| IUPAC name |
|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||133.91339 g/mol|
|Appearance||White or colorless crystals or powder |
|Density||3.42 g/cm3 |
|Melting point||~170 °C (decomposes) |
|Face centered cubic|
|CsF, CsCl, CsBr, CsI|
| LiH, NaH, KH, RbH,|
and all other hydrides
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|verify (what is ?)|
Caesium hydride or cesium hydride (CsH) is a compound of caesium and hydrogen. It is an alkali metal hydride. It was the first substance to be created by light-induced particle formation in metal vapor,  and showed promise in early studies of an ion propulsion system using caesium.  It is the most reactive stable alkaline metal hydride of all. It is a powerful superbase and reacts with water extremely vigorously.
The caesium nuclei in CsH can be hyperpolarized through interactions with an optically pumped caesium vapor in a process known as spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP). SEOP can increase the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal of caesium nuclei by an order of magnitude. 
It is very difficult to make caesium hydride in a pure form. Caesium hydride can be produced by heating caesium carbonate and metallic magnesium in hydrogen at 580 to 620 degrees Celsius. 
At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, CsH has the same structure as NaCl.
In condensed matter physics, a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter that is typically formed when a gas of bosons at low densities is cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point microscopic quantum mechanical phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference, become apparent macroscopically. A BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density to ultra-low temperatures.
Caesium is a chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Caesium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The most reactive of all metals, it is pyrophoric and reacts with water even at −116 °C (−177 °F). It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale. It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from waste produced by nuclear reactors.
Ununennium, also known as eka-francium or element 119, is the hypothetical chemical element with symbol Uue and atomic number 119. Ununennium and Uue are the temporary systematic IUPAC name and symbol respectively, which are used until the element is discovered, confirmed, and a permanent name is decided upon. In the periodic table of the elements, it is expected to be an s-block element, an alkali metal, and the first element in the eighth period. It is the lightest element that has not yet been synthesized.
Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor. This phase was predicted in 1935 on theoretical grounds by Eugene Wigner and Hillard Bell Huntington.
A room-temperature superconductor is a material that is capable of exhibiting superconductivity at operating temperatures above 0 °C, that is, temperatures that can be reached and easily maintained in an everyday environment. As of 2020 the material with the highest accepted superconducting temperature is an extremely pressurized carbonaceous sulfur hydride with a critical transition temperature of +15°C at 267 GPa.
Hyperpolarization is the nuclear spin polarization of a material in a magnetic field far beyond thermal equilibrium conditions determined by the Boltzmann distribution. It can be applied to gases such as 129Xe and 3He, and small molecules where the polarization levels can be enhanced by a factor of 104-105 above thermal equilibrium levels. Hyperpolarized noble gases are typically used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs. Hyperpolarized small molecules are typically used for in vivo metabolic imaging. For example, a hyperpolarized metabolite can be injected into animals or patients and the metabolic conversion can be tracked in real-time. Other applications include determining the function of the neutron spin-structures by scattering polarized electrons from a very polarized target (3He), surface interaction studies, and neutron polarizing experiments.
Caesium fluoride or cesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula CsF and it is a hygroscopic white salt. Caesium fluoride can be used in organic synthesis as a source of the fluoride anion. Caesium also has the highest electropositivity of all non-radioactive elements and fluorine has the highest electronegativity of all elements.
Laser snow is the precipitation through a chemical reaction, condensation and coagulation process, of clustered atoms or molecules, induced by passing a laser beam through certain gasses. It was first observed by Tam, Moe and Happer in 1975, and has since been noted in a number of gases.
An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is a parametric oscillator that oscillates at optical frequencies. It converts an input laser wave with frequency into two output waves of lower frequency by means of second-order nonlinear optical interaction. The sum of the output waves' frequencies is equal to the input wave frequency: . For historical reasons, the two output waves are called "signal" and "idler", where the output wave with higher frequency is the "signal". A special case is the degenerate OPO, when the output frequency is one-half the pump frequency, , which can result in half-harmonic generation when signal and idler have the same polarization.
