Timeline of pterosaur research

Last updated

Life restoration of the first scientifically studied pterosaur, Pterodactylus Pterodactylus holotype fly mmartyniuk.png
Life restoration of the first scientifically studied pterosaur, Pterodactylus

This timeline of pterosaur research is a chronologically ordered list of important fossil discoveries, controversies of interpretation, and taxonomic revisions of pterosaurs, the famed flying reptiles of the Mesozoic era. Although pterosaurs went extinct millions of years before humans evolved, humans have coexisted with pterosaur fossils for millennia. Before the development of paleontology as a formal science, these remains would have been interpreted through a mythological lens. Myths about thunderbirds told by the Native Americans of the modern Western United States may have been influenced by observations of Pteranodon fossils. These thunderbirds were said to have warred with water monsters, which agrees well with the co-occurrence of Pteranodon and the ancient marine reptiles of the seaway over which it flew. [1]

Contents

The formal study of pterosaurs began in the late 18th century when naturalist Cosimo Alessandro Collini of Mannheim, Germany published a description of an unusual animal with long arms, each bearing an elongated finger. He recognized that this long finger could support a membrane like that of a bat wing, but because the unnamed creature was found in deposits that preserve marine life he concluded that these strange arms were used as flippers. [2] The creature was restudied again in the very early 19th century by French anatomist Georges Cuvier, who recognized both that the creature was a reptile and that its "flippers" were wings. He called the creature the Ptero-dactyle, a name since revised to Pterodactylus . [3]

Although Cuvier's interpretation later became the consensus, it was just one of many early interpretations of the creature and its relatives, including that they were bats, strange birds, or the primordial handiwork of Satan himself. [4] Similar animals like the long-tailed Rhamphorhynchus and Gnathosaurus were soon discovered around Europe and it became obvious that earth was once home to a diverse group of flying reptiles. [5] The British anatomist Sir Richard Owen dubbed this vanished order the Pterosauria. Soon after, he described Britain's own first pterosaur, Dimorphodon . [6] Later in the 19th century pterosaurs were discovered in North America as well, the first of which was a spectacular animal named Pteranodon by paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh. [7]

Various aspects of pterosaur biology invited controversy from the beginning. Samuel Thomas von Soemmering ignited a multi-century debate over how pterosaurs walked on the ground by suggesting they crawled on all fours like bats. August Quenstedt, by contrast, argued that they walked on their hind limbs. [8] In the early 20th century, Hankin and Watson in the first major study of pterosaur flight biomechanics concluded that on the ground these reptiles were altogether helpless and could only scoot along on their stomachs like penguins. [9] The debate gained steam in 1957 when William Stokes reported unusual tracks left by a four-footed animal he suspected was a pterosaur walking along the ground. [10] In 1984, Kevin Padian, who had recently argued that pterosaurs walked on their hind legs, dismissed Stokes's tracks as those of a crocodilian. [11] However, in the mid-1990s, Jean-Michel Mazin and others reported that fossil footprints in Crayssac, France were similar to those reported by Stokes from the US. Mazin's tracks were more obviously pterosaurian in origin and settled the debate in favor of pterosaurs walking on all fours. [10]

Pterosaur paleontology continues to progress into the 21st century. In fact, according to David Hone the early 21st century has seen more progress in pterosaur paleontology than in "the preceding two centuries" combined. He compared this transformative period in pterosaur paleontology to the Dinosaur Renaissance of the 1970s. [12] He also observed that roughly one-third of known pterosaurs were discovered during this brief interval. [13] One of the most notable of these was Darwinopterus , whose body resembled the more primitive long-tailed "rhamphorynchoids", while its skull resembled those of the more advanced short-tailed pterodactyloids. [14] These traits establish the species as an important transitional form, documenting one of the most important phases of pterosaur evolution. [15] Another important new species is Faxinalipterus minima , which might well be the world's oldest pterosaur. [16] The first confirmed pterosaur eggs were also reported from China during the early 21st century. [17]

Prescientific

The Cheyenne people of Nebraska believed in mythical thunderbirds and water monsters that were in endless conflict with each other. The thunderbirds were said to resemble giant eagles and killed both people and animals with arrows made of lightning. People occasionally discovered stony arrowheads thought to come from the thunderbirds' arrows. According to folklorist Adrienne Mayor, these supposed arrowheads were likely fossil belemnites, which were compared to missiles by other indigenous American cultures, like the Zuni people. [18]

The fossils of the Niobrara chalk may have been influential on these stories. The pterosaur Pteranodon and marine reptiles like mosasaurs are preserved in Niobrara Chalk deposits and associated remains may have been interpreted as evidence for antagonism between immense flying animals and serpentine aquatic reptiles. Fossils of the large toothed diving bird Hesperornis are also found in the Niobrara chalk, sometimes preserved inside specimens of large predatory marine reptiles. Observations of similar fossils in the past may have been seen as further evidence for thunderbird-water monster conflict. [19]

18th century

Type specimen of Pterodactylus Pterodactylus holotype Collini 1784.jpg
Type specimen of Pterodactylus

1780s

1784

19th century

Portrait of Georges Cuvier, the naturalist who recognized pterosaurs as flying reptiles Georges cuvier narrow.png
Portrait of Georges Cuvier, the naturalist who recognized pterosaurs as flying reptiles

1800s

1801

1802

1807

1809

1810s

Reconstruction of a pterosaur specimen by Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring Pterodactylus antiquus soemmerring.png
Reconstruction of a pterosaur specimen by Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring

1812

1817

1819

1820s

Illustration of the holotype skull of Rhamphorhynchus. Ornithocephalus Munsteri.jpg
Illustration of the holotype skull of Rhamphorhynchus .

