New Windsor, New York

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New Windsor, New York
Town of New Windsor
Downtown New Windsor, NY.jpg
Downtown New Windsor
Orange County New York incorporated and unincorporated areas New Windsor highlighted.svg
Location in Orange County and the state of New York.
USA New York location map.svg
Red pog.svg
New Windsor
Location within the state of New York
Coordinates: 41°28′36.3″N74°01′25.5″W / 41.476750°N 74.023750°W / 41.476750; -74.023750 Coordinates: 41°28′36.3″N74°01′25.5″W / 41.476750°N 74.023750°W / 41.476750; -74.023750
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of New York.svg  New York
County Orange
FoundedApril 5, 1763
(256 years ago)
Founded by General Assembly of New York
Named for Windsor, England
  Total37.06 sq mi (95.99 km2)
  Land34.08 sq mi (88.26 km2)
  Water2.99 sq mi (7.73 km2)
512 ft (156 m)
(2016) [2]
  Density800.28/sq mi (308.99/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
Area code(s) 845
FIPS code 36-50848
GNIS feature ID0979274
Major airport Stewart Airport (SWF)

New Windsor is a town in Orange County, New York, United States. It is in the eastern part of the county, bordering the town and the city of Newburgh. The population was estimated at 25,244 in 2010 by the US Census. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located on Route 300 in the Town of New Windsor.



The region was originally inhabited by the Munsee people, part of the Lenape confederation. The first European settlers were colonists from Scotland who arrived in 1685. New Windsor was founded by the General Assembly of New York on April 5, 1763.

Early history

Settlement rights in the area that now encompasses the town were obtained from the Munsee by Governor Thomas Dongan, who encouraged the settlement of a party of Scottish colonists led by David Toshack, the Laird of Monzievaird, and his brother-in-law Major Patrick McGregorie. They arrived in 1685 and settled in the area overlooking the Hudson River near Moodna Creek. McGregorie is said to have built a cabin north of the creek on Conwanham's Hill at Plum Point, while Toshack set up a trading post south of the creek on Sloop Hill. In June 1685, Governor Dongan appointed McGregorie Muster-Master of Militia for the City and Province of New York. [3]

A rival claim was obtained in 1694 by Captain John Evans of HMS Richmond, who was granted powers and privileges as lord of the manor. The next governor, the Earl of Bellomont, decided that this was unfair to the settlers, and had the Evans grant annulled in 1699. [3] An additional patent of 1,000 acres was issued in 1709 to William Chambers and William Southerland. [4] Around 1709, the portion of the town nearest the Hudson River was organized under the Precinct of the Highlands (Ulster County), remaining thus until 1743. In 1762, separate precincts were created for the Town of New Windsor and Newburgh. [5]

The name of the town is from Windsor, England, with the New being prefixed. By whom this was conferred cannot be ascertained, but first appears in 1728 records of the London "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts". Among one of the earliest roads was the King's Highway, later known as "the Goshen Road", which ran north and south. [5] Among the early residents of the town was William Ellison who kept as early as 1732 kept a store and owned sloops that sailed from New Windsor to New York. Captains James and William Jackson also owned their own sloops. [6]

American Revolutionary War

During much of the Revolutionary War, New Windsor served as the major depot for the Continental Army and Army Medical Dept. The majority of Town residents supported the war efforts and its leaders.

In October 1782, the troops began to arrive and set up tents, while they began building their huts. This encampment or cantonment covered 1600 acres (6.5 km2) and quartered 6000–8000 men, women and children from New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Here this army built a log city of over 700 huts for the soldiers and many other outbuildings, guardhouses, blacksmith shops, a stable, kitchens, and a hospital. In addition, a long building called the "Temple" was constructed. It was proposed by Rev. Israel Evans, Chaplain to the Army, that a structure be built for religious services. The building also served a general meeting hall. Upon its completion, the officers held a ball. [6]

In order to reward the fidelity and faithfulness of soldiers, Gen. Washington ordered the establishment of an honor, the Badge of Merit, to be bestowed on them. Today, this honor is known as the Purple Heart.

In an effort to preserve this encampment, the Town of New Windsor acquired a 167-acre (0.68 km2) tract consisting of much of the former hut sites. Since 1936, the Town of New Windsor and the membership of the National Temple Hill Association have striven to ensure the preservation of this, the final winter encampment.


The Little Britain Presbyterian Church was organized by Irish and Scottish immigrants. The first church building was constructed in 1765 used by the Continentals as a hospital. This was subsequently destroyed by fire and a new structure was erected in 1807. [4]

In 1814, the town was divided into nine school districts. The first school was a one-room schoolhouse built on Quassaick Avenue in 1841. Epiphany Apostolic College was founded in 1925. The site is now owned by the Newburgh Enlarged City School District.

