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This is a partial list of massacres in the United States ; it excludes single-perpetrator massacres; death tolls may be approximate.
|Name||Date||Location||State||Deaths, including any perpetrators||Notes|
|Happy Land fire||1990 March 25||New York City||New York||87||Arsonist Julio González set the blaze at a South Bronx social club that resulted in 87 people killed, and 6 injured.|
|Guadalupe Canyon massacre||1881-08-13||Guadalupe Mountains||Arizona Territory||5||1 wounded; cowboys ambushed while sleeping. Perpetrators disputed.|
|Election riot of 1874||1874-11-3||Eufaula||Alabama||8||70 injured. White League Democrats drove African American Republicans from the polls.|
|Chinese massacre||1871 Oct 24||Los Angeles, California||California||>18||Killed by hanging and unknown injured in mob violence against people and property in Chinatown.|
|Golden Dragon massacre||1977 Sep 4||San Francisco||California||5||11 injured.|
|Camp Sumter||1864–1865||Andersonville||Georgia||13,171||Confederate operated POW camp|
|Elmira Prison||1864–1865||Elmira||New York||2,963||Union prison camp.|
|Ludlow Massacre||1914 Apr 20||Ludlow||Colorado||19||Killed by Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families.|
|Columbine Mine massacre||1927 Nov 21||Serene||Colorado||6||Miners killed with machine guns during coal mine strike.|
|Ocoee massacre||1920 Nov 2||Ocoee||Florida||56~||Black population of Ocoee, a town near Orlando, was nearly obliterated during the 1920 election season.|
|Rosewood massacre||1923 Jan||Rosewood||Florida||8||The entire population of African-Americans in and near Rosewood, about 350, were forced from their homes and never returned.|
|Hanapepe massacre||1924 Sep 9||Hanapepe||Hawaii||20||101 arrested.|
|Haymarket affair||1886 May 4||Chicago||Illinois||11||More than 130 injured by dynamite bomb and crossfire of bullets.|
|Herrin massacre||1922 Jun 21||Herrin||Illinois||23||Strikebreakers and union guards at coal mine.|
|Saint Valentine's Day Massacre||1929 Feb 14||Chicago||Illinois||7||Prohibition gang killing.|
|Brown's Chicken massacre||1993 Jan 8||Palatine||Illinois||7||Store robbery with murder.|
|Lane Bryant Shooting||2008 Feb 2||Tinley Park||Illinois||5||1 injury|
|Aurora, Illinois, shooting||2019 Feb 15||Aurora||Illinois||6||5–16 injuries|
|Spirit Lake Massacre||1857 March 5–12||West Okoboji||Iowa||35–40||A band of Dakota people led by Inkpaduta conducted a series of raids on white settlers.|
|Villisca massacre||1912 Jun 10||Villisca||Iowa||8||Unsolved axe murders of members of 2 families.|
|Pottawatomie massacre||1856 May 24–25||Franklin County||Kansas||5||John Brown and followers killed 5 pro-slavery settlers during the Bleeding Kansas period.|
|Marais des Cygnes massacre||1858 May 19||Linn County||Kansas||5||Last major outbreak of violence in Bleeding Kansas.|
|Lawrence massacre||1863 Aug 21||Douglas County||Kansas||185–200||Pro-Confederate Guerrillas killed civilians and burned a quarter of the town.|
|Wichita Massacre||2000 Dec 8–14||Wichita||Kansas||5||Two black males, brothers Reginald and Jonathan Carr, committed multiple acts of assault, robbery, rape and murder of several people, all white, over the course of a week.|
|Bloody Monday||1855 Aug 6||Louisville||Kentucky||>22||Scores injured in religious mob violence and arson.|
|Colfax massacre||1873 Apr 13||Colfax||Louisiana||83–153||Blacks killed at courthouse and as prisoners afterwards.|
|Coushatta massacre||1874 Aug||Coushatta||Louisiana||11–26||Six whites, remainder black killed as political intimidation.|
|Thibodaux massacre||1887 Nov 22||Thibodaux||Louisiana||>35||Perhaps as many as 300 killed, 5+ injuries to striking black sugar-cane workers.|
|Opelousas Massacre||1868 Sep 28||Opelousas||Louisiana||300+||Democrats resisted the joining of Opelousas African Americans into the political party and went on a hunt for African Americans, killing at least 200–300 African Americans and 30–50 Democrats.|
|Boston Massacre||1770 Mar 5||Boston||Massachusetts||5||11 civilians injured by British Army soldiers.|
|Haun's Mill massacre||1838 Oct 30||Fairview Township||Missouri||19||Mob/militia attacked Mormons.|