1824

c. 1825

1827

1829

1830s

Pterodactylus reconstructed as an aquatic animal Aquatic Pterodactylus.jpg
Pterodactylus reconstructed as an aquatic animal
Pterodactylus restored using its claws to climb cliffs, as advocated by August Goldfuss and William Buckland Pterodactylus clinging to cliffs.png
Pterodactylus restored using its claws to climb cliffs, as advocated by August Goldfuss and William Buckland

1830

1831

1832

1833

1834

1836

1839

1840s

The pterosaur Pterodactylus portrayed as the handiwork of Satan in the Book of the Great Sea-Dragons by Thomas Hawkins (1840) Hawkins Pterodactylus.png
The pterosaur Pterodactylus portrayed as the handiwork of Satan in the Book of the Great Sea-Dragons by Thomas Hawkins (1840)

1840

1842

1843

1847

1850s

1851

1855

Illustrated skeletal reconstruction and life restoration of Dimorphodon. Pterodactyl skeleton.jpg
Illustrated skeletal reconstruction and life restoration of Dimorphodon .

1855

1856

1859

1850s – 1860s

1859 1860

1860s

Type specimen of Scaphognathus crassirostris. Scaphognathus crassirostris - Naturmuseum Senckenberg - DSC02226.JPG
Type specimen of Scaphognathus crassirostris .

1860

1861

1862

1863

1869

1870s

Type specimen of Cycnorhamphus Cycnorhamphus suevicus.jpg
Type specimen of Cycnorhamphus
Early restoration of Ornithostoma Ornithostoma without text.jpg
Early restoration of Ornithostoma
Othniel Charles Marsh (left) and his rival Edward Drinker Cope (right) Othniel Charles Marsh & Edward Drinker Cope bw.jpg
Othniel Charles Marsh (left) and his rival Edward Drinker Cope (right)
Type specimen of Coloborhynchus Coloborhynchus.jpg
Type specimen of Coloborhynchus
The short-crested female type specimen of Pteranodon Pteranodon longiceps YPM1177.jpg
The short-crested female type specimen of Pteranodon
Life restoration of a male Pteranodon Pteranodon longiceps mmartyniuk wiki.png
Life restoration of a male Pteranodon

1870

November, late

November – December 31st

1871

1872

March 7th

March 12th

March 12th – December 31st

1874

1875

1876

May

May – December 31st

1877

1880s

Illustration of the type specimen and life restoration of Rhamphorhynchus "phyllurus" from an 1882 publication by Othniel Charles Marsh Ramphorhynchus reconstruction Marsh 1882.jpg
Illustration of the type specimen and life restoration of Rhamphorhynchus "phyllurus" from an 1882 publication by Othniel Charles Marsh
Illustration of the type specimen of "Ptenodracon" (actually just a juvenile Ctenochasma) Juvenile Pterodactylus antiquus solnhofen.jpg
Illustration of the type specimen of " Ptenodracon " (actually just a juvenile Ctenochasma )

1881

1882

1884

1886

1887

1888

1890s

Samuel Wendell Williston in 1891 Samuel Wendell Williston.jpg
Samuel Wendell Williston in 1891

1891

1892

In this paper Williston also described a new, relatively complete Nyctosaurus specimen. He noted that the only published trait distinguishing the genus from Pterodactylus was an absence of teeth and recommended synonymizing these two genera if "Nyctosaurus" teeth were ever found. [57]

1893

1895

1896

1897

20th century

1900s

The Nyctosaurus specimen FMNH 25026. Fossil pterosaur.jpg
The Nyctosaurus specimen FMNH 25026.

1901

1902

Skeletal reconstruction of Scleromochlus Scleromochlus taylori.jpg
Skeletal reconstruction of Scleromochlus

1903

Life restoration of Scleromochlus Scleromochlus BW.jpg
Life restoration of Scleromochlus

1904

1907

1910s

1910

1911

Reconstruction of the skull of Lonchodectes Lonchodectes.jpg
Reconstruction of the skull of Lonchodectes
Skull of Parapsicephalus Parapsicephalus horizontal.jpg
Skull of Parapsicephalus

1913

1914

1918

1920s

1920

Life restoration of Anurognathus AnurognathusDB.jpg
Life restoration of Anurognathus
Life restoration of Campylognathoides Campylogn DB.jpg
Life restoration of Campylognathoides

1921

1922

1923

1925

1927

1928

1929

1930s

1937

1938

1939

1940s

Fossil of a dead horseshoe crab at the end of a type of fossil trackway once attributed to pterosaurs Fossil horseshoe crab dead in its tracks.jpg
Fossil of a dead horseshoe crab at the end of a type of fossil trackway once attributed to pterosaurs

1940

1943

1948

1950s

Life restoration of "Pteranodon" (now Geosternbergia) sternbergi Pteranodon-sternbergi jconway.jpg
Life restoration of " Pteranodon " (now Geosternbergia ) sternbergi

1952

1954

1956

1957

1958

1960s

Life restoration of Germanodactylus. Altmuehlopterus DB.jpg
Life restoration of Germanodactylus .
Skull of Dsungaripterus. Dsungeripterus weii.png
Skull of Dsungaripterus .

1962

1963

1964

1966

1968

1969

1970s

Life restoration of Pterodaustro Pterodaustro BW.jpg
Life restoration of Pterodaustro
Fossil skeleton of Sordes pilosus Sordes pilosus.jpg
Fossil skeleton of Sordes pilosus
Fossil skeleton of Eudimorphodon Eudimorphodon ranzii 1.JPG
Fossil skeleton of Eudimorphodon
Skeletal mount of Quetzalcoatlus Gfp-quetzalcaotlus.jpg
Skeletal mount of Quetzalcoatlus

1970

1971

1973

1974

1975

1977

1978

1979

1980s

1980

1981

1982

Skeletal reconstruction of Dimorphodon as a biped Dimorphodon reconstruction Seeley 1901.jpg
Skeletal reconstruction of Dimorphodon as a biped
Fossil wing bones of Azhdarcho Azhdarcho.jpg
Fossil wing bones of Azhdarcho

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

Skull of Tupuxuara Tupuxuara skull.JPG
Skull of Tupuxuara

1988

1989

1990s

Life restorations of various pteranodonts including Pterandon longiceps and P. sternbergi. The grey areas were not preserved in their respective specimens. Pteranodonts.png
Life restorations of various pteranodonts including Pterandon longiceps and P. sternbergi. The grey areas were not preserved in their respective specimens.

