Thulium(III) bromide

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Thulium(III) bromide
Names
IUPAC name
Tribromothulium
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
EC Number 238-444-4
PubChem CID
Properties
TmBr3
Molar mass 408.65 [1]
Appearance White crystalline solid
Melting point 952 °C (1,746 °F; 1,225 K) [1]
Boiling point 1,440 °C (2,620 °F; 1,710 K) [1]
Soluble [2]
Hazards
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
GHS signal word Warning
H315, H319, H335 [3]
P261, P305+351+338 [3] P264, P271, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P403+233, P405, P501 [4]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeThulium%28III%29 bromide
0
2
0
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Thulium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of one thulium atom and three bromine atoms. [5] It is a white powder at room temperature. [1] It is hygroscopic. [6]

Thulium Chemical element with atomic number 69

Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds; because it occurs so late in the series, however, the +2 oxidation state is also stabilized by the nearly full 4f shell that results. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble thulium compounds form coordination complexes with nine water molecules.

Bromine Chemical element with atomic number 35

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35. It is the third-lightest halogen, and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas. Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine. Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jérôme Balard, its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος ("stench"), referencing its sharp and disagreeable smell.

Hygroscopy phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules

Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat. This could be an increase in volume, boiling point, viscosity, or other physical characteristic or property of the substance, as water molecules can become suspended between the substance's molecules in the process.

Usage

Thulium(III) bromide is used as a reagent for the complexation of lanthanide bromides with aluminium bromide, and as a reactant for preparing alkali metal thulium bromides. [2] It is also used to create discharge lamps that are free of mercury. [7]

Aluminium bromide Chemical compound

Aluminium bromide is any chemical compound with the empirical formula AlBrx. Aluminium tribromide is the most common form of aluminium bromide. It is a colorless, sublimable hygroscopic solid; hence old samples tend to be hydrated, mostly as aluminium tribromide hexahydrate (AlBr3·6H2O).

Related Research Articles

Halogen group in the periodic table

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The artificially created element 117 may also be a halogen. In the modern IUPAC nomenclature, this group is known as group 17. The symbol X is often used generically to refer to any halogen.

Noble gas group of chemical elements

The noble gases make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). These elements are all nonmetals. Oganesson (Og) is variously predicted to be a noble gas as well or to break the trend due to relativistic effects; its chemistry has not yet been investigated.

Thallium Chemical element with atomic number 81

Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81. It is a gray post-transition metal that is not found free in nature. When isolated, thallium resembles tin, but discolors when exposed to air. Chemists William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy discovered thallium independently in 1861, in residues of sulfuric acid production. Both used the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy, in which thallium produces a notable green spectral line. Thallium, from Greek θαλλός, thallós, meaning "a green shoot or twig", was named by Crookes. It was isolated by both Lamy and Crookes in 1862; Lamy by electrolysis, and Crookes by precipitation and melting of the resultant powder. Crookes exhibited it as a powder precipitated by zinc at the International exhibition, which opened on 1 May that year.

A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound. The alkali metals combine directly with halogens under appropriate conditions forming halides of the general formula, MX. Many salts are halides; the hal- syllable in halide and halite reflects this correlation. All Group 1 metals form halides that are white solids at room temperature.

Gas-filled tube arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope

A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope. Gas-filled tubes exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases, and operate by ionizing the gas with an applied voltage sufficient to cause electrical conduction by the underlying phenomena of the Townsend discharge. A gas-discharge lamp is an electric light using a gas-filled tube; these include fluorescent lamps, metal-halide lamps, sodium-vapor lamps, and neon lights. Specialized gas-filled tubes such as krytrons, thyratrons, and ignitrons are used as switching devices in electric devices.

