Television in Japan was introduced in 1939. However, experiments date back to the 1920s, with Kenjiro Takayanagi's pioneering experiments in electronic television.Television broadcasting was halted by World War II, after which regular television broadcasting began in 1950. After Japan developed the first HDTV systems in the 1960s, MUSE/Hi-Vision was introduced in the 1970s.
A modified version of the NTSC system for analog signals, called NTSC-J, was used for analog broadcast between 1950 and the early 2010s. Between 2010 and 2012, the analog broadcast was replaced with digital broadcasts using the ISDB standard (which was introduced in 2003) in three stages: a technical trial occurred on July 24, 2010 lakshita which analog translators ceased operation in northeastern Ishikawa Prefecture, the analog transmitters in the rest of Ishikawa and 43 other prefectures were shut down on July 24, 2011, and those in the prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima ceased transmission on March 31, 2012, as a result of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
All Japanese households having at least one television set are mandated to pay an annual television license fee used to fund NHK, the Japanese public service broadcaster. The fee varies from ¥14,910 to ¥28,080 depending on the method and timing of payment and on whether one receives only terrestrial television or also satellite broadcasts.Households on welfare may be excused from the license fee. In any case, there is no authority to impose sanctions or fines in the event of non-payment; people may (and many do) throw away the bills and turn away the occasional bill collector, without consequence.
In 1924, Kenjiro Takayanagi began a research program on electronic television. In 1925, he demonstrated a cathode ray tube (CRT) television with thermal electron emission.Television tests were conducted in 1926 using a combined mechanical Nipkow disk and electronic Braun tube system. In 1926, he demonstrated a CRT television with 40-line resolution, the first working example of a fully electronic television receiver. In 1927, he increased the television resolution to 100 lines, which was unrivaled until 1931. In 1928, he was the first to transmit human faces in half-tones on television.
An all-electronic system was adopted in the 1930s using a domestically developed iconoscope system.In spite of that, because of the beginning of World War II in the Pacific region, this first full-fledged TV broadcast experimentation lasted only a few months. Regular television broadcasts in Japan only started in 1950, several years after the war. In 1953, the public NHK General TV and the commercial Nippon Television were launched in the span of a few months.
The Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai (NHK, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation) began conducting research to "unlock the fundamental mechanism of video and sound interactions with the five human senses" in 1964, after the Tokyo Olympics. NHK set out to create an HDTV system that ended up scoring much higher in subjective tests than NTSC's previously dubbed "HDTV". This new system, NHK Color, created in 1972, included 1125 lines, a 5:3 aspect ratio and 60 Hz refresh rate. The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), headed by Charles Ginsburg, became the testing and study authority for HDTV technology in the international theater. SMPTE would test HDTV systems from different companies from every conceivable perspective, but the problem of combining the different formats plagued the technology for many years.[ citation needed ]
In Japan, there are seven national television networks – two owned by the national public broadcaster NHK, and five national commercial key stations. Although some of the network names shown below are used only for news programming, the applicable organizations also distribute a variety of other programs over most of the same stations.
