| Yellowish flycatcher,|
|Family:|| Tyrannidae |
| Tyrannus |
Some 100, see text
|Distribution of tyrant flycatchers|
The tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae) are a family of passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America.They are considered the largest family of birds known to exist in the world, with more than 400 species. They are the most diverse avian family in every country in the Americas, except for the United States and Canada. The members vary greatly in shape, patterns, size and colors. Some tyrant flycatchers may superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, which they are named after but are not closely related to. They are members of suborder Tyranni (suboscines), which do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of most other songbirds.
A number of species previously included in this family are now placed in the family Tityridae (see Systematics ). Sibley and Alquist in their 1990 bird taxonomy had the genera Mionectes, Leptopogon, Pseudotriccus, Poecilotriccus, Taenotriccus, Hemitriccus, Todirostrum and Corythopis as a separate family Pipromorphidae,but although it is still thought that these genera are basal to most of the family, they are not each other's closest relatives.
Most, but not all, species are rather plain, with various hues of brown, gray and white commonplace, often providing some degree of presumed camouflage. Obvious exceptions include the bright red vermilion flycatcher, blue, black, white and yellow many-colored rush-tyrant and some species of tody-flycatchers or tyrants, which are often yellow, black, white and/or rufous, from the Todirostrum , Hemitriccus and Poecilotriccus genera. Several species have bright yellow underparts, from the ornate flycatcher to the great kiskadee. Some species have erectile crests. Several of the large genera (i.e. Elaenia , Myiarchus or Empidonax ) are quite difficult to tell apart in the field due to similar plumage and some are best distinguished by their voices. Behaviorally they can vary from species such as spadebills which are tiny, shy and live in dense forest interiors to kingbirds, which are relatively large, bold, inquisitive and often inhabit open areas near human habitations. As the name implies, a great majority of tyrant flycatchers are almost entirely insectivorous (though not necessarily specialized in flies). Tyrant flycatchers are largely opportunistic feeders and often catch any flying or arboreal insect they encounter. However, food can vary greatly and some (like the large great kiskadee) will eat fruit or small vertebrates (e.g. small frogs). In North America, most species are associated with a "sallying" feeding style, where they fly up to catch an insect directly from their perch and then immediately return to the same perch. Most tropical species however do not feed in this fashion and several types prefer to glean insects from leaves and bark. Tropical species are sometimes found in mixed-species foraging flocks, where various types of passerines and other smallish birds are found feeding in proximity.
The smallest family members are the closely related short-tailed pygmy tyrant and black-capped pygmy tyrant from the genus Myiornis (the first species usually being considered marginally smaller on average). These species reach a total length of 6.5–7 cm (2.6–2.8 in) and a weight of 4 to 5 g (0.14 to 0.18 oz). By length, they are the smallest passerines on earth, although some species of Old World warblers apparently rival them in their minuscule mean body masses if not in total length. The minuscule size and very short tail of the Myiornis pygmy tyrants often lend them a resemblance to a tiny ball or insect. The largest tyrant flycatcher is the great shrike-tyrant at 29 cm (11 in) and 99.2 grams (0.219 pounds). A few species such as the streamer-tailed tyrant, scissor-tailed flycatcher and fork-tailed flycatcher have a larger total length (up to 41 cm (16 in) in the fork-tailed flycatcher at least), but this is mainly due to their extremely long tails; the fork-tailed flycatcher has the longest tail feathers of any known bird relative to their size (this being in reference to true tail feathers, not to be confused with elongated tail streamers as seen in some from the Phasianidae family of galliforms).
Species richness of Tyrannidae, when compared to habitat, is highly variable, although most every land habitat in the Americas has at least some of these birds. The habitats of tropical lowland evergreen forest and montane evergreen forest have the highest single site species diversity while many habitats including rivers, palm forest, white sand forest, tropical deciduous forest edge, southern temperate forest, southern temperate forest edge, semi-humid/humid montane scrub, and northern temperate grassland have the lowest single species diversity. The variation between the highest and the lowest is extreme; ninety species can be found in the tropical lowland evergreen forests while the number of species that can be found in the habitats listed above typically are in the single digits. This may be due in part to the fewer niches found in certain areas and therefore fewer places for the species to occupy.