Metal-halide lamp

A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides. It is a type of high-intensity discharge (HID) gas discharge lamp. Developed in the 1960s, they are similar to mercury vapor lamps, but contain additional metal halide compounds in the quartz arc tube, which improve the efficiency and color rendition of the light. The most common metal halide compound used is sodium iodide. Once the arc tube reaches its running temperature, the sodium dissociates from the iodine, adding orange and reds to the lamp's spectrum from the sodium D line as the metal ionizes. As a result, metal-halide lamps have high luminous efficacy of around 75–100 lumens per watt, which is about twice that of mercury vapor lights and 3 to 5 times that of incandescent lights and produce an intense white light. Lamp life is 6,000 to 15,000 hours. As one of the most efficient sources of high CRI white light, metal halides as of 2005 were the fastest growing segment of the lighting industry. They are used for wide area overhead lighting of commercial, industrial, and public spaces, such as parking lots, sports arenas, factories, and retail stores, as well as residential security lighting and automotive headlamps.

A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand. This is a bromine atom with an ionic charge of −1 (Br); for example, in caesium bromide, caesium cations (Cs+) are electrically attracted to bromide anions (Br) to form the electrically neutral ionic compound CsBr. The term "bromide" can also refer to a bromine atom with an oxidation number of −1 in covalent compounds such as sulfur dibromide (SBr2).

Calcium bromide chemical compound

Calcium bromide is the name for compounds with the chemical formula CaBr2(H2O)x. Individual compounds include the anhydrous material (x = 0), the hexahydrate (x = 6), and the rare dihydrate (x = 2). All are white powders that dissolve in water, and from these solutions crystallizes the hexahydrate. The hydrated form is mainly used in some drilling fluids.

Mercury(I) bromide chemical compound

Mercury(I) bromide or mercurous bromide is the chemical compound composed of mercury and bromine with the formula Hg2Br2. It changes color from white to yellow when heated and fluoresces a salmon color when exposed to ultraviolet light. It has applications in acousto-optical devices.

Thulium(III) chloride chemical compound

Thulium(III) chloride or thulium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of thulium and chlorine with the formula TmCl3. It forms yellow crystals. Thulium(III) chloride has the YCl3 (AlCl3) layer structure with octahedral thulium ions.

Praseodymium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of one praseodymium atom and three bromine atoms.

Neodymium(III) bromide is a compound of one neodymium atom and three bromine atoms. Neodymium(III) bromide is a powder at room temperature, and it can be any color between off-white and pale green. Neodymium(III) bromide is hygroscopic.

Samarium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of one samarium and three bromine atoms. Samarium tribromide is a dark brown powder at room temperature.

Europium(II) bromide is a crystalline compound of one europium atom and two bromine atoms. Europium(II) bromide is a white powder at room temperature, and odorless. Europium dibromide is hygroscopic.

Europium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound made of one europium and three bromine atoms. Europium tribromide is a grey powder at room temperature. It is odorless. Europium tribromide is hygroscopic.

Gadolinium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of gadolinium atoms and three bromine atoms. Gadolinium bromide is hygroscopic.

Holmium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound made of one holmium atom and three bromine atoms. Holmium bromide is a yellow powder at room temperature. Holmium bromide is hygroscopic. Holmium bromide is odorless.

Lutetium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound made of one lutetium atom and three bromine atoms. It takes the form of a white powder at room temperature. It is hygroscopic. It is odorless.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Elements, American. "Thulium Bromide". American Elements. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  2. 1 2 "14456-51-0 - Thulium(III) bromide, ultra dry, 99.99% (REO) - 47196 - Alfa Aesar". www.alfa.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  3. 1 2 "Thulium(III) bromide anhydrous, powder, 99.99% | Sigma-Aldrich". www.sigmaaldrich.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  4. "Thulium bromide | Br3Tm - PubChem". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  5. Phillips, Sidney L.; Perry, Dale L. (1995). Handbook of inorganic compounds. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 415. ISBN   9780849386718.
  6. "THULIUM BROMIDE | 14456-51-0". www.chemicalbook.com. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  7. Kashiwagi, Takahito; Ishida, Masazumi; Matsuda, Mikio; Uemura, Kozo (2007). "Mercury-free high-pressure discharge lamp and luminaire using the same" . Retrieved 21 December 2016.