|Kansas City massacre||1933 Jun 17||Kansas City||Missouri||5||The dead include law enforcement officers and a criminal fugitive shot by members of a gang.|
|Sacking of Osceola||1861 Sep 23||Osceola||Missouri||9||Tried by drumhead court martial and executed, town of 3,000 sacked and burned in a raid by Jim Lane's Kansas Brigade. [ better source needed ]|
|Centralia massacre||1864 Sep 27||Centralia||Missouri||24||Unarmed U.S. soldiers murdered by their Confederate captors including Jesse James. 123 killed in ensuing Battle of Centralia.|
|Baylor Massacre||1778 Sep 27||River Vale||New Jersey||15||54 captured or wounded by British.|
|Greensboro massacre||1979 Nov 3||Greensboro||North Carolina||5||Violent clash between Ku Klux Klan and Communist Workers' Party demonstration.|
|Shelton Laurel massacre||1863 Jan 18||Madison County||North Carolina||13||Unarmed Unionists, including three boys, were shot by Confederates after capture.|
|Greenwood massacre||1921 May 31 and Jun 1||City of Tulsa,||Oklahoma||39–300||≥ 800 wounded. One of the nation's worst incidents of racial violence.|
|Goingsnake massacre||1872 Apr 15||Tahlequah||Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma)||11||Died in a shoot out in a crowded courtroom, the dead included 8 Deputy US Marshals and 3 Cherokee citizens. Six Cherokee were wounded including the defendant and the judge.|
|Chinese Massacre Cove||1887 May||Wallowa County||Oregon||10–34||Chinese gold miners ambushed and murdered by a gang of horse thieves.|
|Paoli massacre||1777 Sep 20||near Paoli||Pennsylvania||61||Patriots under command of General Anthony Wayne killed by British Soldiers under command of General Charles Grey.|
|Lattimer massacre||1897 Sep 10||Lattimer||Pennsylvania||19||Coal miners killed by sheriff's posse.|
|Ponce massacre||1937 Mar 21||Ponce||Puerto Rico||19||protestors killed by police|
|Hamburg massacre||1876 Jul 4||Hamburg||South Carolina||7||Town looted in a racially motivated incident during Reconstruction.|
|Waxhaw massacre||1780 May 29||Lancaster||South Carolina||118||150 wounded, 53 captured by British against American Revolutionary soldiers.|
|Fort Pillow massacre||1864 Apr 12||Henning||Tennessee||277–297||Federal (and mostly black) troops were killed by Confederate soldiers while trying to surrender.|
|Nueces massacre||1862 Aug 10||Kinney County||Texas||34||German Texans killed by Confederate soldiers.|
|Mountain Meadows Massacre||1857 Sep 7–11||Mountain Meadows||Utah Territory||100–140||Emigrant wagon train annihilated by the Mormon Utah Territorial Militia.|
|Pinhook massacre||1881 June 1||Southeastern Utah||Utah||13||Started when Ute Indians allegedly killed ranchers and stole horses in Colorado. As the Ute moved into the southeastern Utah, a battle between the Indians and a band of ranchers and cowboys who blamed Utes for the loss of their livestock was fought, resulting in the death of 13 cowboys in the gunfight.|
|Midnight Massacre||1945 Jul 7–8||Salina, Utah||Utah||9||German POWs killed by an American guard|
|Saltville massacre||1864 Oct 2–3||Saltville||Virginia||45–50||Wounded/captured Federal black troops by Confederate soldiers and guerrillas.|
|Everett massacre||1916 Nov 5||Everett||Washington||5||27 injured and scores of labor unionists arrested by police and vigilantes.|
|Centralia massacre||1919 Nov 11||Centralia||Washington||6||American Legionnaires killed by Industrial Workers of the World members.|
|Wah Mee massacre||1983 Feb 18||Seattle||Washington||13||1 injured by 3 perpetrators during an armed robbery.|
|Bay View massacre||1886 May 5||Bay View||Wisconsin||7||Labor protesters killed by National Guardsmen.|
|Battle of Blair Mountain||1921 Aug 25||Logan County||West Virginia||10–33||Private army and US Troops against union organizers. WWI gas bombs used against union organizers.|
|Matewan massacre||1920 May 19||Matewan||West Virginia||11||The confrontation resulted in the deaths of Matewan Mayor Cabell Testerman, two striking coal miners, seven men from the Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency, and an unarmed bystander.|
|Rock Springs massacre||1885 Sep 2||Rock Springs||Wyoming||28||15 injured in a racial dispute between white and Chinese miners.|
