and infrared regions and can be used as a nonlinear optical crystal.

A spin exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer is a type of magnetometer developed at Princeton University in the early 2000s. SERF magnetometers measure magnetic fields by using lasers to detect the interaction between alkali metal atoms in a vapor and the magnetic field.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Helium hydride ion</span> Chemical compound

The helium hydride ion, hydridohelium(1+) ion, or helonium is a cation (positively charged ion) with chemical formula HeH+. It consists of a helium atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, with one electron removed. It can also be viewed as protonated helium. It is the lightest heteronuclear ion, and is believed to be the first compound formed in the Universe after the Big Bang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hydrogen anion</span> Negative ion of hydrogen

The hydrogen anion, H, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. The ion has two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing one proton.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Positronium hydride</span> Exotic molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom bound to a positronium atom

Positronium hydride, or hydrogen positride is an exotic molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom bound to an exotic atom of positronium. Its formula is PsH. It was predicted to exist in 1951 by A Ore, and subsequently studied theoretically, but was not observed until 1990. R. Pareja, R. Gonzalez from Madrid trapped positronium in hydrogen laden magnesia crystals. The trap was prepared by Yok Chen from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this experiment the positrons were thermalized so that they were not traveling at high speed, and they then reacted with H ions in the crystal. In 1992 it was created in an experiment done by David M. Schrader and F.M. Jacobsen and others at the Aarhus University in Denmark. The researchers made the positronium hydride molecules by firing intense bursts of positrons into methane, which has the highest density of hydrogen atoms. Upon slowing down, the positrons were captured by ordinary electrons to form positronium atoms which then reacted with hydrogen atoms from the methane.

In quantum mechanics, a spin-exchange interaction preserves total angular momentum of the system but may allow other aspects of the system to change. When two spin-polarized atoms in their ground state experience a spin-exchange collision, the total spin of the atoms is preserved yet the orientation of the individual spins may change. For example, if atoms and are oppositely polarized, a spin-exchange collision reverses the spins:

In atomic physics, a spin-destructioncollision is a physical impact where the spin angular momentum of an atom is irretrievably scrambled.

In chemistry, a hydridonitride is a chemical compound that contains hydride and nitride ions in a single phase. These inorganic compounds are distinct from inorganic amides and imides as the hydrogen does not share a bond with nitrogen, and contain a larger proportion of metals.


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  5. A. Jamieson Walker (1924). A Text Book Of Inorganic Chemistry Volume I The Alkali Metals And Their Congeners.