|Network|| Flagship station |
| Traded as |
|Transmitter area||Broadcast area||Channel|
(associated newspaper and film company)
|NHK G|| NHK |
|Tokyo Skytree||Kantō region||1|| Public broadcasting |
|NHK E|| NHK |
|NNS/NNN|| Nippon TV |
|TYO : 9404||4|| Commercial broadcasting |
( Yomiuri Shimbun and Nikkatsu )
|ANN|| TV Asahi |
|TYO : 9409||5|| Commercial broadcasting |
( The Asahi Shimbun and Toei Company )
|JNN|| TBS TV |
|TYO : 9401||6|| Commercial broadcasting |
( Mainichi Shimbun and Shochiku )
|TXN|| TV Tokyo |
|TYO : 9413||7|| Commercial broadcasting |
( The Nikkei )
|FNS/FNN|| Fuji TV |
|TYO : 4676||8|| Commercial broadcasting |
( Sankei Shimbun and Toho )
|JAITS|| Tokyo MX |
|Tokyo||9|| Commercial broadcasting |
( Chunichi Shimbun and Kadokawa Pictures )
|Channel||Channel name||Callsign||Signal power||ERP||Broadcast area|
|NHK General TV||JOAK-DTV||10 kW||68 kW||Kantō region|
|NHK Educational TV||JOAB-DTV|
|Tokyo Broadcasting System Television||JORX-DTV|
|Tokyo MX||JOMX-DTV||3 kW||11.5 kW||Tokyo|
Japan pioneered HDTV for decades with an analog implementation (MUSE/Hi-Vision) in the late 1980s. The old system is not compatible with the new digital standards. Japanese terrestrial broadcasting of HD via ISDB-T started on December 1, 2003 in the Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya metropolitan areas. It has been reported that 27 million HD receivers had been sold in Japan as of October 2007.
The Japanese government is studying the implementation of some improvements on the standard as suggested by Brazilian researchers (SBTVD). These new features are unlikely to be adopted in Japan due to incompatibility problems, but are being considered for use in future implementations in other countries, including Brazil itself. Analog terrestrial television broadcasts in Japan were scheduled to end on July 24, 2011, as per the current Japanese broadcasting law. However, the switch-over was delayed in Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate prefectures, due to a desire to reduce the inconvenience of those affected most by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. In those areas, analog broadcasting ended on March 31, 2012.
Cable television was introduced to Japan in 1955, in Shibukawa, Gunma Prefecture. Until the 1980s, cable television in Japan was mainly limited to rural mountainous areas and outlying islands where the reception of terrestrial television was poor. Cable television started to proliferate in urban areas in the late 1980s, beginning with Tokyo, whose first cable television station began broadcasting in 1987.In the mid 1990s, two-way multichannel cable television platforms first appeared in the market; broadband internet services started being bundled to cable television subscriptions in the late 1990s.
Currently, there are several national and regional cable television providers in Japan, the largest being J:COM, followed by Japan Cablenet (JCN). These companies currently compete with the Japanese satellite television platforms SKY PerfecTV! and WOWOW, as well as the IPTV platform Hikari TV operated by NTT Plala.
Japan Cable Television Engineering Association (JCTEA) is the umbrella organisation representing 600 member companies involved in research, designing, manufacturing, installation and maintenance of cable television facilities in Japan.
The medium-scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purposes (BSE) was planned by Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MOPT) and developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) since 1974. After that, the first Japanese experimental broadcasting satellite, called BSE or Yuri, was launched in 1978. NHK started experimental broadcasting of TV program using BS-2a satellite in May 1984.
The satellite BS-2a was launched in preparation for the start of full scale 2-channel broadcasts. Broadcasting Satellite BS-2a was the first national DBS (direct broadcasting satellite), transmitting signals directly into the home of TV viewers. Attitude control of the satellite was conducted using the 3 axial method (zero momentum), and design life was 5 years. The TV transponder units are designed to sufficiently amplify transmitted signals to enable reception by small, 40 or 60 cm home-use parabolic antennas. The satellite was equipped with 3 TV transponders (including reserve units). However, one transponder malfunctioned 2 months after launch (March 23, 1984) and a second transponder malfunctioned 3 months after launch (May 3, 1984). So, the scheduled satellite broadcasting had to be hastily adjusted to test broadcasting on a single channel.
Later, NHK started regular service (NTSC) and experimental HDTV broadcasting using BS-2b in June 1989. Some Japanese producers of home electronic consumer devices began to deliver TV sets, VCRs and even home acoustic systems equipped by built-in satellite tuners or receivers. Such electronic goods had a specific BS logo.
In April 1991, Japanese company JSB started pay TV service while BS-3 communication satellite was in use. In 1996 total number of households that receive satellite broadcasting exceeded 10 million.