|September 11 Attacks||2001 Sep 11||New York City; Arlington, Virginia; Shanksville, Pennsylvania||New York; Virginia; Pennsylvania||2,996||Four airplanes hijacked by muslim terrorists, two of which were crashed into the World Trade Center, one crashed into The Pentagon, and the other missed its target in Washington, D.C. and crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.|
|Thousand Oaks shooting||2018 Nov 8||Thousand Oaks||California||13||12+ injured.|
|Camden Shootings||1949 Sep 6||Camden||New Jersey||13||Included three children in a 12 minute walk through his neighbourhood.|
|University of Texas tower Shooting||1966 Aug 1||Austin||Texas||18 including the shooter||31 others wounded.|
|Easter Sunday Massacre||1975 Mar 30||Hamilton||Ohio||11||All victims were family members of the killer shot and killed by pistols at a family gathering.|
|Wilkes-Barre Shootings||1982 Sep 25||Wilkes-Barre and Jenkins Township||Pennsylvania||13||1 wounded|
|San Ysidro McDonald's massacre||1984 Jul 18||San Ysidro||California||22 including the gunman||19 others wounded|
|Palm Sunday massacre||1984 Apr 15||Brooklyn||New York||10||Three women, a teenage girl, and six children. There was one survivor, an infant girl.|
|Edmond post office shooting||1986 Aug 20||Edmond||Oklahoma||15 including the gunman||6 wounded. This incident is the origin of the phrase 'going postal'.|
|GMAC shootings||1990 Jun 18||Jacksonville||Florida||10 including the gunman||The attacker began killing the day before killing 2 others. He wounded a total of 6 people over the 2 days.|
|Luby's shooting||1991 Oct 16||Killeen||Texas||24 including the gunman||27 others were wounded although only 19 of those were from gunfire.|
|Freddy's Fashion Mart attack||1995 Dec 8||Harlem||New York||8 including the gunman|
|Columbine High School massacre||1999 Apr 20||Columbine||Colorado||15 including both gunmen||24 others were wounded, 21 of those by gunfire.|
|Atlanta shootings||1999 Jul 29||Atlanta||Georgia||10 including the gunman||He also killed his wife on the 27th, his 2 children on the 28th then the main attack occurred on the 29th where he killed 9 victims and wounded 13 others.|
|Red Lake shootings||2005 Mar 21||Red Lake||Minnesota||10 including the gunman||He wounded 5 others.|
|Virginia Tech shooting||2007 Apr 16||Blacksburg||Virginia||33 including the gunman||23 Wounded, 17 by gunfire.|
|Binghamton shootings||2009 Apr 3||Binghamton||New York||14 including the gunman||4 wounded.|
|Fort Hood shooting||2009 Nov 5||Fort Hood||Texas||13 including the gunman||30+ wounded, it was the deadliest mass shooting on an American military base.|
|Geneva County massacre||2009 Mar 10||Geneva and Samson||Alabama||11 including the gunman||6 wounded.|
|Aurora shooting||2012 Jul 20||Aurora||Colorado||12||70 people were wounded, 58 from gunfire, 4 from tear gas, and 8 from injuries sustained fleeing from shooting during a screening of The Dark Knight Rises .|
|Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting||2012 Dec 14||Newtown||Connecticut||28 including the gunman||27 at the school (including the gunman) and the attacker's mother at her home. 20 of the dead were children aged 6–7 years old.|
|Washington Navy Yard shooting||2013 Sep 16||Washington Navy Yard||Washington D.C.||13 including the gunman||8 wounded, 3 from gunfire.|
|Charleston church shooting||2015 Jun 17||Charleston||South Carolina||9||1 wounded.|
|Umpqua Community College shooting||2015 Oct 1||Roseburg||Oregon||10 including the gunman||8 wounded.|
|San Bernardino attack||2015 Dec 2||San Bernardino||California||16 including both gunmen||24 wounded. Attackers brought pipe bombs as well as firearms, they targeted a San Bernardino County Department of Public Health training event and Christmas party.|
|Orlando nightclub shooting||2016 June 12||Orlando||Florida||50 including the gunman||53 wounded.|
|Las Vegas shooting||2017 Oct 1||Las Vegas||Nevada||59 including the gunman||851 wounded, 422 from gunfire.|
|Sutherland Springs church shooting||2017 Nov 5||Sutherland Springs||Texas||26 including the gunman||20 wounded and an unborn child not counted in the 26 dead was also lost.|
|Stoneman Douglas High School shooting||2018 Feb 14||Parkland||Florida||17||17 killed; 17 wounded.|
|Pittsburgh synagogue shooting||2018 Oct 27||Pittsburgh||Pennsylvania||11||7 wounded, including the suspect.|
