Hormone therapy

Last updated

Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment. Treatment with hormone antagonists may also be referred to as hormonal therapy or antihormone therapy. The most general classes of hormone therapy are oncologic hormone therapy, hormone replacement therapy (for menopause), androgen replacement therapy (ART), oral contraceptive pills, and transgender hormone therapy.

Contents

Types

See also

Related Research Articles

Progestogen (medication) Medication producing effects similar to progesterone

A progestogen, also referred to as a progestagen, gestagen, or gestogen, is a type of medication which produces effects similar to those of the natural female sex hormone progesterone in the body. A progestin is a synthetic progestogen. Progestogens are used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. They can also be used in the treatment of gynecological conditions, to support fertility and pregnancy, to lower sex hormone levels for various purposes, and for other indications. Progestogens are used alone or in combination with estrogens. They are available in a wide variety of formulations and for use by many different routes of administration. Examples of progestogens include natural or bioidentical progesterone as well as progestins such as medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone.

Hot flashes are a form of flushing, often caused by the changing hormone levels that are characteristic of menopause. They are typically experienced as a feeling of intense heat with sweating and rapid heartbeat, and may typically last from two to 30 minutes for each occurrence.

Methyltestosterone Chemical compound

Methyltestosterone, sold under the brand names Android, Metandren, and Testred among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men, delayed puberty in boys, at low doses as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, osteoporosis, and low sexual desire in women, and to treat breast cancer in women. It is taken by mouth or held in the cheek or under the tongue.

Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries—that may result in diminished production of sex hormones.

Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is a condition in older men characterized by measurably low testosterone levels and clinical symptoms mostly of a sexual nature, including decreased desire for sex, fewer spontaneous erections, and erectile dysfunction. It is the result of a gradual drop in testosterone; a steady decline in testosterone levels of about 1% per year can happen and is well documented in both men and women.

Ethinylestradiol Estrogen medication

Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins. In the past, EE was widely used for various indications such as the treatment of menopausal symptoms, gynecological disorders, and certain hormone-sensitive cancers. It is usually taken by mouth but is also used as a patch and vaginal ring.

Hypoestrogenism, or estrogen deficiency, refers to a lower than normal level of estrogen. It is an umbrella term used to describe estrogen deficiency in various conditions. Estrogen deficiency is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and has been linked to diseases like urinary tract infections and osteoporosis.

Androgen replacement therapy (ART), often referred to as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT), is a form of hormone therapy in which androgens, often testosterone, are supplemented or replaced exogenously. ART is often prescribed to counter the effects of male hypogonadism. It typically involves the administration of testosterone through injections, skin creams, patches, gels, pills, or subcutaneous pellets.

Masculinizing hormone therapy, also known as transmasculine hormone therapy, or female-to-male hormone therapy, is a form of hormone therapy and gender affirming therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from feminine or androgynous to masculine. It is a common type of transgender hormone therapy, and is predominantly used to treat transgender men and other transmasculine individuals. Some intersex people also receive this form of therapy, either starting in childhood to confirm the assigned sex or later if the assignment proves to be incorrect.

Feminizing hormone therapy, also known as transfeminine hormone therapy, is hormone therapy and sex reassignment therapy to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from masculine or androgynous to feminine. It is a common type of transgender hormone therapy and is used to treat transgender women and non-binary transfeminine individuals. Some, in particular, intersex people, but also some cisgender people also take this form of therapy, according to their personal needs and preferences.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also known as menopausal hormone therapy or postmenopausal hormone therapy, is a form of hormone therapy used to treat symptoms associated with female menopause. These symptoms can include hot flashes, vaginal atrophy, accelerated skin aging, vaginal dryness, decreased muscle mass, sexual dysfunction, and bone loss. They are in large part related to the diminished levels of sex hormones that occur during menopause.

Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability and motivation to engage in sexual behaviours.

Hyperestrogenism, hyperestrogenic state, or estrogen excess, is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of estrogenic activity in the body.

Androgen deficiency is a medical condition characterized by insufficient androgenic activity in the body. Androgenic activity is mediated by androgens, and is dependent on various factors including androgen receptor abundance, sensitivity and function.

Transgender hormone therapy, also called hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT), is a form of hormone therapy in which sex hormones and other hormonal medications are administered to transgender or gender nonconforming individuals for the purpose of more closely aligning their secondary sexual characteristics with their gender identity. This form of hormone therapy is given as one of two types, based on whether the goal of treatment is masculinization or feminization:

Testosterone (medication) Medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone

Testosterone (T) is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone. It is used to treat male hypogonadism, gender dysphoria, and certain types of breast cancer. It may also be used to increase athletic ability in the form of doping. It is unclear if the use of testosterone for low levels due to aging is beneficial or harmful. Testosterone can be used as a gel or patch that is applied to the skin, injection into a muscle, tablet that is placed in the cheek, or tablet that is taken by mouth.

Estradiol (medication) Steroidal hormone medication

Estradiol (E2) is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone. It is an estrogen and is used mainly in menopausal hormone therapy and to treat low sex hormone levels in women. It is also used in hormonal birth control for women, in hormone therapy for transgender women, and in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers like prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women, among other uses. Estradiol can be taken by mouth, held and dissolved under the tongue, as a gel or patch that is applied to the skin, in through the vagina, by injection into muscle or fat, or through the use of an implant that is placed into fat, among other routes.

High-dose estrogen

High-dose estrogen (HDE) is a type of hormone therapy in which high doses of estrogens are given. When given in combination with a high dose of a progestogen, it has been referred to as pseudopregnancy. It is called this because the estrogen and progestogen levels achieved are in the range of the very high levels of these hormones that occur during pregnancy. HDE and pseudopregnancy have been used in medicine for a number of hormone-dependent indications, such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and endometriosis, among others. Both natural or bioidentical estrogens and synthetic estrogens have been used and both oral and parenteral routes may be used.

Estrogen (medication) Type of medication

An estrogen (E) is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy, and as part of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women. They can also be used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers like breast cancer and prostate cancer and for various other indications. Estrogens are used alone or in combination with progestogens. They are available in a wide variety of formulations and for use by many different routes of administration. Examples of estrogens include bioidentical estradiol, natural conjugated estrogens, synthetic steroidal estrogens like ethinylestradiol, and synthetic nonsteroidal estrogens like diethylstilbestrol. Estrogens are one of three types of sex hormone agonists, the others being androgens/anabolic steroids like testosterone and progestogens like progesterone.

The pharmacology of estradiol, an estrogen medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone, concerns its pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and various routes of administration.

References

  1. Shuster, Lynne T.; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Gostout, Bobbie S.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Rocca, Walter A. (2010). "Premature menopause or early menopause: Long-term health consequences". Maturitas . 65 (2): 161–166. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.08.003. ISSN   0378-5122. PMC   2815011 . PMID   19733988.
  2. Kang, DY; Li, HJ (January 2015). "The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Medicine. 94 (3): e410. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000000410. PMC   4602637 . PMID   25621688.
  3. Giwercman, A; Lundberg Giwercman, Y (2015). "Hypogonadism in young men treated for cancer". Hormones (Athens, Greece). 14 (4): 590–7. doi: 10.14310/horm.2002.1650 . PMID   26859600. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  4. Staff (3 March 2015). "FDA Cautions About Using Testosterone Products for Low Testosterone Due to Aging; Requires Labeling Change to Inform of Possible Increased Risk of Heart Attack And Stroke". FDA . Retrieved 5 March 2015.. NEJM Perspective piece: Nguyen, CP; et al. (20 August 2015). "Testosterone and "Age-Related Hypogonadism"--FDA Concerns". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (8): 689–91. doi:10.1056/nejmp1506632. PMC   8905399 . PMID   26287846.. Popular summary: Tavernise, Sabrina (March 3, 2015). "Drugs Using Testosterone Will Label Heart Risks". New York Times . Retrieved March 19, 2015.