Between about 1858 to 1859 the Palmer and Longking company operated on the Quassaick Creek the first large scale factory for the manufacture of "bellows-box" daguerreotype cameras. The factory, on the site of Sterrit's former pin factory, had approximately thirty-five employees. [7] [8] The building was later converted to a flour mill and subsequently burned down.

Historical sites

Knox's Headquarters Knox's Headquarters.jpg
Knox's Headquarters
Edmonston House Edmonston House.jpg
Edmonston House



According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.0 square miles (95.9 km2). 34.8 square miles (90.1 km2) of it is land and 2 square miles (5.2 km2) (6.03%) is water.

The east town line, marked by the Hudson River, is the border of Dutchess County, New York. Part of the north town line borders the City of Newburgh. The remainder of the north town line is with the Town of Newburgh and the Town of Montgomery.

Interstate 87, the New York State Thruway, is a major north-south highway. NY-207 is an east-west state highway.

Communities and locations


Historical population
1790 1,819
1800 2,00110.0%
1810 2,33116.5%
1820 2,4254.0%
1830 2,310−4.7%
1840 2,4827.4%
1850 2,457−1.0%
1860 2,452−0.2%
1870 2,4821.2%
1880 2,5763.8%
1890 2,6211.7%
1900 2,392−8.7%
1910 2,66711.5%
1920 2,98411.9%
1930 3,1264.8%
1940 3,76520.4%
1950 5,10035.5%
1960 11,908133.5%
1970 16,65039.8%
1980 19,53417.3%
1990 22,93717.4%
2000 27,56820.2%
2010 25,244−8.4%
Est. 201627,272 [2] 8.0%
U.S. Decennial Census [12]

As of the census of 2000, there were 22,866 people, 8,396 households, and 6,078 families residing in the town. The population density was 657.4 people per square mile (253.8/km2). There were 8,759 housing units at an average density of 97.2 persons/km² (251.8 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 84.72% White, 6.76% African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.73% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.17% from other races, and 2.30% from two or more races. 11.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,396 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 27.6% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.19.

In the town, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $51,113, and the median income for a family was $58,292. Males had a median income of $34,283 versus $30,044 for females. The per capita income for the town was $22,806. 5.9% of the population and 1.03% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 52.8% are under the age of 18 and 7.5% are 65 or older.


New Windsor has a Dfa Köppen climate classification (Humid Continental: Hot Summer subtype). It is situated in the temperate region of the northern hemisphere and has four distinct seasons.


New Windsor is served by the school systems of the three nearby districts: Cornwall, Newburgh, and Washingtonville. The majority of school-age children attend Newburgh schools, with a split in the subdivisions near Vails Gate (Butterhill, Forest Glen, The Reserve) between Newburgh and Cornwall. Far-southwestern New Windsor is served by Washingtonville.

Children in the New Windsor area attend a number of schools, including: Butterhill Day School (PK–K), Children S Country School (private, PK–4), Cornwall Central High School (public, 9–12), Newburgh Free Academy (public, 9-12), Heritage Junior High School (public, 6–8), Little Britain Elementary School (public, K–5), Little Harvard School (private, PK–K), McQuade Children's Services Kaplan Campus School (private, 2–11), New Windsor School (public, K–5), St. Joseph School (private, K–8), Temple Hill School (public, K–8), Vails Gate High Technology Magnet School (public, K–5), Windsor Academy (private, PK–3), Willow Avenue Elementary School (public, K–4), Lee Road (public, K–4), Cornwall Central Middle School (public, 5–8) and Woodland Montessori School (private, PK–8). Yeshiva Ohr Naftoli (private, 9–12 and undergraduate) is located in town, but the student body is from out of town, housed in a dormitory.


Stewart International Airport Port Authority Stewart Airport sign.jpg
Stewart International Airport

Little Britain Road is one of the oldest in the Town. [5]

Stewart International Airport is located partially in New Windsor and partially in the Town of Newburgh. [13] [14] Formerly Stewart Air Force Base, the airport is named after Capt. Lachlan Stewart, who skippered schooners and other sailing vessels about 1850–1870. Stewart was also a lumber merchant and later retired to a dairy farm. In 1930, his grandson, Thomas Archibald ("Archie") Stewart, persuaded his uncle, Samuel L. Stewart, to donate land at "Stoney Lonesome", to the city of Newburgh for an airport. [15]

Stewart continued as part of the Strategic Air Command until the late 1960s or early 1970s when the Air Force turned the base over to the MTA for use as a cargo facility. The grand plan to create a jetport lead to the acquisition of over 8000 acres (32 km2) of the present day buffer zone and the loss of many early farms and structures. During the late 1980s, through the efforts of the late State Senator Schermerhorn, the airport passed into the hands of the NY State Dept. of Transportation. Today, Stewart International in addition to its civilian capability, is the home base of the NY Air National Guard and United States Marine Corps Reserve MAG-49 Detachment Bravo.

There is a new entrance to Stewart International Airport, via New York State Route 747. Now for the first time, the airport can be accessed directly from the Interstates without encountering local traffic on the state roads.

Notable people


Related Research Articles

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Cornwall, New York Town in New York, United States

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New York State Route 300 highway in New York

New York State Route 300 (NY 300) is a state highway located west of the city of Newburgh in the Hudson Valley of New York in the United States. The southern terminus of the route is at a five-way intersection with NY 32 and NY 94 in the hamlet of Vails Gate. From there, it runs generally northwesterly through the towns of New Windsor, Newburgh, and Shawangunk, to a junction with NY 208 near the hamlet of Wallkill. NY 300's two major changes of direction are marked by slightly unorthodox intersections with other state highways.

New York State Route 207 highway in New York

New York State Route 207 (NY 207) is a state highway located entirely within Orange County, New York, in the United States. It serves as a connector between the village of Goshen and the city of Newburgh. It has for a long time provided the main access to Stewart International Airport. The highway follows the path of the old Goshen–Newburgh Turnpike and is a two-lane road through its entire length. It is also shared with New York State Bicycle Route 17.

New York State Route 94 highway in New York

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Knoxs Headquarters State Historic Site United States historic place

Knox's Headquarters State Historic Site, in the town of New Windsor in Orange County, New York, consists of the Georgian house of the Ellison family, built in 1755 by Immigrant William Bull of Hamptonburg, NY, and the grounds around it. It is located on Old Forge Hill Road, just south of Route 94 east of Vails Gate.

Cornwall Central High School High school in New Windsor, NY

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Edmonston House United States historic place

The Edmonston House is located on NY 94 in the Vails Gate section of the Town of New Windsor in Orange County, New York. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1979.

Orange Mill Historic District United States historic place

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Moodna Creek Tributary of the Hudson River in Orange County, New York

Moodna Creek is a small tributary of the Hudson River that drains eastern Orange County, New York. At 15.5 miles (25 km) in length from its source at the confluence of Cromline Creek and Otter Kill west of Washingtonville, it is the longest stream located entirely within the county.

Mountainville, New York human settlement in New York, United States of America

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Quassaick Creek river in the United States of America

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Orange Lake (New York) lake of the United States of America

Orange Lake is located near the hamlet named after it in the Town of Newburgh, New York, United States. At 400 acres (160 ha) in surface area it is the largest lake entirely within Orange County, after which it is named.

Otter Kill river in the United States of America

Otter Kill is a 16.0-mile-long (25.7 km) tributary of Moodna Creek that flows through central Orange County, New York, in the United States. Via the Moodna, which it forms at a confluence with Cromline Creek north of the village of Washingtonville, its waters eventually reach the Hudson River.


  1. "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  2. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  3. 1 2 Skeel, Adelaide, and Barclay, David. Major Patrick MacGregorie, (1900)
  4. 1 2 3 4 Gorse, C. A., "Town of New Windsor", The History of Orange County, New York, (Russel Headley, ed.), Van Deusen and Elms, Middletown, New York, 1908
  5. 1 2 3 Ruttenbur, Edward. M., History of the Town of New Windsor, Orange County, N.Y., Historical Society of Newburgh Bay and the Highlands, Newburgh, 1911
  6. 1 2 3 Eager, Samuel W., An Outline History of Orange County, S. T. Callahan, Newburgh, 1846
  7. Wilensky, Stuart. "The Men, The Camera and Their Factory", Photographica, 1981
  8. Ruttenbur, p.221.
  9. "Schlesingers Steak House – History" . Retrieved April 27, 2016.
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  12. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  13. "Newburgh town, Orange County, New York Archived 2011-02-27 at the Wayback Machine ." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 2, 2011.
  14. "New Windsor town, Orange County, New York Archived 2011-02-27 at the Wayback Machine ." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 2, 2011.
  15. "History – About the Airport – Stewart International Airport – Port Authority of New York & New Jersey" . Retrieved April 27, 2016.
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Further reading