Tyrannidae specialization among habitat is very strong in tropical lowland evergreen forests and montane evergreen forests. These habitat types, therefore, display the greatest specialization. The counts differ by three species (tropical lowland evergreen forests have 49 endemic species and montane evergreen forests have 46 endemic species). It can be assumed that they both have similar levels of specialization.
Regionally, the Atlantic Forest has the highest species richness with the Chocó following closely behind.
The northern beardless tyrannulet (Camptostoma imberbe) is protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.This species is common south of the US border. The situation for a number of other species from South and Central America is far more problematic. In 2007, BirdLife International (and consequently IUCN) considered two species, the Minas Gerais tyrannulet and Kaempfer's tody-tyrant critically endangered. Both are endemic to Brazil. Additionally, seven species were considered endangered and eighteen species vulnerable.
The family comprises 438 species divided into 105 genera.A full list, sortable by common and binomial names, is at list of tyrant flycatcher species. Species in the genera Tityra , Pachyramphus , Laniocera and Xenopsaris were formerly placed in this family, but evidence suggested they belong in their own family, the Tityridae, where they are now placed by SACC.
|Piprites Cabanis, 1847|
|Phyllomyias Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Tyrannulus Vieillot, 1816|
|Myiopagis Salvin & Godman, 1888|
|Elaenia Sundevall, 1836|
|Ornithion Hartlaub, 1853|
|Camptostoma P.L. Sclater, 1857|
|Suiriri d'Orbigny, 1840|
|Mecocerculus P.L. Sclater, 1862|
|Anairetes Reichenbach, 1850|
|Uromyias Hellmayr, 1927|
|Serpophaga Gould, 1839|
|Phaeomyias Berlepsch, 1902|
|Capsiempis Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Polystictus Reichenbach, 1850|
|Nesotriccus C.H. Townsend, 1895|
|Pseudocolopteryx Lillo, 1905|
|Pseudotriccus Taczanowski & Berlepsch, 1885|
|Corythopis Sundevall, 1836|
|Euscarthmus Wied-Neuwied, 1831|
|Pseudelaenia W. Lanyon, 1988|
|Stigmatura Sclater & Salvin, 1866|
|Zimmerius Traylor, 1977|
|Pogonotriccus Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Phylloscartes Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Mionectes Cabanis, 1844|
|Leptopogon Cabanis, 1844|
|Guyramemua Lopes et al., 2017|
|Sublegatus Sclater & Salvin, 1868|
|Inezia Cherrie, 1909|
|Myiophobus Reichenbach, 1850|
|Nephelomyias (Ohlson, Fjeldsa and Ericson, 2009)|
|Myiotriccus Ridgway, 1905|
|Tachuris Lafresnaye, 1836|
|Culicivora Swainson, 1827|
|Hemitriccus Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Myiornis Bertoni, A.W., 1901|
|Oncostoma P.L. Sclater, 1862|
|Lophotriccus Berlepsch, 1884|
|Atalotriccus Ridgway, 1905|
|Poecilotriccus Berlepsch, 1884|
|Taeniotriccus Berlepsch & Hartert, 1902|
|Todirostrum – typical tody-flycatchers Lesson, 1831|
|Cnipodectes P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873|
|Rhynchocyclus Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Tolmomyias Hellmayr, 1927|
|Calyptura Swainson, 1832|
|Platyrinchus Desmarest, 1805|
|Neopipo Sclater & Salvin, 1869|
|Pyrrhomyias Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Hirundinea Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837|
|Lathrotriccus Lanyon,W & Lanyon,S, 1986|
|Aphanotriccus Ridgway, 1905|
|Cnemotriccus Hellmayr, 1927|
|Xenotriccus Dwight & Griscom, 1927|
|Sayornis – phoebes Bonaparte, 1854|
|Mitrephanes Coues, 1882|
|Contopus Cabanis, 1855|
|Empidonax Cabanis, 1855|
|Pyrocephalus Gould, 1839|
|Ochthornis P.L. Sclater, 1888|
|Satrapa Strickland, 1844|
|Syrtidicola Chesser et al, 2020|
|Muscisaxicola – ground tyrants Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837|
|Lessonia Swainson, 1832|
|Hymenops Lesson, 1828|
|Knipolegus F. Boie, 1826|
|Cnemarchus Ridgway, 1905|
|Xolmis F. Boie, 1826|
|Pyrope Cabanis & Heine, 1860|
|Nengetus Swainson, 1827|
|Neoxolmis Hellmayr, 1927|
|Myiotheretes Reichenbach, 1850|
|Agriornis – shrike-tyrants Gould, 1839|
|Gubernetes Such, 1825|
|Muscipipra Lesson, 1831|
|Fluvicola Swainson, 1827|
|Arundinicola d'Orbigny, 1840|
|Heteroxolmis Lanyon, W, 1986|
|Alectrurus Vieillot, 1816|
|Tumbezia Chapman, 1925|
|Silvicultrix Lanyon, W, 1986|
|Ochthoeca Cabanis, 1847|
|Colorhamphus Sundevall, 1872|
|Muscigralla Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837|
