|Leadership||14th Dalai Lama|
|Location||Lhasa, Tibet, China|
|Geographic coordinates||29°39′28″N91°07′01″E / 29.65778°N 91.11694°E Coordinates: 29°39′28″N91°07′01″E / 29.65778°N 91.11694°E|
|Official name||Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa|
|Criteria||i, iv, vi|
|Designated||1994 (18th session)|
The Potala Palace is a dzong fortress in Lhasa, Tibet. It was the winter palace of the Dalai Lamas from 1649 to 1959, has been a museum since then, and a World Heritage Site since 1994.
The palace is named after Mount Potalaka, the mythical abode of the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara.  The 5th Dalai Lama started its construction in 1645  after one of his spiritual advisers, Konchog Chophel (died 1646), pointed out that the site was ideal as a seat of government, situated as it is between Drepung and Sera monasteries and the old city of Lhasa.  It may overlay the remains of an earlier fortress called the White or Red Palace on the site,  built by Songtsen Gampo in 637. 
The building measures 400 metres (1,300 ft) east-west and 350 metres (1,150 ft) north-south, with sloping stone walls averaging 3 metres (9.8 ft) thick, and 5 metres (16 ft) thick at the base, and with copper poured into the foundations to help proof it against earthquakes.  Thirteen storeys of buildings, containing over 1,000 rooms, 10,000 shrines and about 200,000 statues, soar 117 metres (384 ft) on top of Marpo Ri, the "Red Hill", rising more than 300 metres (980 ft) in total above the valley floor. 
Tradition has it that the three main hills of Lhasa represent the "Three Protectors of Tibet". Chokpori, just to the south of the Potala, is the soul-mountain (Wylie : bla ri) of Vajrapani, Pongwari that of Manjusri, and Marpori, the hill on which the Potala stands, represents Avalokiteśvara. 
|Mongolian script||ᠪᠦᠲᠠᠯᠠ ᠥᠷᠳᠥᠨ|
The site on which the Potala Palace rises is built over a palace erected by Songtsen Gampo on the Red Hill.  The Potala contains two chapels on its northwest corner that conserve parts of the original building. One is the Phakpa Lhakhang,the other the Chogyel Drupuk,a recessed cavern identified as Songtsen Gampo's meditation cave.  Lozang Gyatso,the Great Fifth Dalai Lama,started the construction of the modern Potala Palace in 1645  after one of his spiritual advisers,Konchog Chophel (died 1646),pointed out that the site was ideal as a seat of government,situated as it is between Drepung and Sera monasteries and the old city of Lhasa.  The external structure was built in 3 years,while the interior,together with its furnishings,took 45 years to complete.  The Dalai Lama and his government moved into the Potrang Karpo ('White Palace') in 1649.  Construction lasted until 1694,  some twelve years after his death. The Potala was used as a winter palace by the Dalai Lama from that time. The Potrang Marpo ('Red Palace') was added between 1690 and 1694. 
The new palace got its name from a hill on Cape Comorin at the southern tip of India—a rocky point sacred to the bodhisattva of compassion,who is known as Avalokitesvara,or Chenrezi. The Tibetans themselves rarely speak of the sacred place as the "Potala",but rather as "Peak Potala" (Tse Potala),or most commonly as "the Peak". 
The palace was moderately damaged during the Tibetan uprising against the Chinese in 1959,when Chinese shells were launched into the palace's windows.  Before Chamdo Jampa Kalden was shot and taken prisoner by soldiers of the People's Liberation Army,he witnessed "Chinese cannon shells began landing on Norbulingka past midnight on 19 March 1959... The sky lit up as the Chinese shells hit the Chakpori Medical College and the Potala."  It also escaped damage during the Cultural Revolution in 1966 through the personal intervention of Zhou Enlai,   who was then the Premier of the People's Republic of China. According to Tibetan historian Tsering Woeser,the palace,which harboured "over 100,000 volumes of scriptures and historical documents" and "many store rooms for housing precious objects,handicrafts,paintings,wall hangings,statues,and ancient armour","was almost robbed empty". 
The Potala Palace was inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. In 2000 and 2001,Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka were added to the list as extensions to the sites. Rapid modernisation has been a concern for UNESCO,however,which expressed concern over the building of modern structures immediately around the palace which threaten the palace's unique atmosphere.  The Chinese government responded by enacting a rule barring the building of any structure taller than 21 metres in the area. UNESCO was also concerned over the materials used during the restoration of the palace,which commenced in 2002 at a cost of RMB180 million (US$22.5 million),although the palace's director,Qiangba Gesang,has clarified that only traditional materials and craftsmanship were used. The palace has also received restoration works between 1989 and 1994,costing RMB55 million (US$6.875 million).