The modern two satellite systems in use in Japan are BSAT and JCSAT; the modern WOWOW Broadcasting Satellite digital service uses BSAT satellites, while other system of digital TV broadcasting SKY PerfecTV! uses JCSAT satellites.
|Channel Number||Channel Name||Description|
|BS101||NHK BS1||NHK Programming (HD)|
|BS103||NHK BS Premium||NHK Programming (HD)|
|BS141||BS Nittere||Nippon TV/NNN Programming (HD)|
|BS151||BS Asahi||TV Asahi/ANN Programming (HD)|
|BS161||BS-TBS||TBS/JNN Programming (HD)|
|BS171||BS TV Tokyo||TV Tokyo/TXN Programming (HD)|
|BS181||BS Fuji||Fuji Television/FNN Programming (HD)|
|BS191||WOWOW Prime||General Entertainment (HD)|
|BS192||WOWOW Live||Sports and Live Performances (HD)|
|BS193||WOWOW Cinema||Movies (HD)|
|BS200||Star Channel 1||Movies (HD)|
|BS201||Star Channel 2||Movies (HD)|
|BS202||Star Channel 3||Movies (HD)|
|BS211||BS11||General Entertainment (HD)|
|BS222||BS12 TwellV||General Entertainment (HD)|
|BS231||Open University BS Campus Ex||Educational (HD)|
|BS234||Green Channel||Horse Racing (HD)|
|BS236||BS Animax||Animation (HD)|
|BS241||BS Sky PerfecTV!||Variety (HD)|
|BS242||J Sports 1||Sports (HD)|
|BS243||J Sports 2||Sports (HD)|
|BS244||J Sports 3||Sports (HD)|
|BS245||J Sports 4||Sports (HD)|
|BS251||BS Tsuri Vision||Fishing (HD)|
|BS252||Cinefil WOWOW||Movies (HD)|
|BS255||Nippon Eiga Senmon Channel||Japanese Movies (HD)|
|BS531||Open University BS Radio||Educational (Radio)|
|Channel Number||Channel Name||Description|
|4K-BS101||NHK BS4K||NHK Programming (4K)|
|8K-BS102||NHK BS8K||NHK Programming (8K)|
|4K-BS141||BS Nittele 4K||Nippon TV/NNN Programming (4K)|
|8K-BS142||BS Nittele 8K||Nippon TV/NNN Programming (8K)|
|4K-BS151||BS Asahi 4K||TV Asahi/ANN Programming (4K)|
|8K-BS152||BS Asahi 8K||TV Asahi/ANN Programming (8K)|
|4K-BS161||BS-TBS 4K||TBS/JNN Programming (4K)|
|8K-BS162||BS-TBS 8K||TBS/JNN Programming (8K)|
|4K-BS171||BS TV Tokyo 4K||TV Tokyo/TXN Programming (4K)|
|8K-BS171||BS TV Tokyo 8K||TV Tokyo/TXN Programming (8K)|
|4K-BS181||BS Fuji 4K||Fuji Television/FNN Programming (4K)|
|8K-BS181||BS Fuji 8K||Fuji Television/FNN Programming (8K)|
|4K-BS203||The Cinema 4K||Movies (4K)|
|4K-BS211||Shop Channel 4K||Shopping (4K)|
|4K-BS221||4K QVC||Shopping (4K)|
|Channel Number||Channel Name||Description|
|CS055||Shop Channel||Shopping (HD)|
|CS218||Toei Channel||Toei Movies and Television Programs (HD)|
|CS219||Eisei Gekijo||Shochiku Movies, Kabuki and Asian Drama (HD)|
|CS223||Channel Neco||Movies (HD)|
|CS227||The Cinema||Movies (HD)|
|CS240||Movie Plus||Movies (HD)|
|CS250||Sky A||Sports (HD)|
|CS254||Gaora Sports||Sports (HD)|
|CS257||Nittere G+||Sports (HD)|
|CS262||Golf Network||Golf (HD)|
|CS290||Takarazuka Sky Stage||Takarazuka Revue's Theatre (HD)|
|CS292||Jidaigeki Senmon Channel||Jidaigeki (HD)|
|CS293||Family Gekijo||Variety (HD)|
|CS295||Mondo TV||Variety (HD)|
|CS296||TBS Channel 1||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS297||TBS Channel 2||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS298||TV Asahi Channel 1||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS299||TV Asahi Channel 2||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS300||Nittere Plus||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS301||EntaMētele||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS305||Channel Ginga||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS307||Fuji TV One||Sports and Variety (HD)|