|Santa Fe High School shooting||2018 May 18||Santa Fe||Texas||10||14 wounded, including the suspect.|
|Pacific Air Lines Flight 773 Mass murder-suicide||1964 May 7||Danville||California||44 including gunman||Attacker shot the pilots mid flight causing the aircraft to crash killing everyone onboard.|
|Kent State Shootings||1970 May 4||Kent||Ohio||4||Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed student protesters at Kent State University.|
|Oklahoma City Bombing||1995 April 19||Oklahoma City||Oklahoma||168 (1 additional possible)||Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. Truck bomb planted by anti-government domestic terrorist Timothy McVeigh|
|Bath School disaster||1927 May 18||Bath Township||Michigan||45||School Bombing|
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With more than six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. Missouri is bordered by eight states : Iowa to the north, Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee to the east, Arkansas to the south and Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska to the west. In the south are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals and recreation. The Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border.
As general terms, Indian Territory or the Indian Territories describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the US federal government's 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the US government was one of assimilation.
The history of Kansas, argued historian Carl L. Becker a century ago, reflects American ideals. He wrote:
In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy. To their north they bordered free states of the Union and to their south they bordered Confederate slave states. Of the 34 U.S. states in 1861, nineteen were free states and fifteen were slave states. Two slave states never declared a secession or adopted an ordinance: Delaware and Maryland. Four others did not declare secession until after the Battle of Fort Sumter and were briefly considered to be border states: Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia—after this, they were less frequently called "border states". Also included as a border state during the war is West Virginia, which was formed from 50 counties of Virginia and became a new state in the Union in 1863.
The Colfax massacre, or Colfax riot as the events are termed on the 1950 state historic marker, occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish, where approximately 150 black men were murdered by white Southerners who had formed a militia. Three white men died in the confrontation, with at least one said to have been shot by his own side.
The Haun’s Mill Massacre was an event in the history of the Latter Day Saint movement. It occurred on October 30, 1838, when a mob/militia unit from Livingston County, Missouri attacked a Mormon settlement in eastern Caldwell County, Missouri, after the Battle of Crooked River. By far the bloodiest event in the 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, it has long been remembered by the members of the Latter Day Saint movement. While the spelling "Haun" is common when referring to the massacre or the mill where it occurred; the mill's owner used the spelling "Hawn" in legal documents.
The New Orleans Massacre of 1866 occurred on July 30, during a violent conflict as white Democrats, including police and firemen, attacked Republicans, most of them black, parading outside the Mechanics Institute in New Orleans. It was the site of a reconvened Louisiana Constitutional Convention. The Republicans in Louisiana had called for the Convention, as they were angered by the legislature's enactment of the Black Codes and its refusal to give black men the vote. Democrats considered the reconvened convention to be illegal and were suspicious of Republican attempts to increase their political power in the state. The massacre "stemmed from deeply rooted political, social, and economic causes," and took place in part because of the battle "between two opposing factions for power and office." There were a total of 150 black casualties, including 44 killed. In addition, three white Republicans were killed, as was one white protester.