|Machetornis G.R. Gray, 1841|
|Legatus P.L. Sclater, 1859|
|Phelpsia W. Lanyon, 1984|
|Myiozetetes P.L. Sclater, 1859|
|Pitangus Swainson, 1827|
|Philohydor Lanyon, W, 1984|
|Conopias Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Myiodynastes Bonaparte, 1857|
|Megarynchus Thunberg, 1824|
|Tyrannopsis Ridgway, 1905|
|Empidonomus Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Griseotyrannus W.E. Lanyon, 1984|
|Tyrannus Lacépède, 1799|
|Rhytipterna Reichenbach, 1850|
|Sirystes Cabanis & Heine, 1859|
|Casiornis Des Murs , 1856|
|Myiarchus Cabanis, 1844|
|Ramphotrigon G.R. Gray, 1855|
|Attila Lesson, 1831|
Shrikes are passerine birds of the family Laniidae. The family is composed of 34 species in four genera.
The olive-sided flycatcher is a small to medium sized passerine bird in the family Tyrannidae, the Tyrant flycatcher family. It is a migratory species that travels from South to North America to breed during the summer. It is a very agile flyer and mainly consumes flying insects on flight. Since 2016, this species has been assessed as being near-threatened globally (IUCN) and threatened in Canada (SRA) due to its declining populations.
The great kiskadee, called bem-te-vi in Brazil and benteveo in Argentina, is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family Tyrannidae. It is the only member of the genus Pitangus.
The black-capped pygmy tyrant is the smallest passerine bird in its range, though larger than its cousin, the short-tailed pygmy tyrant. This tyrant flycatcher occurs from Costa Rica to north-western Ecuador.
The short-tailed pygmy tyrant is a small species of tyrant-flycatcher. The species is one of the smallest birds on Earth and the smallest passerine. Among both the family and the order, only the closely related black-capped pygmy tyrant approaches similarly diminutive sizes. The pygmy tyrant is widespread throughout most of the Amazon in northern and central South America.
The flammulated bamboo tyrant, also called flammulated pygmy tyrant is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers. It is found in Amazonian Peru and Bolivia, and the bordering states of Brazil's northwest, the North Region. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
The fork-tailed tody-tyrant or fork-tailed pygmy tyrant is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is endemic to Brazil. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The boat-billed tody-tyrant is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers. It is found in the Guianas in French Guiana, Suriname, and eastern Guyana; also in northeast Brazil's Amazon Basin in the states of Pará, Amapá, and northeastern Amazonas.
Snethlage's tody-tyrant is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. Its name commemorates the German-born Brazilian naturalist and ornithologist Emilie Snethlage (1868-1929).
The white-eyed tody-tyrant is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers.
The cliff flycatcher is a species of bird in the tyrant flycatcher family, Tyrannidae. The cliff flycatcher is the only species in the genus Hirundinea after the swallow flycatcher was merged, becoming subspecies Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa. It is native to South America, where its natural habitats are cliffs and crags in the vicinity of subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, and heavily degraded former forest.
The Cocos flycatcher is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae, and the only species in the genus Nesotriccus.
Poecilotriccus is a genus of small flycatchers in the family Tyrannidae. Except for the recently described Johnson's tody-flycatcher, all have, at one point or another, been included in the genus Todirostrum. Some species have been known as tody-tyrants instead of tody-flycatchers. Most species are found in South America, but a single species, the slate-headed tody-flycatcher, is also found in Central America. The black-chested tyrant may also belong in this genus, but most place it in the monotypic genus Taeniotriccus.
The ochre-faced tody-flycatcher is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae.
The spotted tody-flycatcher is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela, and is mostly a species of the Amazon Basin countries and Guianan countries.
The black-headed tody-flycatcher is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.