1990

1991

Life restoration of Tupuxuara Tupuxuara.jpg
Life restoration of Tupuxuara
Life restoration of Zhejiangopterus Zhenjiangopterus jconway.jpg
Life restoration of Zhejiangopterus

1992

1993

1994

Life restoration of Plataleorhynchus Plataleorhynchus.jpg
Life restoration of Plataleorhynchus

1995

1996

June 1st

June 29–30th

Life restoration of Tapejara imperator TapimpDB.jpg
Life restoration of Tapejara imperator

1997

1998

May

June

1999

21st century

2000s

Life restoration of Nyctosaurus Nyctosaurus mmartyniuk.jpg
Life restoration of Nyctosaurus

2000

2001

3-dimensional restoration of Hatzegopteryx Hatzegopteryx.JPG
3-dimensional restoration of Hatzegopteryx

2002

2003

Life restoration of Ludodactylus. Ludodactylus.jpg
Life restoration of Ludodactylus .
Fossil skeleton of Sinopterus. Sinopterus dongi.jpg
Fossil skeleton of Sinopterus .
Skeletal reconstruction of a pterosaur being bitten by the spinosaur Irritator Museu Nacional, UFRJ - Quinta da Boa Vista 5.jpg
Skeletal reconstruction of a pterosaur being bitten by the spinosaur Irritator

2004

May

July

2005

Life restoration of Nurhachius. Nurhachius NT.jpg
Life restoration of Nurhachius .
Life restoration of Muzquizopteryx Muzquizopteryx coahuilensis copia.jpg
Life restoration of Muzquizopteryx

2006

Humerus fragment of Aralazhdarcho Aralazhdarcho.jpg
Humerus fragment of Aralazhdarcho

2007

April

2008

Skeletal reconstruction of Shenzhoupterus Shenzhoupterus.png
Skeletal reconstruction of Shenzhoupterus
Life restoration of Nemicolopterus. Nemicolopterus wide aspect.png
Life restoration of Nemicolopterus .
Life restoration of Ningchengopterus. Ningchengopterus liuae.jpg
Life restoration of Ningchengopterus .

2009

2010s

The skull of Alanqa Jaws of Alanqa saharica compared to other azhdarchids.png
The skull of Alanqa
Life restoration of Darwinopterus Darwinopterus NT.jpg
Life restoration of Darwinopterus
Life restoration of Dawndraco Dawndraco cropped.png
Life restoration of Dawndraco
Life restoration of Sericipterus Sericipterus NT.jpg
Life restoration of Sericipterus

2010

Type skeleton of Aurorazhdarcho Pterodactylus micronyx - IMG 0677.jpg
Type skeleton of Aurorazhdarcho

2011

Life restoration of Bellubrunnus Bellubrunnus rothgaengeri.png
Life restoration of Bellubrunnus
Skull of Guidraco Guidraco venator 324.jpg
Skull of Guidraco

2012

Skull of the type specimen of Ardeadactylus Ardeadactylus type less neck.png
Skull of the type specimen of Ardeadactylus
Life restoration of Cuspicephalus Cuspicephalus individual.png
Life restoration of Cuspicephalus

2013

2014

Type skeleton of Aerodactylus Aerodactylus main slab.png
Type skeleton of Aerodactylus

2015

Illustration of the skull of Banguela with jaws both open and closed Banguela skull.png
Illustration of the skull of Banguela with jaws both open and closed