The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a transport phenomenon predicted by Russian physicists Mikhail I. Dyakonov and Vladimir I. Perel in 1971. It consists of the appearance of spin accumulation on the lateral surfaces of an electric current-carrying sample, the signs of the spin directions being opposite on the opposing boundaries. In a cylindrical wire, the current-induced surface spins will wind around the wire. When the current direction is reversed, the directions of spin orientation is also reversed.
This page deals with the electron affinity as a property of isolated atoms or molecules. Solid state electron affinities are not listed here.
A spin exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer is a type of magnetometer developed at Princeton University in the early 2000s. SERF magnetometers measure magnetic fields by using lasers to detect the interaction between alkali metal atoms in a vapor and the magnetic field.
The helium hydride ion or hydridohelium(1+) ion or helonium is a cation (positively charged ion) with chemical formula HeH+. It consists of a helium atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, with one electron removed. It can also be viewed as protonated helium. It is the lightest heteronuclear ion, and is believed to be the first compound formed in the Universe after the Big Bang.
The hydrogen anion, H−, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. The ion has two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing one proton.
Positronium hydride, or hydrogen positride is an exotic molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom bound to an exotic atom of positronium. Its formula is PsH. It was predicted to exist in 1951 by A Ore, and subsequently studied theoretically, but was not observed until 1990. R. Pareja, R. Gonzalez from Madrid trapped positronium in hydrogen laden magnesia crystals. The trap was prepared by Yok Chen from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this experiment the positrons were thermalized so that they were not traveling at high speed, and they then reacted with H− ions in the crystal. In 1992 it was created in an experiment done by David M. Schrader and F.M. Jacobsen and others at the Aarhus University in Denmark. The researchers made the positronium hydride molecules by firing intense bursts of positrons into methane, which has the highest density of hydrogen atoms. Upon slowing down, the positrons were captured by ordinary electrons to form positronium atoms which then reacted with hydrogen atoms from the methane.
In quantum mechanics, a spin-exchange interaction preserves total angular momentum of the system but may allow other aspects of the system to change. When two spin-polarized atoms in their ground state experience a spin-exchange collision, the total spin of the atoms is preserved yet the orientation of the individual spins may change. For example, if atoms and are oppositely polarized, a spin-exchange collision reverses the spins:
In atomic physics, a spin-destructioncollision is a physical impact where the spin angular momentum of an atom is irretrievably scrambled.
A trion is a localized excitation which consists of three charged particles. A negative trion consists of two electrons and one hole and a positive trion consists of two holes and one electron. The trion itself is a quasiparticle and is somewhat similar to an exciton, which is a complex of one electron and one hole. The trion has a ground singlet state and an excited triplet state. Here singlet and triplet degeneracies originate not from the whole system but from the two identical particles in it. The half-integer spin value distinguishes trions from excitons in many phenomena; for example, energy states of trions, but not excitons, are split in an applied magnetic field. Trion states were predicted theoretically in 1958; they were observed experimentally in 1993 in CdTe/Cd1−xZnxTe quantum wells, and later in various other optically excited semiconductor structures. There are experimental proofs of their existence in nanotubes supported by theoretical studies. Despite numerous reports of experimental trion observations in different semiconductor heterostructures, there are serious concerns on the exact physical nature of the detected complexes. The originally foreseen 'true' trion particle has a delocalized wavefunction while recent studies reveal significant binding from charged impurities in real semiconductor quantum wells.
Hughes–Drever experiments are spectroscopic tests of the isotropy of mass and space. Although originally conceived of as a test of Mach's principle, it is now understood to be an important test of Lorentz invariance. As in Michelson–Morley experiments, the existence of a preferred frame of reference or other deviations from Lorentz invariance can be tested, which also affects the validity of the equivalence principle. Thus these experiments concern fundamental aspects of both special and general relativity. Unlike Michelson–Morley type experiments, Hughes–Drever experiments test the isotropy of the interactions of matter itself, that is, of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The accuracy achieved makes this kind of experiment one of the most accurate confirmations of relativity .
Photonic molecules are a theoretical natural form of matter which can also be made artificially in which photons bind together to form "molecules". They were first predicted in 2007. Photonic molecules are formed when individual (massless) photons "interact with each other so strongly that they act as though they have mass". In an alternative definition, photons confined to two or more coupled optical cavities also reproduce the physics of interacting atomic energy levels, and have been termed as photonic molecules.