The Louisiana State Capitol is the seat of government for the U.S. state of Louisiana and is located in downtown Baton Rouge. The capitol houses the chambers for the Louisiana State Legislature, made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate, as well as the office of the Governor of Louisiana. At 450 feet (137 m) tall and with 34 stories, it is the tallest building in Baton Rouge, the seventh tallest building in Louisiana, and tallest capitol in the United States. It is located on a 27-acre (110,000 m2) tract, which includes the capitol gardens. The Louisiana State Capitol is often thought of as "Huey Long's monument" due to the influence of the former Governor and U.S. Senator in getting the capitol built. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978 and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982.
The Marais des Cygnes massacre is considered the last significant act of violence in Bleeding Kansas prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War. On May 19, 1858, approximately 30 men led by Charles Hamilton, a Georgian native and proslavery leader, crossed into the Kansas Territory from Missouri. They arrived at Trading Post, Kansas in the morning and then headed back to Missouri. Along the way they captured 11 Free-Staters, none of whom were armed and, it is said, none of whom had participated in the ongoing violence. Most of the men knew Hamilton and apparently did not realize he meant them harm. These prisoners were led into a defile, where Hamilton ordered the men to shoot. He even shot and fired the first bullet himself. Five men were killed and five severely wounded. Only one Free-Stater escaped injury.
Fort Osage was an early 19th-century factory trading post system run by the United States Government, on the American frontier being located in present-day Sibley, Missouri. The Treaty of Fort Clark was signed with certain members of the Osage Nation in 1808 calling for the creation of Fort Osage. It was one of three forts established by the U.S. Army to establish control over the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase territories. Fort Madison in SE Iowa was built to control trade and pacify Native Americans in the Upper Mississippi River region. Fort Belle Fontaine near St. Louis controlled the mouth of the Missouri. The fort ceased operations in the 1820s as the Osage in subsequent treaties ceded the rest of their land in Missouri. A replica of the fort was rebuilt on the site between 1948 and 1961. The Fort Osage school district, which serves northeast Independence and the surrounding area, was named after it.
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers. It sent armies, generals, and supplies to both sides, was represented with a star on both flags, maintained dual governments, and endured a bloody neighbor-against-neighbor intrastate war within the larger national war.
The timeline of Kansas details past events that happened in what is present day Kansas. Located on the eastern edge of the Great Plains, the U.S. state of Kansas was the home of sedentary agrarian and hunter-gatherer Native American societies, many of whom hunted American bison. The region first appears in western history in the 16th century at the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Spanish conquistadores explored the unknown land now known as Kansas. It was later explored by French fur trappers who traded with the Native Americans. It became part of the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In the 19th century, the first American explorers designated the area as the "Great American Desert."
Spencer Kellogg Brown was born August 17, 1842 in Kansas. He was the son of New York abolitionist Orville Chester Brown (1811-1904), who moved his family to Kansas and took part in the founding of Osawatomie.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. state of Kansas:
Alexander W. Terrell was an American judge, planter, Confederate veteran and diplomat. He served as the U. S. minister to Turkey and a Confederate military officer.
Jesse Woodson James was an American outlaw, bank and train robber, guerrilla, and leader of the James–Younger Gang. Raised in the "Little Dixie" area of western Missouri, James and his family maintained strong Southern sympathies. He and his brother Frank James joined pro-Confederate guerrillas known as "bushwhackers" operating in Missouri and Kansas during the American Civil War. As followers of William Quantrill and "Bloody Bill" Anderson, they were accused of participating in atrocities against Union soldiers and civilian abolitionists, including the Centralia Massacre in 1864.
The American Civil War bibliography comprises books that deal in large part with the American Civil War. There are over 60,000 books on the war, with more appearing each month. There is no complete bibliography to the war; the largest guide to books is over 40 years old and lists over 6,000 titles selected by leading scholars. The largest guides to the historiography annotates over a thousand titles.