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020s

2020

See also

Footnotes

  1. Mayor (2005); "Cheyenne Fossil Knowledge", pages 209–211 and "The High Plains: Thunder Birds, Water Monsters, and Buffalo-Calling Stones", page 221.
  2. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "2. Early discoveries", page 8.
  3. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "2. Early discoveries", pages 8–9.
  4. For pterosaurs interpreted as birds or bats, see Wellnhofer (2008); "2. Early discoveries", page 9. For an attribution of pterosaurs to the infernal, see O'Connor (2012); page 499 and Hawkins (1840); "Addenda", page 7.
  5. For the description of Rhamphorhynchus, see Hanson (2008); "R", pages 19–20. For the description of Gnathosaurus, see "G", page 9.
  6. For the description of Pterosauria, see Wellnhofer (2008); "2. Early discoveries", page 10. For Dimorphodon, see "3. First pterosaurs from the Lias".
  7. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "5. American discoveries", page 11.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Wellnhofer (2008); "9. The problem of terrestrial locomotion", page 14.
  9. For this paper as the first major study of pterosaur biomechanics, see Wellnhofer (2008); "8. Flight biomechanics", page 13. For its conclusion regarding pterosaurian helplessness on the ground, see "9. The problem of terrestrial locomotion", page 14.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Wellnhofer (2008); "9. The problem of terrestrial locomotion", page 15.
  11. For Padian's 1983 peper on pterosaur gait, see Wellnhofer (2008); "9. The problem of terrestrial locomotion", page 14. For his criticism of Stokes's pterosaur track claims, see Lockley and Hunt (1995); "What's in a Name?", page 145.
  12. Hone (2012); "Abstract", page 1366.
  13. 1 2 3 Hone (2012); "2 What is Out There?", page 1367.
  14. 1 2 Hone (2012); "3 New and Important Finds", page 1367.
  15. 1 2 Hone (2012); "3 New and Important Finds", pages 1367–1368.
  16. 1 2 3 Hone (2012); "4 Pterosaur Origins", page 1369.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Hone (2012); "3 New and Important Finds", page 1368.
  18. Mayor (2005); "Cheyenne Fossil Knowledge", pages 209–210.
  19. Mayor (2005); "Cheyenne Fossil Knowledge", page 211.
  20. Mayor (2005); "The High Plains: Thunder Birds, Water Monsters, and Buffalo-Calling Stones", page 221.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Wellnhofer (2008); "2. Early discoveries", page 9.
  22. For von Soemmerring's full name, see Wellnhofer (2008); "1. Personal Remarks", page 8. For his involvement in early pterosaur research, see "2. Early discoveries", page 9.
  23. Cuvier, G. (1819). "Pterodactylus longirostris". In Oken, Lorenz (ed.). Isis (oder Encyclopädische Zeitung) von Oken (in German). Jena : Expedition der Isis. pp.  1126, 1788.
  24. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "4. Discoveries of Cretaceous pterosaurs", pages 10–11.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wellnhofer (2008); "3. First pterosaurs from the Lias", page 10.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wellnhofer (2008); "7. Early life restorations", page 12.
  27. 1 2 3 4 Wellnhofer (2008); "10. The evidence of soft parts", page 17.
  28. 1 2 3 Hanson (2008); "R", page 19.
  29. Hanson (2008); "G", page 9.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Wellnhofer (2008); "2. Early discoveries", page 10.
  31. Wellnhofer (2008); "2. Early discoveries", pages 9–10.
  32. O'Connor (2012); page 499.
  33. For Hawkins's interpretation of pterosaurs as "engrafted-by-Evil", see Hawkins (1840); "Addenda", page 7. For his portrayal of pterosaurs as shoreline scavengers, see Wellnhofer (2008); "7. Early life restorations", page 12.
  34. 1 2 Hanson (2008); "R", pages 19–20.
  35. 1 2 3 Hanson (2008); "C", page 6.
  36. Carpenter (1999); "England", page 13.
  37. 1 2 Lockley and Meyer (2000); "Turtles and Hopping Dinosaurs", page 178.
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "2. History of discovery and debate", page 186.
  39. Hanson (2008); "O", pages 13–14.
  40. For the description of Cycnorhamphus, see Hanson (2008); "C", pages 6–7. For the description of Ornithocheirus huxleyi, see "O", pages 13–14.
  41. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "4. Discoveries of Cretaceous pterosaurs", page 11.
  42. Hanson (2008); "L", page 10.
  43. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 195.
  44. 1 2 3 4 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 191.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 199.
  46. 1 2 3 4 Hanson (2008); "D", page 7.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 194.
  48. 1 2 3 4 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 196.
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 197.
  50. For Carruthers's first name and his description of new oospecies, see Carpenter (1999); "England", page 13. For his attribution of Oolithes to pterosaurs, see Carpenter, Hirsch, and Horner (1996); "The discovery of dinosaur eggs", page 1.
  51. 1 2 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 197–198.
  52. 1 2 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 198.
  53. 1 2 3 Hanson (2008); "C", pages 5–6.
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 200.
  55. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 199–200.
  56. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 202.
  57. 1 2 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 203.
  58. For the description of Dermodactylus in 1881, see Hanson (2008); "D", page 7. For the description of Laopteryx priscus see "L", page 10.
  59. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "10. The evidence of soft parts", page 15.
  60. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "10. The evidence of soft parts", pages 15–16.
  61. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wellnhofer (2008); "10. The evidence of soft parts", page 16.
  62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wellnhofer (2008); "6. Triassic Pterosaurs", page 12.
  63. Hanson (2008); "O", page 14.
  64. Wellnhofer (2008); "10. The evidence of soft parts", pages 16–17.
  65. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 201.
  66. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 201–202.
  67. For the subject of Williston's critique being the length of Pteranodon's crest in Marsh's 1884 reconstruction, see Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 200. For Williston's characterization of the reconstruction as too speculative for its quality of preservation, see page 202.
  68. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 204.
  69. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hone (2012); "8 Increased Research and Outreach", page 1372.
  70. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 209.
  71. 1 2 3 4 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 205.
  72. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 205–206.
  73. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 207.
  74. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 200–201.
  75. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 206.
  76. Hanson (2008); "S", page 21.
  77. 1 2 3 Wellnhofer (2008); "5. American discoveries", page 12.
  78. 1 2 3 4 5 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 210.
  79. Hanson (2008); "L", pages 10–11.
  80. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 209. Wellnhofer (2008); "8. Flight biomechanics", page 13.