|CS308||Fuji TV Two||Drama and Animation (HD)|
|CS309||Fuji TV Next||Sports and Music Live (HD)|
|CS310||Super! Drama TV||Foreign Drama (HD)|
|CS312||Fox||General Entertainment (HD)|
|CS314||Lala TV||Women's Programming (HD)|
|CS317||KBS World||Korean Entertainment (HD)|
|CS318||Mnet Japan||Korean Entertainment (HD)|
|CS322||Space Shower TV||Music (HD)|
|CS323||MTV Japan||Music (HD)|
|CS325||Music On! TV||Music (HD)|
|CS330||Kids Station||Animation and Children's Programming (HD)|
|CS339||Disney Junior||Family (HD)|
|CS342||History Channel||History (HD)|
|CS343||National Geographic||Documentary (HD)|
|CS349||Nittere News 24||News (HD)|
|CS351||TBS News||News (HD)|
|CS800||Sports Live+||Sports (HD)|
|CS801||Sukachan 1||Sports (HD)|
|Channel Number||Channel Name||Description|
|4K-CS821||J Sports 1 (4K)||Sports (4K)|
|4K-CS822||J Sports 2 (4K)||Sports (4K)|
|4K-CS823||J Sports 3 (4K)||Sports (4K)|
|4K-CS824||J Sports 4 (4K)||Sports (4K)|
|4K-CS880||Nippon Eiga + Jidaigeki 4K||Japanese Movies and Jidaigeki (4K)|
|4K-CS881||Star Channel 4K||Movies (4K)|
|4K-CS882||Sukachan 1 4K||SKY PerfecTV! Original Programming (4K)|
|4K-CS883||Sukachan 2 4K||SKY PerfecTV! Original Programming (4K)|
While TV programs vary from station to station, some generalizations can be made. Most commercial television stations sign on between the hours of 4:00 AM and 5:00 AM every morning. Early morning hours are dominated by news programs, and these run from around 9:00 to 9:30 AM. They are then replaced by late morning shows that target wives who have finished their housework. These run to around 1:30 PM, at which time reruns of dramas and information programs that target the same age group start. On some stations at 4:00 PM, the young kid-oriented anime and TV shows start, and end around 7:00 PM or 8:00 PM. Evening news programs air as early as before 4:00 PM or before 5:00 PM and end at 7:00 PM, when the "Golden Hour" of TV shows start. 7:00 PM to 9:00 PM are the time periods into which TV stations pour the most resources. Appearing in this time slot is a certain sign that an actor or actress is a TV star. After 9:00 they switch over to Japanese television dramas and programs focusing on older age groups, which run till 10:00 or 11:00 PM. Stations run their late night news mostly at the 11:00 PM hour, and around midnight sports news programs run which target working ages. After these, programs for mature audiences run as well as anime that do not expect enough viewers if they were run earlier. Some commercial stations sign off between 2:00 AM and 3:00 AM every night; however, most stations affiliated with NNS or JNN broadcast 24 hours a day, with the sign off window replaced by a simulcast of their networks' news channel during the overnight hours. Other stations do filler programming to fill time before the start of early morning news. Commercial stations sometimes sign off on Sunday late nights or other days for technical maintenance. NHK is required to broadcast 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
The Japanese have sometimes subdivided television series and dramas into kūru (クール), from the French term "cours" for "course", which is a 3-month period usually of 13 episodes. Each kūru generally has its own opening and ending image sequence and song, recordings of which are often sold. A six-month period of 26 episodes is also used for subdivision in some television series.
