| IUPAC name |
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Appearance||White crystalline solid|
|Melting point||952 °C (1,746 °F; 1,225 K)|
|Boiling point||1,440 °C (2,620 °F; 1,710 K)|
|GHS Signal word||Warning|
|H315, H319, H335|
|P261, P305+351+338 P264, P271, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P403+233, P405, P501|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Thulium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of one thulium atom and three bromine atoms.The salt is a white powder at room temperature. It is hygroscopic.
Thulium(III) bromide is used as a reagent for the complexation of lanthanide bromides with aluminium bromide, and as a reactant for preparing alkali metal thulium bromides.It is also used to create discharge lamps that are free of mercury.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is based on absorption of light by free metallic ions.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The artificially created element 117, tennessine (Ts), may also be a halogen. In the modern IUPAC nomenclature, this group is known as group 17.
Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Indium is the softest metal that is not an alkali metal. It is a silvery-white metal that resembles tin in appearance. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium was isolated the next year.
The noble gases make up a class of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six naturally occurring noble gases are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). Oganesson (Og) is variously predicted to be a noble gas as well or to break the trend due to relativistic effects; its chemistry has not yet been investigated.
Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. Neodymium belongs to the lanthanide series and is a rare-earth element. It is a hard, slightly malleable silvery metal that quickly tarnishes in air and moisture. When oxidized, neodymium reacts quickly to produce pink, purple/blue and yellow compounds in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation states. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Although neodymium is classed as a rare-earth element, it is fairly common, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, or copper, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China.
Thulium is a chemical element with the symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds; because it occurs so late in the series, however, the +2 oxidation state is also stabilized by the nearly full 4f shell that results. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble thulium compounds form coordination complexes with nine water molecules.
Thallium is a chemical element with the symbol Tl and atomic number 81. It is a gray post-transition metal that is not found free in nature. When isolated, thallium resembles tin, but discolors when exposed to air. Chemists William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy discovered thallium independently in 1861, in residues of sulfuric acid production. Both used the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy, in which thallium produces a notable green spectral line. Thallium, from Greek θαλλός, thallós, meaning "a green shoot or twig", was named by Crookes. It was isolated by both Lamy and Crookes in 1862; Lamy by electrolysis, and Crookes by precipitation and melting of the resultant powder. Crookes exhibited it as a powder precipitated by zinc at the International exhibition, which opened on 1 May that year.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a, e.g., fluoride, chloride, or theoretically tennesside compound. The alkali metals combine directly with halogens under appropriate conditions forming halides of the general formula, MX. Many salts are halides; the hal- syllable in halide and halite reflects this correlation. All Group 1 metals form halides that are white solids at room temperature.
A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides. It is a type of high-intensity discharge (HID) gas discharge lamp. Developed in the 1960s, they are similar to mercury vapor lamps, but contain additional metal halide compounds in the quartz arc tube, which improve the efficiency and color rendition of the light. The most common metal halide compound used is sodium iodide. Once the arc tube reaches its running temperature, the sodium dissociates from the iodine, adding orange and reds to the lamp's spectrum from the sodium D line as the metal ionizes. As a result, metal-halide lamps have high luminous efficacy of around 75–100 lumens per watt, which is about twice that of mercury vapor lights and 3 to 5 times that of incandescent lights and produce an intense white light. Lamp life is 6,000 to 15,000 hours. As one of the most efficient sources of high CRI white light, metal halides as of 2005 were the fastest growing segment of the lighting industry. They are used for wide area overhead lighting of commercial, industrial, and public places, such as parking lots, sports arenas, factories, and retail stores, as well as residential security lighting and automotive headlamps.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand. This is a bromine atom with an ionic charge of −1 (Br−); for example, in caesium bromide, caesium cations (Cs+) are electrically attracted to bromide anions (Br−) to form the electrically neutral ionic compound CsBr. The term "bromide" can also refer to a bromine atom with an oxidation number of −1 in covalent compounds such as sulfur dibromide (SBr2).
Mercury(I) bromide or mercurous bromide is the chemical compound composed of mercury and bromine with the formula Hg2Br2. It changes color from white to yellow when heated and fluoresces a salmon color when exposed to ultraviolet light. It has applications in acousto-optical devices.
Thulium(III) chloride or thulium trichloride is the chemical compound composed of thulium and chlorine with the formula TmCl3. It forms yellow crystals. Thulium(III) chloride has the YCl3 (AlCl3) layer structure with octahedral thulium ions.
Praseodymium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of one praseodymium atom and three bromine atoms.
Neodymium(III) bromide is a compound of one neodymium atom and three bromine atoms. Neodymium(III) bromide is a powder at room temperature, and it can be any color between off-white and pale green. Neodymium(III) bromide is hygroscopic.
Samarium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of one samarium and three bromine atoms. Samarium tribromide is a dark brown powder at room temperature.
Europium(II) bromide is a crystalline compound of one europium atom and two bromine atoms. Europium(II) bromide is a white powder at room temperature, and odorless. Europium dibromide is hygroscopic.
Europium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound made of one europium and three bromine atoms. Europium tribromide is a grey powder at room temperature. It is odorless. Europium tribromide is hygroscopic.
Gadolinium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound of gadolinium atoms and three bromine atoms. Gadolinium bromide is hygroscopic.
Holmium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound made of one holmium atom and three bromine atoms. Holmium bromide is a yellow powder at room temperature. Holmium bromide is hygroscopic. Holmium bromide is odorless.
Lutetium(III) bromide is a crystalline compound made of one lutetium atom and three bromine atoms. It takes the form of a white powder at room temperature. It is hygroscopic. It is odorless.