  81. 1 2 3 4 5 Hanson (2008); "P", page 15.
  82. 1 2 Hanson (2008); "A", pages 2–3.
  83. 1 2 Hanson (2008); "C", page 5.
  84. 1 2 3 4 Hanson (2008); "B", page 4.
  85. Hanson (2008); "A", page 24.
  86. 1 2 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "2. History of discovery and debate", page 188.
  87. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 208.
  88. Hanson (2008); "P", page 25.
  89. Wellnhofer (2008); "11. Recent discoveries", page 18.
  90. Hanson (2008); "G", pages 8–9.
  91. Wellnhofer (2008); "1. Personal remarks", page 7.
  92. 1 2 3 Hanson (2008); "N", page 12.
  93. Hanson (2008); "P", page 18.
  94. 1 2 Wellnhofer (2008); "11. Recent discoveries", page 17.
  95. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 208–209.
  96. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Wellnhofer (2008); "8. Flight biomechanics", page 14.
  97. 1 2 3 Hanson (2008); "A", page 3.
  98. Hanson (2008); "D", pages 7–8.
  99. Wellnhofer (2008); "8. Flight biomechanics", page 13.
  100. Wellnhofer (2008); "8. Flight biomechanics", pages 13–14.
  101. Hanson (2008); "P", pages 17–18.
  102. Hanson (2008); "H", page 9.
  103. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 209–210.
  104. Hanson (2008); "Q", page 19.
  105. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "2. History of discovery and debate", page 187.
  106. 1 2 3 4 5 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "4.2 Lack of convincing, pre-Late Jurassic reports of pterosaurian tracks", page 189.
  107. Hanson (2008); "S", page 20.
  108. Hanson (2008); "H", page 10.
  109. Hanson (2008); "A", page 2.
  110. 1 2 Hanson (2008); "A", page 4.
  111. Lockley and Hunt (1995); "What's in a Name?", page 145.
  112. Hanson (2008); "B", page 4-5.
  113. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hanson (2008); "T", page 22.
  114. 1 2 Hanson (2008); "M", page 12.
  115. 1 2 3 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 211.
  116. Hanson (2008); "P", pages 15–16.
  117. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", page 212.
  118. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "4.3 Important new finds that have yet to be studied", page 190.
  119. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 197 and 199.
  120. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 207–209.
  121. For discussion of Bennett's critique of Miller's Pteranodon taxonomy, see Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 208–209. For his critique of Harksen's P. sternbergi reconstruction, see pages 207–208.
  122. Hanson (2008); "Z", page 23.
  123. Hanson (2008); "P", pages 24–25.
  124. 1 2 3 Hone (2012); "4 Pterosaur Origins", page 1368.
  125. Hanson (2008); "K", page 10.
  126. Carpenter (1999); "England", pages 13–14.
  127. 1 2 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "2. History of discovery and debate", pages 186-187.
  128. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 191–192.
  129. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 192–193.
  130. 1 2 Hanson (2008); "E", page 8.
  131. Hanson (2008); "D", page 7. For the original description, see Martill et al. (2000).
  132. Kellner and Tomida (2000); in passim.
  133. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Hone (2012); "6 Anatomy", page 1370.
  134. 1 2 3 4 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "4.4.1 Exceptional preservation", page 190.
  135. Wang and Lu (2001); in passim.
  136. Howse, Milner, and Martill (2001); in passim.
  137. 1 2 3 4 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "3. Current state of knowledge", page 188.
  138. 1 2 3 Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "4.1 Identifying the track makers", page 189.
  139. Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "4.5 Tracks and indicators of pterosaur behavior and paleoecology", page 191.
  140. Hanson (2008); "H", page 24.
  141. Dalla Vecchia et al. (2002); in passim.
  142. Buffetaut, Grigorescu, and Csiki (2002); in passim.
  143. Wang et al. (2002); in passim.
  144. Varricchio (2002); in passim.
  145. Czerkas and Ji (2002); in passim.
  146. Kellner and Campos (2002); in passim.
  147. Czerkas and Mickelson (2002); in passim.
  148. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hone (2012); "7 Functional Morphology and Ecology", page 1370.
  149. Everhart (2005); "Pteranodons: Rulers of the Air", pages 212–213.
  150. Lü (2003); in passim.
  151. 1 2 Wang and Zhou (2003a); in passim.
  152. Carpenter et al. (2003); in passim.
  153. Dong, Sun, and Wu (2003); in passim.
  154. Frey, Martill, and Buchy (2003); in passim.
  155. Pereda-Suberbiola et al. (2003); in passim.
  156. Wang and Zhou (2003b); in passim.
  157. 1 2 3 4 Hone (2012); "5 Phylogeny and Taxonomy", page 1370.
  158. Lockley, Harris, and Mitchell (2008); "1. Introduction", page 186.
  159. Peters (2004); in passim.
  160. Gasparini, Fernández, and de la Fuente (2004); in passim.
  161. Maisch, Matzke, and Sun (2004); in passim.
  162. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hone (2012); "7 Functional Morphology and Ecology", page 1371.
  163. Ösi, Weishampel, and Jianu (2005); in passim.
  164. Lü and Ji (2005a); in passim.
  165. Steel et al. (2005); in passim.
  166. Lü and Ji (2005b); in passim.
  167. Lü and Zhang (2005); in passim.
  168. Wang et al. (2005); in passim.
  169. Lu and Yuan (2005); in passim.
  170. Dong and Lu (2005); in passim.
  171. Wang and Zhou (2006); in passim.
  172. Fröbisch and Fröbisch (2006); in passim.
  173. Wang et al. (2006); in passim.
  174. Frey et al. (2006); in passim.
  175. Lü et al. (2006); in passim.
  176. Averianov (2007); in passim.
  177. Wang et al. (2007); in passim.
  178. Kellner and Campos (2007); in passim.
  179. Andres and Ji (2008); in passim.
  180. Wang et al. (2008a); in passim.
  181. Molnar and Thulborn (2008); in passim.
  182. Wang et al. (2008b); in passim.
  183. Stecher (2008); in passim.
  184. Lü et al. (2008); in passim.
  185. Averianov, Arkhangelsky, and Pervushov (2008); in passim.
  186. 1 2 Hone (2012); "7 Functional Morphology and Ecology", pages 1370–1371.
  187. Dalla Vecchia (2009); in passim.
  188. Lü (2009a); in passim.
  189. Lü (2009b); in passim.
  190. Wang et al. (2009); in passim.
  191. Myers (2010); in passim.
  192. Ibrahim et al. (2010); in passim.
  193. Lü and Fucha (2010); in passim.
  194. Lü et al. (2010); in passim.
  195. 1 2 Wang et al. (2010); in passim.
  196. 1 2 Kellner (2010); in passim.
  197. Bonaparte, Schultz, and Soares (2010); in passim.
  198. Lü, Fucha, and Chen (2010); in passim.
  199. Fuentes Vidarte and Meijide Calvo (2010); in passim.
  200. Andres, Clark, and Xu (2010); in passim.
  201. Lü (2010); in passim.
  202. Hone (2012); "4 Pterosaur Origins", pages 1368–1369.
  203. Frey, Meyer, and Tischlinger (2011); in passim.
  204. Kellner, Rodrigues, and Costa (2011); in passim.
  205. Elgin and Frey (2011); in passim.
  206. Lü et al. (2011); in passim.
  207. Lü and Bo (2011); in passim.
  208. Sullivan and Fowler (2011); in passim.
  209. Jiang and Wang (2011); in passim.
  210. Martill (2011); in passim.
  211. Novas et al. (2012); in passim.
  212. Hone et al. (2012); in passim.
  213. Lü and Hone (2012); in passim.
  214. Vullo et al. (2012); in passim.
  215. Lü et al. (2012a); in passim.
  216. Wang et al. (2012); in passim.
  217. Cheng et al. (2012); in passim.
  218. Lü et al. (2012b); in passim.
  219. Lü et al. (2012c); in passim.
  220. Hone (2012); "7 Functional Morphology and Ecology", page 1372.