The number of visitors to the palace was restricted to 1,600 a day,with opening hours reduced to six hours daily to avoid over-crowding from 1 May 2003. The palace was receiving an average of 1,500 a day prior to the introduction of the quota,sometimes peaking to over 5,000 in one day.  Visits to the structure's roof were banned after restoration efforts were completed in 2006 to avoid further structural damage.  Visitorship quotas were raised to 2,300 daily to accommodate a 30% increase in visitorship since the opening of the Qingzang railway into Lhasa on 1 July 2006,but the quota is often reached by mid-morning.  Opening hours were extended during the peak period in the months of July to September,where over 6,000 visitors would descend on the site. 
in February 2022 Tibetan pop star Tsewang Norbu set himself on fire in front of the Potala Palace and died. The Foreign Ministry of China has disputed this. 
Built at an altitude of 3,700 m (12,100 ft),on the side of Ri Marpo ('Red Mountain') in the centre of Lhasa Valley,  the Potala Palace,with its vast inward-sloping walls broken only in the upper parts by straight rows of many windows,and its flat roofs at various levels,is not unlike a fortress in appearance. At the south base of the rock is a large space enclosed by walls and gates,with great porticos on the inner side. A series of tolerably easy staircases,broken by intervals of gentle ascent,leads to the summit of the rock. The whole width of this is occupied by the palace.
The central part of this group of buildings rises in a vast quadrangular mass above its satellites to a great height,terminating in gilt canopies similar to those on the Jokhang. This central member of Potala is called the "red palace" from its crimson colour,which distinguishes it from the rest. It contains the principal halls and chapels and shrines of past Dalai Lamas. There is in these much rich decorative painting,with jewelled work,carving and other ornamentation.
The lower white frontage on the south side of the palace was used to hoist two gigantic thangkas joined representing the figures of Tara and Sakyamuni during the Sertreng Festival on the 30th day of the second Tibetan month.  
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple,also a UNESCO World Heritage Site,built between 1767 and 1771,was in part modelled after the Potala Palace. The palace was named by the American television show Good Morning America and newspaper USA Today as one of the "New Seven Wonders". 
The nine-storey Leh Palace in Leh,Ladakh,India built by King Sengge Namgyal (c. 1570–1642),was a precursor of the Potala Palace.
Lhasa Zhol Village has two stone pillars or rdo-rings,an interior stone pillar or doring nangma,which stands within the village fortification walls,and the exterior stone pillar or doring chima,  which originally stood outside the South entrance to the village. Today the pillar stands neglected to the East of the Liberation Square,on the South side of Beijing Avenue.
The doring chima dates as far back as circa 764,"or only a little later",  and is inscribed with what may be the oldest known example of Tibetan writing. 
The pillar contains dedications to a famous Tibetan general and gives an account of his services to the king including campaigns against China which culminated in the brief capture of the Chinese capital Chang'an (modern Xian) in 763  during which the Tibetans temporarily installed as Emperor a relative of Princess Jincheng Gongzhu (Kim-sheng Kong co),the Chinese wife of Trisong Detsen's father,Me Agtsom.  
The Potala was spared at the insistence of Chairman Mao's comrade, Zhou Enlai, who reportedly deployed his own troops to protect it.
Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest and most dominant of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. The Dalai Lama is also considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.
Lhasa is the urban center of the prefecture-level Lhasa City and the administrative capital of Tibet Autonomous Region in southwest China. The inner urban area of Lhasa City is equivalent to the administrative borders of Chengguan District, which is part of the wider prefectural Lhasa City.
Princess Bhrikuti Devi of Licchavi is traditionally considered to have been the first wife and queen of the earliest emperor of Tibet, Songtsen Gampo, and an incarnation of Tara. She was also known as "Besa", and was a princess of the Licchavi kingdom of Nepal and later the queen consort of Tibet.
The Jokhang, also known as the Qoikang Monastery, Jokang, Jokhang Temple, Jokhang Monastery and Zuglagkang, is a Buddhist temple in Barkhor Square in Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans, in general, consider this temple as the most sacred and important temple in Tibet. The temple is currently maintained by the Gelug school, but they accept worshipers from all sects of Buddhism. The temple's architectural style is a mixture of Indian vihara design, Tibetan and Nepalese design.
Songtsen Gampo, also Songzan Ganbu, was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali consort Bhrikuti, of Nepal's Licchavi dynasty, as well as with the unification of what had previously been several Tibetan kingdoms. He is also regarded as responsible for the creation of the Tibetan script and therefore the establishment of Classical Tibetan, the language spoken in his region at the time, as the literary language of Tibet.
Ü-Tsang is one of the three Tibetan regions, the others being Amdo in the north-east, and Kham in the east. Ngari in the north-west was incorporated into Ü-Tsang. Geographically Ü-Tsang covered the south-central of the Tibetan cultural area, including the Brahmaputra River watershed. The western districts surrounding and extending past Mount Kailash are included in Ngari, and much of the vast Changtang plateau to the north. The Himalayas defined Ü-Tsang's southern border. The present Tibet Autonomous Region corresponds approximately to what was ancient Ü-Tsang and western Kham.
