|King of Mari|
|Tenure||c. 2380 BC. Middle chronology|
|King of Mari|
Iblul-Il (reigned c. 2380 BC),  was the most energetic king (Lugal) of the second Mariote kingdom, noted for his extensive campaigns in the middle Euphrates valley against the Eblaites, and in the upper Tigris region against various opponents, which asserted the Mariote supremacy in the Syrian north.
Iblul-Il is attested in Mari, where statues bearing his name were excavated in 1952 from the city's temples.  However, the deeds of the king are recorded in a letter sent to Ebla by Enna-Dagan, a successor of Iblul-Il. 
Iblul-Il campaigned extensively against Ebla and its vassals and allies.  The offensive was probably due to Ebla's increasing militaristic character, and was meant to block the trade route between Kish, Nagar and Ebla.  Iblul-Il was a contemporary of Ebla's king Igrish-Halam,  and is mentioned in the letter of Enna-Dagan campaigning in the middle Euphrates defeating the city of Galalaneni,  and engaging in a victorious battle with Abarsal in the region of Zahiran, [note 1]  which he destroyed.  Next, Iblul-Il campaigned in the region of Burman of the land of Sugurum, where he defeated the cities of Shadab, Addalini and Arisum.  The campaigns continued as the king sacked the cities of Sharan and Dammium,  and advanced on Neraad and Hasuwan, receiving the tribute from Ebla at the city of Mane,  and from the fortress Khazuwan, then continued his march and conquered Emar. 
In the Tigris valley, Iblul-Il defeated the cities of Nahal, Nubat and Sha-da from the region of Gasur, at a battle in the land of Ganane. [note 2]  Iblul-Il is finally mentioned in the letter conquering the Eblaite cities of Barama, Aburu, Tibalat and Belan. [note 3]  The Mariote king successfully achieved his goals and weakened Ebla, exacting a great amount of tribute in the form of gold and silver. 
Iblul-Il was succeeded by Nizi.  The letter of Enna-Dagan is extremely difficult to read,  and early decipherment presented the author as a general of Ebla who defeated and deposed Iblul-Il.  However, newer readings confirmed Enna-Dagan as a king from Mari,  and further decipherment of the archives of Ebla showed Enna-Dagan receiving gifts from Ebla as a prince of Mari during the reigns of his Mariote predecessors.  
Ebla was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Aleppo near the village of Mardikh. Ebla was an important center throughout the 3rd millennium BC and in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. Its discovery proved the Levant was a center of ancient, centralized civilization equal to Egypt and Mesopotamia and ruled out the view that the latter two were the only important centers in the Near East during the Early Bronze Age. The first Eblaite kingdom has been described as the first recorded world power.
Nuzi was an ancient Mesopotamian city southwest of the city of Arrapha, located near the Tigris river. The site consists of one medium-sized multiperiod tell and two small single period mounds.
Mari was an ancient Semitic city-state in modern-day Syria. Its remains form a tell 11 kilometers north-west of Abu Kamal on the Euphrates River western bank, some 120 kilometers southeast of Deir ez-Zor. It flourished as a trade center and hegemonic state between 2900 BC and 1759 BC. The city was built in the middle of the Euphrates trade routes between Sumer in the south and the Eblaite kingdom and the Levant in the west.
Eblaite, or Palaeo-Syrian, is an extinct East Semitic language used during the 3rd millennium BC by the populations of Northern Syria. It was named after the ancient city of Ebla, in modern western Syria. Variants of the language were also spoken in Mari and Nagar. According to Cyrus H. Gordon, although scribes might have spoken it sometimes, Eblaite was probably not spoken much, being rather a written lingua franca with East and West Semitic features.
Irkab-Damu, was the king (Malikum) of the first Eblaite kingdom, whose era saw Ebla's turning into the dominant power in the Levant.
The Early Dynastic period is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods. It saw the development of writing and the formation of the first cities and states. The ED itself was characterized by the existence of multiple city-states: small states with a relatively simple structure that developed and solidified over time. This development ultimately led to the unification of much of Mesopotamia under the rule of Sargon, the first monarch of the Akkadian Empire. Despite this political fragmentation, the ED city-states shared a relatively homogeneous material culture. Sumerian cities such as Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Umma, and Nippur located in Lower Mesopotamia were very powerful and influential. To the north and west stretched states centered on cities such as Kish, Mari, Nagar, and Ebla.
The Bronze Age town of Tuttul is identified with the archaeological site of Tell Bi'a in Raqqa Governorate, northern Syria. Tell Bi'a is located near the modern city of Raqqa and the confluence of the rivers Balikh and Euphrates.
Armi, was an important Bronze Age city-kingdom during the late third millennium BC located in northern Syria, or in southern Anatolia, Turkey, at the region of Cilicia.
Vizier, is the title used by modern scholars to indicate the head of the administration in the first Eblaite kingdom. The title holder held the highest position after the king and controlled the army. During the reign of king Isar-Damu, the office of vizier became hereditary.
Ansud, was an early king (Lugal) of the second Mariote kingdom who reigned c. 2423-2416 BC. Ansud is known for warring against the Eblaites from a letter written by the later Mariote king Enna-Dagan.
Saʿumu was a king (Lugal) of the second Mariote kingdom who reigned c. 2416–2400 BC. Some scholars, such as Joseph Martin Pagan, interpreted the king's name as derived from the root "ś-y-m", a cognate of the Akkadian word "šâmu-m", meaning "to buy".
Ishtup-Ishar (Ištup-Išar) was a king (Lugal) of the second Mariote kingdom who reigned c. 2400 BC. The king's name was traditionally read as Išhtup-šar, with šar being a common divine element in personal names attested in the region. However, the king's name is read as Ishtup-Ishar by Alfonso Archi, Ishar being an important justice deity worshiped in Mari and Ebla.
Isar-Damu, was the king (Malikum) of the first Eblaite kingdom. Isar-Damu fought a long war with Mari which ended in Eblaite victory; he was probably the last king of the first kingdom.
Ikun-Mari was a king (Lugal) of the second Mariote kingdom. His name was recorded on a stone jar mentioning his wife "Alma". The script's style on the jar suggest a date later than the reign of the Mariote king Ikun-Shamash but earlier than the reign of king Isqi-Mari.
Abarsal was a city-state of Mesopotamia in the area of the Euphrates. Very litte is known of the history of the town and the site is unidentified at the moment. It could be the city of Aburru mentioned in various texts of the tablets of Mari, which was located south of Emar to Qalat Gabir. A second theory says that could be Apishal.
Igrish-Halam or Igriš-Halab, was a king of the ancient city state of Ebla. His name means "(The god of) Halab has driven away ", hence, the name might be a commemoration of an Eblaite victory that led to the incorporation of lands beyond the city of Halab. His reign was characterized by an Eblaite weakness, and tribute paying to the kingdom of Mari, with whom Ebla fought a long war. His battle with Iblul-Il of Mari at Sahiri was instrumental in this tribute payment.
Mara-Il is the only king of Nagar known by name, and the first known historical figure from the Jezirah region. Most of the texts record the ruler of Nagar using his title "En", without mentioning a name. Only in Ebla was a name mentioned: Mara-Il; he ruled a little more than a generation before Nagar's destruction c. 2300 BC, and was most probably the "En" recorded in other texts, including the ones from Nabada.
Kura was a god worshiped in Ebla in the third millennium BCE. He was the tutelary god of the city, as well as the head of the local pantheon. While his functions are difficult to ascertain, it is well attested that he was connected to the institution of kingship.