  221. 1 2 Andres and Myers (2013); in passim.
  222. Bennett (2013); in passim.
  223. 1 2 3 Rodrigues and Kellner (2013); in passim.
  224. Kellner (2013); in passim.
  225. Martill and Etches (2013); in passim.
  226. Vremir et al. (2013); in passim.
  227. Naish, Simpson and Dyke (2013); in passim.
  228. Codorniú and Gasparini (2013); in passim.
  229. Vidovic and Martill (2014); in passim.
  230. Jiang et al. (2014); in passim.
  231. Manzig et al. (2014); in passim.
  232. Wang et al. (2014a); in passim.
  233. Wang et al. (2014b); in passim.
  234. Andres, Clark and Xu (2014); in passim.
  235. Bantim et al. (2014); in passim.
  236. 1 2 3 Kellner (2015); in passim.
  237. Headden and Campos (2015); in passim.
  238. Myers (2015); in passim.
  239. Cheng et al. (2015); in passim.
  240. Rodrigues et al. (2015); in passim.
  241. Lü et al. (2015); in passim.
  242. O'Sullivan and Martill (2015); in passim.
  243. Lü et al. (2016); in passim.
  244. Codorniú et al. (2016); in passim.
  245. Megan L. Jacobs; David M. Martill; Nizar Ibrahim; Nick Longrich (2019). "A new species of Coloborhynchus (Pterosauria, Ornithocheiridae) from the mid-Cretaceous of North Africa". Cretaceous Research. 95: 77–88. Bibcode:2019CrRes..95...77J. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.10.018. S2CID   134439172.
  246. Borja Holgado; Rodrigo V. Pêgas; José Ignacio Canudo; Josep Fortuny; Taissa Rodrigues; Julio Company; Alexander W. A. Kellner (2019). "On a new crested pterodactyloid from the Early Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula and the radiation of the clade Anhangueria". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): Article number 4940. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.4940H. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-41280-4. PMC   6426928 . PMID   30894614.
  247. Zixiao Yang; Baoyu Jiang; Maria E. McNamara; Stuart L. Kearns; Michael Pittman; Thomas G. Kaye; Patrick J. Orr; Xing Xu; Michael J. Benton (2019). "Supplementary information for: Pterosaur integumentary structures with complex feather-like branching" (PDF). Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3 (1): 24–30. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0728-7. hdl:1983/1f7893a1-924d-4cb3-a4bf-c4b1592356e9. PMID   30568282. S2CID   56480710.
  248. Zixiao Yang; Baoyu Jiang; Maria E. McNamara; Stuart L. Kearns; Michael Pittman; Thomas G. Kaye; Patrick J. Orr; Xing Xu; Michael J. Benton (2019). "Pterosaur integumentary structures with complex feather-like branching" (PDF). Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3 (1): 24–30. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0728-7. hdl:1983/1f7893a1-924d-4cb3-a4bf-c4b1592356e9. PMID   30568282. S2CID   56480710. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  249. Adele H. Pentland; Stephen F. Poropat (2019). "Reappraisal of Mythunga camara Molnar & Thulborn, 2007 (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea, Anhangueria) from the upper Albian Toolebuc Formation of Queensland, Australia". Cretaceous Research. 93: 151–169. Bibcode:2019CrRes..93..151P. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.09.011. S2CID   133856481.
  250. Elizabeth Martin‐Silverstone; Daniel Sykes; Darren Naish (2019). "Does postcranial palaeoneurology provide insight into pterosaur behaviour and lifestyle? New data from the azhdarchoid Vectidraco and the ornithocheirids Coloborhynchus and Anhanguera". Palaeontology. 62 (2): 197–210. Bibcode:2019Palgy..62..197M. doi:10.1111/pala.12390. hdl: 1983/d4d42086-9b8e-463d-a104-9e602ffca96c . S2CID   133796336.
  251. Flavio Bellardini; Laura Codorniú (2019). "First pterosaur post-cranial remains from the Lower Cretaceous Lohan Cura Formation (Albian) of Patagonia, Argentina". Ameghiniana. 56 (2): 116. doi:10.5710/AMGH.13.03.2019.3225. S2CID   131780806.
  252. Hone, D.; Habib, M.; Therrien, F. (September 2019). "Cryodrakon boreas, gen. et sp. nov., a Late Cretaceous Canadian azhdarchid pterosaur". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (3): e1649681. Bibcode:2019JVPal..39E9681H. doi:10.1080/02724634.2019.1649681. S2CID   203406859.
  253. Pentland, Adele H.; Poropat, Stephen F.; Tischler, Travis R.; Sloan, Trish; Elliott, Robert A.; Elliott, Harry A.; Elliott, Judy A.; Elliott, David A. (December 2019). "Ferrodraco lentoni gen. et sp. nov., a new ornithocheirid pterosaur from the Winton Formation (Cenomanian–lower Turonian) of Queensland, Australia". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 13454. Bibcode:2019NatSR...913454P. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-49789-4. ISSN   2045-2322. PMC   6776501 . PMID   31582757.
  254. Kellner, Alexander W. A.; Weinschütz, Luiz C.; Holgado, Borja; Bantim, Renan A. M.; Sayão, Juliana M. (19 August 2019). "A new toothless pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from Southern Brazil with insights into the paleoecology of a Cretaceous desert". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 91 (suppl 2): e20190768. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201920190768 . ISSN   0001-3765. PMID   31432888.
  255. Kellner, Alexander W. A.; Caldwell, Michael W.; Holgado, Borja; Vecchia, Fabio M. Dalla; Nohra, Roy; Sayão, Juliana M.; Currie, Philip J. (2019). "First complete pterosaur from the Afro-Arabian continent: insight into pterodactyloid diversity". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 17875. Bibcode:2019NatSR...917875K. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-54042-z. PMC   6884559 . PMID   31784545.
  256. Zhou, X.; Pêgas, R.V.; Leal, M.E.C.; Bonde, N. (2019). "Nurhachius luei, a new istiodactylid pterosaur (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Chaoyang City, Liaoning Province (China) and comments on the Istiodactylidae". PeerJ. 7: e7688. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7688 . PMC   6754973 . PMID   31579592.
  257. Dalla Vecchia, Fabio Marco (25 July 2019). "Seazzadactylus venieri gen. et sp. nov., a new pterosaur (Diapsida: Pterosauria) from the Upper Triassic (Norian) of northeastern Italy". PeerJ. 7: e7363. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7363 . PMC   6661147 . PMID   31380153.
  258. Pêgas, R.V.; Holgado, B.; Leal, M.E.C. (2019). "Targaryendraco wiedenrothi gen. nov. (Pterodactyloidea, Pteranodontoidea, Lanceodontia) and recognition of a new cosmopolitan lineage of Cretaceous toothed pterodactyloids". Historical Biology. 33 (8): 1–15. doi:10.1080/08912963.2019.1690482. S2CID   209595986.
  259. Solomon, A.A., Codrea, V.A., Venczel, M. & Grellet-Tinner, G., 2019, "A new species of large-sized pterosaur from the Maastrichtian of Transylvania (Romania)", Cretaceous Research, in press
  260. Martill, David M.; Green, Mick; Smith, Roy E.; Jacobs, Megan L.; Winch, John (1 September 2020). "First tapejarid pterosaur from the Wessex Formation (Wealden Group: Lower Cretaceous, Barremian) of the United Kingdom". Cretaceous Research. 113: 104487. Bibcode:2020CrRes.11304487M. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104487. ISSN   0195-6671. S2CID   219099220.
  261. Pentland, Adele H.; Poropat, Stephen F.; White, Matt A.; Rigby, Samantha L.; Bevitt, Joseph J.; Duncan, Ruairidh J.; Sloan, Trish; Elliott, Robert A.; Elliott, Harry A.; Elliott, Judy A.; Elliott, David A. (30 March 2022). "The osteology of Ferrodraco lentoni, an anhanguerid pterosaur from the mid-Cretaceous of Australia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 41 (5): e2038182. doi: 10.1080/02724634.2021.2038182 . ISSN   0272-4634. S2CID   247814094.

Related Research Articles

<i>Pterodactylus</i> Genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Late Jurassic

Pterodactylus is a genus of extinct pterosaurs. It is thought to contain only a single species, Pterodactylus antiquus, which was the first pterosaur to be named and identified as a flying reptile and one of the first prehistoric reptiles to ever be discovered.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pterosaur</span> Flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria

Pterosaurs are an extinct clade of flying reptiles in the order Pterosauria. They existed during most of the Mesozoic: from the Late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight. Their wings were formed by a membrane of skin, muscle, and other tissues stretching from the ankles to a dramatically lengthened fourth finger.

<i>Pteranodon</i> Genus of pteranodontid pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous

Pteranodon ; from Ancient Greek πτερόν and ἀνόδων is a genus of pterosaur that included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with P. longiceps having a wingspan of over 6 m (20 ft). They lived during the late Cretaceous geological period of North America in present-day Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, South Dakota and Alabama. More fossil specimens of Pteranodon have been found than any other pterosaur, with about 1,200 specimens known to science, many of them well preserved with nearly complete skulls and articulated skeletons. It was an important part of the animal community in the Western Interior Seaway.

<i>Tapejara wellnhoferi</i> Genus of tapejarid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous

Tapejara is a genus of Brazilian pterosaur from the Cretaceous Period. Tapejara crests consisted of a semicircular crest over the snout, and a bony prong which extended back behind the head. It was a small pterosaur, with a wingspan of approximately 1.23–1.3 metres (4.0–4.3 ft).

<i>Ornithocheirus</i> Genus of ornithocheirid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous

Ornithocheirus is a pterosaur genus known from fragmentary fossil remains uncovered from sediments in the United Kingdom and possibly Morocco.

<i>Germanodactylus</i> Genus of germanodactylid pterosaur from the Late Jurassic

Germanodactylus is a genus of germanodactylid pterodactyloid pterosaur from Upper Jurassic-age rocks of Germany, including the Solnhofen Limestone. Its specimens were long thought to pertain to Pterodactylus. The head crest of Germanodactylus is a distinctive feature.