Norbulingka is a palace and surrounding park in Lhasa, Tibet, built from 1755. It served as the traditional summer residence of the successive Dalai Lamas from the 1780s up until the 14th Dalai Lama's exile in 1959. Part of the "Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace", Norbulingka is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and was added as an extension of this Historic Ensemble in 2001. It was built by the 7th Dalai Lama and served both as administrative centre and religious centre. It is a unique representation of Tibetan palace architecture.
Yerpa is a monastery and a number of ancient meditation caves that used to house about 300 monks, located a short drive to the east of Lhasa, Tibet.
This is a list of topics related to Tibet.
Tradruk Temple in the Yarlung Valley is the earliest great geomantic temple after the Jokhang and some sources say it predates that temple.
The 1959 Tibetan uprising began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, which had been under the effective control of the People's Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement was reached in 1951. The initial uprising occurred amid general Chinese-Tibetan tensions and a context of confusion, because Tibetan protesters feared that the Chinese government might arrest the 14th Dalai Lama. The protests were also fueled by anti-Chinese sentiment and separatism. At first, the uprising mostly consisted of peaceful protests, but clashes quickly erupted and the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) eventually used force to quell the protests, some of the protesters had captured arms. The last stages of the uprising included heavy fighting, with high civilian and military losses. The 14th Dalai Lama escaped from Lhasa, while the city was fully retaken by Chinese security forces on 23 March 1959. Thousands of Tibetans were killed during the 1959 uprising, but the exact number of deaths is disputed.
Gungsong Gungtsen was the only known son of Songtsen Gampo, the first Tibetan Emperor and the Prince of Tibetan Empire in Yarlung Dynasty.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tibet:
Architecture of Tibet contains Chinese and Indian influences but has many unique features brought about by its adaptation to the cold, generally arid, high-altitude climate of the Tibetan plateau. Buildings are generally made from locally available construction materials, and are often embellished with symbols of Tibetan Buddhism. For example, private homes often have Buddhist prayer flags flying from the rooftop.
The Tibetan Empire was an empire centered on the Tibetan Plateau, formed as a result of imperial expansion under the Yarlung dynasty heralded by its 33rd king, Songtsen Gampo, in the 7th century. The empire further expanded under the 38th king, Trisong Detsen. The 821–823 treaty concluded between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty delineated the former as being in possession of an area larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching east to Chang'an, west beyond modern Afghanistan, and south into modern India and the Bay of Bengal.
The Zhol outer pillar, or Doring Chima, is a stone pillar which stands outside the historical residential and administrative Zhol village below the Potala Palace, in Lhasa, Tibet. It was erected to commemorate a 783 border treaty between the Yarlung Dynasty's Tibetan Empire and the Tang Dynasty's Chinese Empire. The pillar is inscribed with an old example of Tibetan writing.
Zhol Village, or Shol Village, is a village at the base of the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. It contained the residences and administrative buildings of Ganden Phodrang's government officials and other Tibetans. It was a favorite haunt of the 6th Dalai Lama. Two stone pillars are found around or in the village: the outer pillar, which is located outside the southern entrance and bears the oldest inscriptions in Tibetan, and the inner pillar, which stands beneath stairs leading to the Potala and has no inscription.
Lhasa is noted for its historic buildings and structures related to Tibetan Buddhism. Several major architectural works have been included as UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.
The Ganden Phodrang or Ganden Podrang was the Tibetan system of government established by the 5th Dalai Lama in 1642; it operated in Tibet until the 1950s. Lhasa became the capital of Tibet again early in this period, after the Oirat lord Güshi Khan conferred all temporal power on the 5th Dalai Lama in a ceremony in Shigatse in 1642. The Ganden Phodrang accepted China's Qing emperors as overlords after 1720, and the Qing became increasingly active in governing Tibet starting in the early 18th century. After the fall of the Qing empire in 1912, the Ganden Phodrang government lasted until the 1950s, when the People's Republic of China (PRC) invaded Tibet. During most of the time from the early Qing period until the end of Ganden Phodrang rule, a governing council known as the Kashag operated as the highest authority in the Ganden Phodrang administration.
Thubten Kunphel, commonly known as Kunphela, was a Tibetan politician and one of the most powerful political figures in Tibet during the later years of the 13th Dalai Lama's rule, known as the "strong man of Tibet". Kunphela was arrested and exiled after the death of the Dalai Lama in 1933. He later escaped to India and became a co-founder of the India-based Tibet Improvement Party with the aim of establishing a secular government in Tibet. He worked in Nanking after the attempt to start a revolution in Tibet failed, and returned to Tibet in 1948.