Japanese dramas (テレビドラマ, terebi dorama, television drama) are a staple of Japanese television and are broadcast daily. All major TV networks in Japan produce a variety of drama series including romance, comedies, detective stories, horror, and many others. With a theme, there may be a one-episode drama, or 2-nights, that may be aired on special occasions, such as in 2007 where they had a drama produced as a sixty-year anniversary from the end of the World War II, with a theme of the atomic bomb.
Japan has a long history of producing science fiction series for TV. Non-anime science fiction are still largely unknown to foreign audiences. An exception is Power Rangers and their subsequent series that used battle sequences from the Super Sentai counterpart and combined them with American actors who acted out entirely original story lines.
Anime (アニメ), taken from half of the Japanese pronunciation of "animation", is the Japanese word for animation in general, but is used more specifically to mean "Japanese animation" in the rest of the world. Anime dates from about 1917. TV networks regularly broadcast anime programming. In Japan, major national TV networks, such as TV Tokyo broadcast anime regularly. Smaller regional stations broadcast anime on UHF. Fairy Tail , Naruto , Pokémon , Bleach , Dragon Ball , Case Closed and One Piece are examples of anime. While many popular series air during the daytime and evening hours, most air only at night from 12:00am – 4:00am. These series usually make profits primarily through BD (Blu-ray Disc)/DVD sales and merchandising rather than through television advertisement. Some anime series are original, but most are intended to promote something else, such as an ongoing manga, light novel, or video game series.[ citation needed ]
Japanese variety shows (also known as Japanese game shows) are television entertainment made up of a variety of original stunts, musical performances, comedy skits, quiz contests, and other acts. Japanese television programs such as Music Station and Utaban continue in an almost pristine format from the same variety shows of years before. The only major changes have been the increasing disappearance of live backup music since the 1980s.
NHK, also called the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japan's public broadcaster. NHK, which has always been known by this romanized initialism in Japanese, is a statutory corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee.
JOCX-DTV, virtual channel 8, branded as Fuji TV and colloquially known as CX, is a Japanese television station based in Odaiba, Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Owned and operated by the Fuji Television Network, Inc. it is the key station of the Fuji News Network (FNN) and the Fuji Network System. It is also known for its long-time slogan, "If it's not fun, it's not TV!"
Voice acting in Japan is an industry where actors provide voice-overs as characters or narrators in media including anime, video games, audio dramas, commercials, and dubbing for non-Japanese films and television programs.
The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks. ISDB supersedes both the NTSC-J analog television system and the previously used MUSE Hi-vision analog HDTV system in Japan as well as the NTSC, PAL-M, and PAL-N broadcast standards in South America and the Philippines. Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB) services using ISDB-T started in Japan in December 2003 and Brazil in December 2007 as a trial. Since then, many countries have adopted ISDB over other digital broadcasting standards.
Wowow Inc., listed as TYO: 4839, is a private satellite broadcasting and premium satellite television station in Japan. Its headquarters are located on the 21st floor of the Akasaka Park Building in Akasaka, Minato, Tokyo. Its broadcasting center is in Koto, Tokyo.
TBS Holdings, Inc., formerly Tokyo Broadcasting System Holdings, Inc., is a Japanese media and licensed broadcasting holding company. It is the parent company of the television network TBS Television, Inc. and radio network TBS Radio & Communications, Inc. (株式会社TBSラジオ&コミュニケーションズ). It has a 28-affiliate news network called JNN, as well as a 34-affiliate radio network called JRN.
JOTX-DTV, virtual channel 7, branded as TV Tokyo and often abbreviated as "Teleto", a blend of "terebi" and "Tokyo", is the flagship station of the TXN Network headquartered in the Sumitomo Fudosan Roppongi Grand Tower in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo, Japan, owned-and-operated by the TV Tokyo Corporation subsidiary of listed certified broadcasting holding company TV Tokyo Holdings Corporation, itself a subsidiary of Nikkei, Inc. It is one of the major Tokyo television stations, particularly specializing in anime.