Anhanguera is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Early Cretaceous Romualdo Formation of Brazil and the Late Cretaceous Kem Kem Group of Morocco. This pterosaur is closely related to Ornithocheirus, but belongs in the family Anhangueridae. The generic name comes from the Tupi words añanga, meaning "spirit protector of the animals" + wera "bygone".

<i>Nyctosaurus</i> Genus of nyctosaurid pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous

Nyctosaurus is a genus of nyctosaurid pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous period of what is now the Niobrara Formation of the mid-western United States, which, during the time Nyctosaurus was alive, was covered in an extensive shallow sea. Some remains belonging to a possible Nyctosaurus species called N.lamegoi have been found in Brazil, making Nyctosaurus more diverse. The genus Nyctosaurus has had numerous species referred to it, though how many of these may actually be valid requires further study. At least one species possessed an extraordinarily large antler-like cranial crest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pteranodontidae</span> Family of pteranodontian pterosaurs

The Pteranodontidae are a family of large pterosaurs of the Cretaceous Period of North America and Africa. The family was named in 1876 by Othniel Charles Marsh. Pteranodontids had a distinctive, elongated crest jutting from the rear of the head. The spectacularly-crested Nyctosaurus is sometimes included in this family, though usually placed in its own family, the Nyctosauridae.

<i>Ornithostoma</i> Genus of azhdarchoid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous

Ornithostoma is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur that lived during the Early Cretaceous period of Europe, around 110 million years ago. Ornithostoma was once thought to have been a senior synonym of the pteranodontid Pteranodon due to its toothless anatomy and prior naming.

<i>Coloborhynchus</i> Genus of anhanguerid pterosaur from the Cretaceous period

Coloborhynchus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur belonging to the family Anhangueridae, though it has also been recovered as a member of the Ornithocheiridae in some studies. Coloborhynchus is known from the Lower Cretaceous of England, and depending on which species are included, possibly the Albian and Cenomanian ages as well. Coloborhynchus was once thought to be the largest known toothed pterosaur, however, a specimen of the closely related Tropeognathus is now thought to have had a larger wingspan.

<i>Nurhachius</i> Genus of istiodactylid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous

Nurhachius is a genus of istiodactylid pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Barremian to Aptian-age Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning, China. Its fossil remains date back about 120 million years ago.

<i>Lonchodectes</i> Genus of lonchodectid pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous

Lonchodectes was a genus of lonchodectid pterosaur from several formations dating to the Turonian of England, mostly in the area around Kent. The species belonging to it had been assigned to Ornithocheirus until David Unwin's work of the 1990s and 2000s. Several potential species are known; most are based on scrappy remains, and have gone through several other generic assignments. The genus is part of the complex taxonomy issues surrounding Early Cretaceous pterosaurs from Brazil and England, such as Amblydectes, Anhanguera, Coloborhynchus, and Ornithocheirus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pteranodontoidea</span> Clade of ornithocheiroid pterosaurs from the Cretaceous period

Pteranodontoidea is an extinct clade of ornithocheiroid pterosaurs from the Early to Late Cretaceous of Asia, Africa, Europe, North America and South America. It was named by Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner in 1996. In 2003, Kellner defined the clade as a node-based taxon consisting of the last common ancestor of Anhanguera, Pteranodon and all its descendants. The clade Ornithocheiroidea is sometimes considered to be the senior synonym of Pteranodontoidea, however it depends on its definition. Brian Andres in his analyses, converts Ornithocheiroidea using the definition of Kellner (2003) to avoid this synonymy.

<i>Lonchodraco</i> Genus of lonchodraconid pterosaur from the Cretaceous period

Lonchodraco is a genus of lonchodraconid pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous of southern England. The genus includes species that were previously assigned to other genera.

<i>Aerodactylus</i> Genus of archaeopterodactyloid pterosaur from the Late Jurassic

Aerodactylus is a pterosaur genus containing a single species, Aerodactylus scolopaciceps, previously regarded as a species of Pterodactylus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ornithocheiromorpha</span> Clade of pteranodontoid pterosaurs

Ornithocheiromorpha is a group of pterosaurs within the suborder Pterodactyloidea. Fossil remains of this group date back from the Early to Late Cretaceous periods, around 140 to 92.5 million years ago. Ornithocheiromorphs were discovered worldwide except Antarctica, though most genera were recovered in Europe, Asia and South America. They were the most diverse and successful pterosaurs during the Early Cretaceous, but throughout the Late Cretaceous they were replaced by better adapted and more advanced pterosaur species such the pteranodontids and azhdarchoids. The Ornithocheiromorpha was defined in 2014 by Andres and colleagues, and they made Ornithocheiromorpha the most inclusive clade containing Ornithocheirus, but not Pteranodon.

<i>Serradraco</i> Genus of pteranodontoid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous

Serradraco is a genus of Early Cretaceous pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Valanginian aged Tunbridge Wells Sand Formation in England. Named by Rigal et al. in 2018 with the description of a second specimen, it contains a single species, S. sagittirostris, which was formerly considered a species of Lonchodectes, L. sagittirostris. In 2020, Averianov suggested it did not belong in Lonchodectidae.

<i>Wellnhopterus</i> Genus of azhdarchid pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous

Wellnhopterus is an azhdarchid pterosaur recovered from the Late Cretaceous Javelina Formation in Texas that was previously identified as a thalassodromine. It consists of a set of upper and lower jaws, as well as some cervical vertebrae and a fragmentary long bone. In July 2021, the jaws were given the genus name "Javelinadactylus", with the type and only species as "J. sagebieli"; however, this article has now been retracted. In a paper published in December 2021, the complete holotype was independently named Wellnhopterus, with the only species being W. brevirostris. As of 2022, this is the formal name of this pterosaur.

References

A-F