SpaceX Crew-1

Last updated

SpaceX Crew-1
SpaceX Crew-1 Launch (NHQ202011150029).jpg
Falcon 9 with Resilience launches from LC-39A
NamesUSCV-1, Crew-1
Mission type ISS crew transport
Operator SpaceX
COSPAR ID 2020-084A
SATCAT no. 46920
Mission duration11 days (in progress)
~180 days (planned)
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Dragon   C207 Resilience
Manufacturer SpaceX
Crew
Crew size4
Members
Expedition Expedition 64
Start of mission
Launch date16 November 2020,
00:27:17 UTC [1]
Rocket Falcon 9 Block 5
Launch site KSC, LC-39A
Contractor SpaceX
End of mission
Landing dateMay 2021 (planned)
Landing site Atlantic Ocean
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric orbit
Regime Low Earth orbit
Inclination 51.66°
Docking with ISS
Docking port Harmony Forward
Docking date17 November 2020, 04:01 UTC [2]
Undocking dateMay 2021 (planned)
Time docked10 days (in progress)
180 days (planned)
SpaceX Crew-1 logo.svg
SpaceX Crew-1 logo
SpaceX Crew-1 Commercial Crew Portrait.jpg
(l-r) Walker, Glover, Hopkins and Noguchi 

SpaceX Crew-1 [3] [4] (also known as USCV-1 or simply Crew-1) [5] is the first operational [lower-alpha 1] crewed flight of a Crew Dragon spacecraft. It is also the first crewed night launch by the United States since that of STS-130 in February 2010. The Crew Dragon spacecraft Resilience launched on 16 November 2020 at 00:27:17 UTC [6] [lower-alpha 2] on a Falcon 9 from the Kennedy Space Center, LC-39A, carrying NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins, Victor Glover and Shannon Walker along with JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi, all members of the Expedition 64 crew. [7] [8] The mission is the second overall crewed orbital flight of the Crew Dragon. [9]

Contents

Crew-1 is the first operational mission to the International Space Station in the Commercial Crew Program. Originally designated "USCV-1" by NASA in 2012, the launch date was delayed several times from the original date of November 2016. [10] The mission is expected to last 180 days, meaning the flight will return to Earth sometime around May 2021. [3] Resilience is expected to return to Earth via splashdown [11] for reuse for another future mission.

Background

The first operational mission in the Commercial Crew Program, originally designated "USCV-1" (United States Crew Vehicle, mission 1) by NASA, was initially announced in November 2012, with a launch date set for November 2016. [10] In April 2013, it was announced that the launch would be delayed by one year to November 2017. [10] It was then delayed into 2019 and 2020, pending the success of the uncrewed and crewed demonstration missions, respectively. Following the Crew Dragon Demonstration Mission 2, Crew-1 was tentatively scheduled for September 2020; further delays occurred to align with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic restrictions and their impact on the schedule of ISS crew rotations and cargo delivery missions, [11] and then again because of concerns about an issue with the gas generators on the Merlin 1D engines. [12]

On 29 September 2020, mission commander Michael Hopkins revealed during a NASA press conference that the capsule's crew had chosen to name it Resilience. [13]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex only allowed a few people to watch the launch in person from the KSC premises. [14]

Crew

NASA astronauts Michael S. Hopkins and Victor J. Glover were announced as the crew on 3 August 2018. [15] JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi and the third NASA astronaut, Shannon Walker, were added on 31 March 2020 to the crew. [16] [17] [18]

Prime crew
Position Astronaut
Spacecraft commander Flag of the United States.svg Michael S. Hopkins, NASA
Expedition 64
Second spaceflight
Pilot Flag of the United States.svg Victor J. Glover, NASA
Expedition 64
First spaceflight
Mission Specialist 1 Flag of Japan.svg Soichi Noguchi, JAXA
Expedition 64
Third spaceflight
Mission Specialist 2 Flag of the United States.svg Shannon Walker, NASA
Expedition 64
Second spaceflight
Backup crew
Position Astronaut
Spacecraft commander Flag of the United States.svg Kjell N. Lindgren, NASA
Mission Specialist 1 Flag of Japan.svg Koichi Wakata, JAXA

Preparations

The Falcon 9 for the Crew-1 mission arrived at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on 14 July 2020. [19] Crew Dragon capsule C207 arrived at SpaceX processing facilities in Florida, on 18 August 2020. [20] [21] The successful launch of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on 5 November 2020 was a milestone leading up to the Crew-1 mission. Falcon 9 successfully deployed a GPS navigation satellite (GPS III-04) for the United States Space Force (USSF), confirming that engineers have resolved an issue with Merlin 1D engines that delayed the GPS mission and the Crew-1 flight. [22]

The crew arrived at Kennedy Space Center via a NASA Gulfstream jet on 8 November 2020 at 13:53 UTC. A Flight Readiness Review (FRR) convened by NASA officials was scheduled on 10 November 2020 to discuss unresolved technical issues, review the status of launch preparations, and give approval for teams to proceed with the Crew-1 mission. [22] The Falcon 9 and Crew Dragon are at Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A as of 9 November 2020. NASA officials gave approval on 12 November 2020 for SpaceX to begin regular crew rotation flights to the International Space Station (ISS), signaling a transition from development to operations for the human-rated Crew Dragon spacecraft. [23] The launch vehicle was lifted to its vertical position at the pad for a test firing of its Merlin-1D main engines on 11 November 2020 at 20:49 UTC. [24] A dry dress rehearsal (DDR) on 12 November 2020 saw the crew put on their pressure suits and climb into Resilience. [24] SpaceX ran a launch readiness review (LRR) on 13 November 2020. [25]

Mission

Visiting vehicle launches, arrivals and departures Visiting Vehicle Launches, Arrivals and Departures.png
Visiting vehicle launches, arrivals and departures
The crew inside the capsule during the rendezvous process SpaceX Crew 1 Victor Glover inside capsule.jpg
The crew inside the capsule during the rendezvous process
A window view of Earth from the Dragon 2 capsule during Expedition 64 SpaceX Crew 1 capsule window view.jpg
A window view of Earth from the Dragon 2 capsule during Expedition 64

On 15 November 2020, final pre-launch preparations were completed. The hatch of Crew Dragon Resilience was closed at 22:32 UTC, but was reopened briefly after a slight drop in pressure was noted. Troubleshooting around the hatch seal led to discovery of a small amount of foreign object debris (FOD) in the seal. The hatch was then closed afterward, and mission controllers proceeded with the countdown. No further concerns were noted, and on 16 November 2020 at 00:27:17 UTC, Resilience lifted off successfully. Its Falcon 9 first-stage booster, SN B1061, landed on the autonomous spaceport drone ship Just Read the Instructions. [6] The astronauts entered a stable orbit after about nine minutes. For this mission, the crew had chosen a plush toy of Baby Yoda from The Mandalorian as Zero-G indicator. [26] The crew were awakened on the second day of the flight with Phil Collins's "In the Air Tonight". [27]

Resilience docked to the International Docking Adapter (IDA) on the Harmony module on 17 November 2020 at 04:01 UTC. [2] Over the course of the mission, the four astronauts will live and work alongside the three astronauts of the Soyuz MS-17 mission. Together, the two missions will form ISS Expedition 64. Assuming the regular ISS crew rotation schedule is adhered to, the crew will transfer to Expedition 65 following the departure of Soyuz MS-17, currently scheduled for April 2021.

Timeline

MET Time (EST)Time (UTC)Date (UTC)Event [28]
−7:40:0011:47:15 AM16:47:1515 November
2020
Crew wake
−05:30:001:57:15 PM18:57:15CE launch readiness briefing
−05:00:002:27:15 PM19:27:15Launch shift on console
−04:59:592:27:16 PM19:27:16Dragon IMU align and configure for launch
−04:30:002:57:15 PM19:57:15Dragon prop pressurization
−04:15:003:12:15 PM20:12:15Crew weather brief
−04:05:003:22:15 PM20:22:15Crew handoff
−04:00:003:27:15 PM20:27:15Suit donning and checkouts
−03:22:004:05:15 PM21:05:15Crew walk out of Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building
−03:15:004:12:15 PM21:12:15Crew transportation to Launch Complex 39A
−02:55:004:32:15 PM21:32:15Crew arrives at pad
−02:35:004:52:15 PM21:52:15Crew ingress
−02:20:005:07:15 PM22:07:15Communication check
−02:15:005:12:15 PM22:12:15Verify ready seat rotation
−02:14:005:13:15 PM22:13:15Suit leak checks
−01:55:005:32:15 PM22:32:15Hatch close
−01:10:006:17:15 PM23:17:15 ISS state upload to Dragon
−00:45:006:42:15 PM23:42:15 SpaceX launch director verifies go for propellant load
−00:42:006:45:15 PM23:45:15Crew access arm retracts
−00:37:006:49:15 PM23:49:15Dragon launch escape system is armed
−00:35:006:52:15 PM23:52:15 RP-1 (rocket grade kerosene) loading begins; 1st stage LOX (liquid oxygen) loading begins
−00:16:007:11:15 PM00:11:1516 November
2020
2nd stage LOX loading begins
−00:07:007:20:15 PM00:20:15 Falcon 9 begins engine chill prior to launch
−00:05:007:22:15 PM00:22:15Dragon transitions to internal power
−00:01:007:26:15 PM00:26:15Command flight computer to begin final prelaunch checks; propellant tank pressurization to flight pressure begins
−00:00:457:26:30 PM00:26:30SpaceX launch director verifies go for launch
−00:00:037:27:12 PM00:27:12Engine controller commands engine ignition sequence to start
+00:00:007:27:17 PM00:27:17Liftoff
+00:00:587:28:15 PM00:28:15 Max Q (moment of peak mechanical stress on the rocket)
+00:02:377:29:54 PM00:29:541st stage main engine cutoff (MECO)
+00:02:407:29:57 PM00:29:571st and 2nd stages separate
+00:02:487:30:05 PM00:30:052nd stage engine starts
+00:07:297:34:46 PM00:34:461st stage entry burn
+00:08:507:36:07 PM00:36:072nd stage engine cutoff (SECO-1)
+00:08:597:36:16 PM00:36:161st stage landing burn
+00:09:297:36:46 PM00:36:461st stage landing
+00:12:037:39:20 PM00:39:20Crew Dragon separates from 2nd stage
+00:12:487:40:05 PM00:40:05Dragon nosecone open sequence begins

See also

Notes

  1. The Crew Dragon Demo-2 mission was the first crewed flight, but was considered a test flight, not an operational flight
  2. 15 November 2020 19:27 Eastern Standard Time (EST), 16 November 2020 00:27 UTC

Related Research Articles

Soichi Noguchi Japanese aeronautical engineer and a JAXA astronaut

Soichi Noguchi is a Japanese aeronautical engineer and JAXA astronaut. His first spaceflight was as a Mission Specialist aboard STS-114 on 26 July 2005 for NASA's first "return to flight" Space Shuttle mission after the Columbia disaster. He was also in space as part of the Soyuz TMA-17 crew and Expedition 22 to the International Space Station (ISS), returning to Earth on 2 June 2010. He is the sixth Japanese astronaut to fly in space, the fifth to fly on the Space Shuttle, and the first to fly on Crew Dragon.

SpaceX Dragon Reusable cargo spacecraft/space capsule

The SpaceX Dragon, also known as Dragon 1 or Cargo Dragon, was a class of reusable cargo spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company. Dragon was launched into orbit by the company's Falcon 9 launch vehicle to resupply the International Space Station (ISS). It is now superseded by SpaceX Dragon 2.

Shannon Walker American scientist and NASA astronaut

Shannon Walker is an American physicist and a NASA astronaut selected in 2004. She launched on her first mission into space on June 25, 2010 onboard Soyuz TMA-19 and spent over 163 days in space.

Soyuz TMA-17 Flight carrying astronauts to the International Space Station

Soyuz TMA-17 was a human spaceflight mission to the International Space Station (ISS). TMA-17 crew members participated in ISS Expedition 22 and Expedition 23. The mission ended when the Soyuz TMA-17 capsule landed on 2 June 2010.

Boeing Starliner Reusable crew capsule

The Boeing CST-100Starliner is a class of reusable crew capsules expected to transport crew to the International Space Station (ISS) and to private space stations such as the proposed Bigelow Aerospace Commercial Space Station. It is manufactured by Boeing for its participation in NASA's Commercial Crew Program.

SpaceX Dragon 2 Class of reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX

The SpaceX Dragon 2 is a class of reusable spacecraft developed and manufactured by American aerospace manufacturer SpaceX as the successor to Dragon, a reusable cargo spacecraft. It has two variants: Crew Dragon, a space capsule capable of ferrying up to seven astronauts, and Cargo Dragon, an updated replacement for the original Dragon spacecraft. The spacecraft launches atop a Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket and returns to Earth via an ocean splashdown. Unlike its predecessor, the spacecraft can dock itself to the ISS instead of being berthed. Crew Dragon is equipped with an integrated launch escape system (LES) capable of accelerating the vehicle away from the rocket in an emergency at 11.8 m/s2 (39 ft/s2), accomplished by using a set of four side-mounted thruster pods with two SuperDraco engines each. The spacecraft features redesigned solar arrays and a modified outer mold line compared to the original Dragon, and possesses new flight computers and avionics. As of March 2020, four Dragon 2 spacecraft have been manufactured.

Crew Dragon Demo-1 Demonstration flight of the Dragon 2

Crew Dragon Demo-1 was the first orbital test of the Dragon 2 spacecraft. This first spaceflight was an uncrewed mission that launched on 2 March 2019 at 07:49:03 UTC or 02:49:03 EST, and arrived at the International Space Station on 3 March 2019, a little over 24 hours after the launch. The mission ended following a successful splashdown on 8 March 2019 at 13:45:08 UTC or 08:45:08 EST.

Crew Dragon Demo-2 Crewed mission operated by NASA and SpaceX

Crew Dragon Demo-2 was the first crewed test flight of the Crew Dragon spacecraft. The spacecraft, named Endeavour, launched on 30 May 2020 at 19:22:45 UTC on top of Falcon 9 Booster B1058.1, and carried NASA astronauts Douglas Hurley and Robert Behnken to the International Space Station in the first crewed orbital spaceflight launched from the United States since the final Space Shuttle mission, STS-135, in 2011, and the first ever operated by a commercial provider. Demo-2 was also the first two-person orbital spaceflight launched from the United States since STS-4 in 1982.

Boeing Starliner-1 United States Commercial Vehicle mission 2, aboard Boeing Starliner-1

Boeing Starliner-1 is the first operational crewed mission of the Boeing CST-100 Starliner to the International Space Station, and is planned to be the fourth orbital flight mission of the Starliner overall. It is scheduled for launch No Earlier Than (NET) December 2021 with a crew of four. It will transport members of a future ISS Expedition to the ISS. This would only be the fourth US spaceflight with a female commander, after STS-93, STS-114, and STS-120.

Expedition 63 Long-duration mission to the International Space Station

Expedition 63 was the 63rd long duration mission to the International Space Station, which began on 17 April 2020 with the undocking of the Soyuz MS-15 spacecraft and continued until the undocking of the Soyuz MS-16 spacecraft on 21 October 2020, an unusual double-length expedition increment. The Expedition initially consisted of American commander Chris Cassidy, as well as Russian flight engineers Anatoli Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner. On 31 May 2020, the Expedition welcomed the crew of Crew Dragon Demo-2, the first crewed flight of SpaceX's Crew Dragon spacecraft, named Endeavour after the eponymous Space Shuttle vehicle. The mission's two crew members Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken undocked from the International Space Station on 1 August 2020, to help bolster research on the station and participate in several spacewalks outside of the station.

SpaceX CRS-21 Resupply mission to the International Space Station

SpaceX CRS-21, also known as SpX-21, is a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station planned to be launched on 5 December 2020. The mission is contracted by NASA and will be flown by SpaceX using a Cargo Dragon 2. This will be the first flight for SpaceX under NASA's CRS Phase 2 contract awarded in January 2016. This will be the first Cargo Dragon flight that is docked at the same time as a Crew Dragon spacecraft. This mission is planned to use Booster B1058.4, becoming the first NASA mission to reuse a booster previously used on a non-NASA mission. This is also first time SpaceX will launch a NASA payload on a booster with more than one previous flight.

Expedition 64 Long-duration mission to the International Space Station

Expedition 64 is the 64th and current long-duration expedition to the International Space Station (ISS), that began on 21 October 2020 with the undocking and departure of Soyuz MS-16. The Expedition started with the three crew members launched onboard Soyuz MS-17 and reached its full complement with the arrival of SpaceX Crew-1, the first operational flight of NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). As Crew-1 consists of a crew of four instead of three like the Soyuz, Expedition 64 marks the beginning of operations for crews of seven on the ISS. The mission is scheduled to end on 18 April 2021 with the departure of Soyuz MS-17.

SpaceX Axiom Space-1 Mission

SpaceX Axiom Space-1 is a planned SpaceX Crew Dragon mission to the International Space Station (ISS), operated by SpaceX on behalf of Axiom Space. The flight will launch in October 2021 and send four people to the ISS for an approximately eight-day stay: Michael López-Alegría as professionally trained astronaut hired by Axiom Space, Tom Cruise and Doug Liman for a movie project and Eytan Stibbe for Israel.

Commercial Crew Program NASA human spaceflight program for the International Space Station

The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is a human spaceflight program operated by NASA, in association with American aerospace manufacturers Boeing and SpaceX. The program conducts rotations between the expeditions of the International Space Station program, transporting crews to and from the International Space Station (ISS) aboard Boeing Starliner and SpaceX Crew Dragon capsules, in the first crewed orbital spaceflights operated by private companies. The program succeeds NASA's involvement in the Soyuz program, upon which it was dependent to transport its astronauts to the ISS following the retirement of the Space Shuttle program in 2011. Each mission in the Commercial Crew Program will send up to four astronauts to the ISS aboard either a Crew Dragon or Starliner, with options for a fifth passenger being available to NASA. Crew Dragon spacecraft are launched to space atop a Falcon 9 Block 5 launch vehicle and return to Earth via splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean. Starliner spacecraft are launched atop an Atlas V N22 launch vehicle and return on land with airbags on one of four designated sites in the western United States. SpaceX's first operational mission in the program launched on 15 November 2020, while Boeing's first mission is due to launch in 2021.

Crew Dragon <i>Resilience</i> SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft

Crew Dragon Resilience is a Crew Dragon spacecraft manufactured by SpaceX and built under NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). It is currently docked on orbit to the International Space Station (ISS) on the Crew-1 mission after launch at 00:27 UTC on November 16, 2020 delivering the four additional members of Expedition 64 to the three already on station. With crew prompting, Resilience docked autonomously to the station at 04:01 UTC on Day 2 of the mission marking the first crewed operational flight of a Crew Dragon craft and the Commercial Crew Program.

Crew Dragon <i>Endeavour</i> SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft

Crew Dragon Endeavour is a Crew Dragon spacecraft manufactured and operated by SpaceX and used by NASA's Commercial Crew Program. It was launched into orbit on top of a Falcon 9 rocket on 30 May 2020 and successfully docked to the International Space Station (ISS) on 31 May 2020 as part of the Crew Dragon Demo-2 mission. It was the first crewed flight test of Dragon capsule, carrying Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken. It is the spacecraft used in the first crewed orbital spaceflight from the United States since STS-135 in July 2011 and the first crewed orbital spaceflight by a private company. On 2 August 2020 it returned to Earth. The spacecraft was named by Hurley and Behnken after the Space ShuttleEndeavour, which they flew into space during the STS-127 and STS-123 missions, respectively. The name Endeavour is also shared by the command module of Apollo 15.

Crew Dragon C201 SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft

Crew Dragon C201 was a Crew Dragon spacecraft manufactured and operated by SpaceX and used by NASA's Commercial Crew Program. Used in the uncrewed Demo-1 mission, it was launched atop a Falcon 9 rocket on 2 March 2019, arriving at the International Space Station on 3 March 2019. It was the first orbital test flight of the Dragon 2 spacecraft. The spacecraft was unexpectedly destroyed on 20 April 2019 during a separate test when firing the SuperDraco engines at Landing Zone 1.

SpaceX Crew-2 Second operational flight in NASAs Commercial Crew Program, carrying astronauts to the International Space Station

SpaceX Crew-2 will be the second crewed operational flight of a Crew Dragon spacecraft, and the third overall crewed orbital flight. The mission is currently planned to launch on 30 March 2021, pending the actual launch date of the SpaceX Crew-1 mission and refurbishment of the Endeavour capsule after Demo-2 recovery. The Crew-2 mission will transport four members of the crew to the International Space Station.

References

  1. "Astronauts fly with SpaceX in landmark launch for commercial spaceflight". Spaceflight Now. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  2. 1 2 Burghardt, Thomas (17 November 2020). "Crew Dragon Resilience successfully docks, expands ISS crew to seven". NASASpaceflight.com.
  3. 1 2 NASA (25 May 2020). "CCP - Press Kit". Commercial Crew Program. NASA. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020. The Crew; Victor Glover SpaceX Crew-1; Mike Hopkins SpaceX Crew-1; Soichi Noguchi SpaceX Crew-1; Shannon Walker SpaceX Crew-1PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. Shireman, Kirk (14 May 2020). "HEO NAC May 2020 International Space Station Status" (PDF). nasa.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020. Fall 2020 – SpaceX Crew-1 Launch and Dock [...] Demo2 in May/2020, Crew-1 in Fall/2020PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. Glover, Victor [@VicGlover] (12 April 2019). "1st crewed Dragon Mission=DM-2 or Demo-2. 2nd crewed Dragon Mission (and 1st long duration ISS Mission)=Crew-1 or Crew One" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 May 2020 via Twitter.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. 1 2 Corbett, Tobias; Barker, Nathan (15 November 2020). "With Resilience, NASA and SpaceX begin operational Commercial Crew flights". NASASpaceflight.com.
  7. Heiney, Anna (14 August 2020). "NASA, SpaceX Targeting October for Next Astronaut Launch". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 27 August 2020.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. Sheetz, Michael (3 April 2020). "How NASA and SpaceX plan to launch astronauts in May despite a pandemic". CNBC. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  9. "DM2 CCP Press Kit 2020". Commercial Crew Program. NASA. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. 1 2 3 Bergin, Chris (6 April 2013). "USCV-1: NASA planners slip first ISS commercial crew mission to late 2017". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  11. 1 2 "Launch Schedule". Spaceflight Now. 23 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  12. "NASA, SpaceX Crew-1 Launch Update". Commercial Crew Program. NASA. Retrieved 10 October 2020.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. Gebhardt, Chris [@ChrisG_NSF] (29 September 2020). "Crew-1 has named their Dragon spacecraft. Welcome to the family, Dragon #Resilience" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  14. "NASA urges COVID caution for spectators of SpaceX Crew-1 astronaut launch". space.com. Space.com. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  15. Lewis, Marie (3 August 2018). "Meet the Astronauts Flying SpaceX's Demo-2". NASA. Retrieved 3 March 2019.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  16. Clark, Stephen (31 March 2020). "NASA, JAXA assign two more astronauts to second piloted Crew Dragon flight". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  17. Gagarin Research and Test Cosmonaut Training Center (18 March 2019). "Астронавты НАСА Майкл Хопкинс, Виктор Глоувер и Челл Линдгрен приступили к подготовке в ЦПК" [NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins, Victor Glover and Kjell Lindgren begin training at the GCTC] (in Russian). Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  18. Powell, Joel [@ShuttleAlmanac] (19 November 2020). "JAXA has announced long stay visits to the ISS for 2022 and 2023" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  19. Sempsrott, Danielle (16 July 2020). "Falcon 9 Rocket Arrives for NASA's SpaceX Crew-1 Mission". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 18 July 2020.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  20. Groh, Jamie (23 August 2020). "SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule arrives in Florida for next NASA astronaut launch". Teslarati. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  21. Sempsrott, Danielle (21 August 2020). "Preparations Continue for SpaceX First Operational Flight with Astronauts". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 24 August 2020.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  22. 1 2 "Crew Dragon "Resilience" meets Falcon 9 rocket at Florida spaceport". Spaceflight Now. 6 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  23. "NASA formally certifies SpaceX's Crew Dragon for "operational" astronaut flights". Spaceflight Now. 10 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  24. 1 2 "Falcon 9 rocket fires up in crucial test before weekend crew launch". Spaceflight Now. 11 November 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  25. "Crew launch delayed to Sunday". Spaceflight Now. 13 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  26. "Baby Yoda joins astronauts on SpaceX's Crew Dragon launch as its zero G indicator". Washington Post. 16 November 2020.
  27. Twitter
  28. "Mission Timeline for Launch Sunday, Nov. 15 at 7:27:15 p.m. EST" (PDF).