The mass media in Japan include numerous television and radio networks as well as newspapers and magazines in Japan. For the most part, television networks were established based on capital investments by existing radio networks. Variety shows, serial dramas, and news constitute a large percentage of Japanese evening shows.
The Aichi Television Broadcasting Co., Ltd. is a TV station in Nagoya, Japan. It is known as "TV Aichi". It is a network TV station of TXN.
Sun Television Co. is a commercial television station headquartered in Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, and a member of the Japanese Association of Independent Television Stations (JAITS).
Commercial broadcasting is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship. It was the United States′ first model of radio during the 1920s, in contrast with the public television model in Europe during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, which prevailed worldwide, except in the United States and Brazil, until the 1980s.
The concept of television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots initially starting from back even in the 18th century. The first practical transmissions of moving images over a radio system used mechanical rotating perforated disks to scan a scene into a time-varying signal that could be reconstructed at a receiver back into an approximation of the original image. Development of television was interrupted by the Second World War. After the end of the war, all-electronic methods of scanning and displaying images became standard. Several different standards for addition of color to transmitted images were developed with different regions using technically incompatible signal standards. Television broadcasting expanded rapidly after World War II, becoming an important mass medium for advertising, propaganda, and entertainment.
JOMX-DTV, branded as Tokyo MX, is an independent television station in Tokyo, Japan, owned by the Tokyo Metropolitan Television Broadcasting Corporation. It is the only television station that exclusively serves the city. It competes with Nippon TV, TV Asahi, NHK General TV, Tokyo Broadcasting System Television, TV Tokyo, and Fuji TV, all of which are flagship stations of national networks. Tokyo MX was founded on April 30, 1993, and broadcasts commenced on November 1, 1995. Shareholders include the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Tokyo FM Broadcasting, and others.
In Japan, late night anime refers to anime series broadcast on television late at night or in the early hours of the morning, usually between 10 PM and 4 AM JST.
NHK General TV, abbreviated on-screen as NHK G, is the main television service of NHK, the Japanese public broadcaster. Its programming includes news, drama, quiz/variety shows, music, sports, anime, and specials which compete directly with the output of its commercial counterparts. The channel is well known for its nightly newscasts, regular documentary specials, and popular historical dramas. Among the programs NHK General TV broadcasts are the annual New Year's Eve spectacular Kōhaku Uta Gassen, the year-long Taiga drama, and the daytime Asadora.
High-definition television (HD) describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the generation following standard-definition television (SDTV), often abbreviated to HDTV or HD-TV. It is the current de facto standard video format used in most broadcasts: terrestrial broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, and Blu-ray Discs.
JORX-DTV, branded as TBS Television is the flagship station of the Japan News Network (JNN), owned-and-operated by the Tokyo Broadcasting System Television, Inc. subsidiary of JNN's owner, TBS Holdings. It operates in the Kantō region.
JOAX-DTV, virtual channel 4, branded as Nippon TV, is the flagship station of the Nippon Television Network System, owned-and-operated by the Nippon Television Network Corporation which is a subsidiary of the certified broadcasting holding company Nippon Television Holdings, Inc., itself a listed subdisiary of The Yomiuri Shimbun Holdings, Japan's largest media conglomerate by revenue and the second largest behind Sony; Nippon Television Holdings forms part of Yomiuri's main television broadcasting arm alongside Kansai region flagship Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation, which owns a 6.4% share in the company.
JOEX-DTV, branded as TV Asahi, is the flagship station of the All-Nippon News Network, owned-and-operated by the TV Asahi Corporation subsidiary of certified broadcasting holding company TV Asahi Holdings Corporation, itself controlled by The Asahi Shimbun Company. Its studios are located in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo.