Timeline of 1960s counterculture

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The following is a timeline of 1960s counterculture . Influential events and milestones years before and after the 1960s are included for context relevant to the subject period of the early 1960s through the mid-1970s.

































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<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Lennon</span> English musician (1940–1980)

John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer, songwriter, musician and peace activist who gained worldwide fame as the founder, co-songwriter, co-lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist of the Beatles. Lennon's work included music, writing, drawings, and film. His songwriting partnership with Paul McCartney remains the most successful in history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Summer of Love</span> 1967 social phenomenon in San Francisco

The Summer of Love was a social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, when as many as 100,000 people, mostly young people sporting hippie fashions of dress and behavior, converged in San Francisco's neighborhood of Haight-Ashbury. More broadly, the Summer of Love encompassed the hippie music, hallucinogenic drugs, anti-war, and free-love scene throughout the West Coast of the United States, and as far away as New York City.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1960s</span> Decade of the Gregorian calendar (1960–1969)

The 1960s was a decade that began on January 1, 1960, and ended on December 31, 1969.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hippie</span> Person associated with 1960s counterculture

A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in British English, is someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the 1960s and spread to different countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and was used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village, in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, and Chicago's Old Town community. The term hippie was used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularize use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen elsewhere earlier.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Counterculture</span> Subculture whose values and norms of behavior deviate from those of mainstream society

A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, sometimes diametrically opposed to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a specific population during a well-defined era. When oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes. Prominent examples of countercultures in the Western world include the Levellers (1645–1650), Bohemianism (1850–1910), the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation (1944–1964), and the globalized counterculture of the 1960s (1965–1973).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Revolution (Beatles song)</span> 1968 song by the Beatles

"Revolution" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, written by John Lennon and credited to the Lennon–McCartney partnership. Three versions of the song were recorded and released in 1968, all during sessions for the Beatles' self-titled double album, also known as "the White Album": a slow, bluesy arrangement included on the album; an abstract sound collage that originated as the latter part of "Revolution 1" and appears on the same album; and the faster, hard rock version similar to "Revolution 1", released as the B-side of "Hey Jude". Although the single version was issued first, it was recorded several weeks after "Revolution 1", intended for release as a single. A promotional video for the song was shot using the musical backing track from the hard rock version, along with live-sung lyrics that more closely resemble the "Revolution 1" version.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cultural impact of the Beatles</span> Effect the band left on pop culture

The English rock band the Beatles are commonly regarded as the foremost and most influential band in popular music history. With a line-up comprising John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they sparked the "Beatlemania" phenomenon in 1963, gained international superstardom in 1964, and remained active until their break-up in 1970. Over the latter half of the decade, they were often viewed as orchestrators of society's developments. Their recognition concerns their effect on the era's youth and counterculture, British identity, popular music's evolution into an art form, and their unprecedented following.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flower power</span> Slogan of passive resistance and nonviolence

Flower power was a slogan used during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a symbol of passive resistance and nonviolence. It is rooted in the opposition movement to the Vietnam War. The expression was coined by the American Beat poet Allen Ginsberg in 1965 as a means to transform war protests into peaceful affirmative spectacles. Hippies embraced the symbolism by dressing in clothing with embroidered flowers and vibrant colors, wearing flowers in their hair, and distributing flowers to the public, becoming known as flower children. The term later became generalized as a modern reference to the hippie movement and so-called counterculture of drugs, psychedelic music, psychedelic art and social permissiveness.

The Psychedelic era was the time of social, musical and artistic change influenced by psychedelic drugs, occurring from the mid-1960s to mid-1970s. The era was defined by the proliferation of LSD and its following influence in the development of psychedelic music and psychedelic film in the Western world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam</span> 1969 nationwide activism against the US involvement in the Vietnam War

The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a massive demonstration and teach-in across the United States against the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. It took place on October 15, 1969, followed a month later, on November 15, 1969, by a large Moratorium March in Washington, D.C.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Piggies</span> 1968 song by the Beatles

"Piggies" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1968 album The Beatles. Written by George Harrison as a social commentary, the song serves as an Orwellian satire on greed and consumerism. Among several elements it incorporates from classical music, the track features harpsichord and orchestral strings in the baroque pop style, which are contrasted by Harrison's acerbic lyrics and the sound of grunting pigs. Although credited to George Martin, the recording was largely produced by Chris Thomas, who also contributed the harpsichord part.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baby, You're a Rich Man</span> 1967 single by the Beatles

"Baby, You're a Rich Man" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles that was released as the B-side of their "All You Need Is Love" single in July 1967. It originated from an unfinished song by John Lennon, titled "One of the Beautiful People", to which Paul McCartney added a chorus. It is one of the best-known pop songs to make use of a clavioline, a monophonic keyboard instrument that was a forerunner to the synthesizer. Lennon played the clavioline on its oboe setting, creating a sound that suggests an Indian shehnai. The song was recorded and mixed at Olympic Sound Studios in London, making it the first of the Beatles' EMI recordings to be entirely created outside EMI Studios.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yellow Submarine (song)</span> 1966 single by the Beatles

"Yellow Submarine" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1966 album Revolver. It was also issued on a double A-side single, paired with "Eleanor Rigby". Written as a children's song by Paul McCartney and John Lennon, it was drummer Ringo Starr's vocal spot on the album. The single went to number one on charts in the United Kingdom and several other European countries, and in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. It won an Ivor Novello Award for the highest certified sales of any single written by a British songwriter and issued in the UK in 1966. In the US, the song peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and number one on the Cash BoxTop 100 chart.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hard Hat Riot</span> 1970 riot in New York, New York, United States

The Hard Hat Riot occurred on May 8, 1970, in New York City. It started around noon when around 400 construction workers and around 800 office workers attacked around 1,000 demonstrators affiliated with the student strike of 1970. The students were protesting the May 4 Kent State shootings and the Vietnam War, following the April 30 announcement by President Richard Nixon of the U.S. invasion of neutral Cambodia. Some construction workers carried U.S. flags and chanted "USA, All the way", and "America, love it or leave it". Anti-war protesters shouted, “Peace now”.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">More popular than Jesus</span> Controversial remark made by John Lennon

"More popular than Jesus" is part of a remark made by John Lennon of the Beatles in a March 1966 interview in which he argued that the public were more infatuated with the band than with Jesus and that Christian faith was declining to the extent that it might be outlasted by rock music. His opinions drew no controversy when originally published in the London newspaper The Evening Standard, but drew angry reactions from Christian communities when republished in the United States that July.

Alan Jules Weberman is an American writer, political activist, gadfly, and inventor of the terms "garbology" and "Dylanology". He is best known for his controversial opinions on, and personal interactions with, the musician Bob Dylan. Together with New York folk singer David Peel, Weberman founded the Rock Liberation Front in 1971 with the aim of "liberating" artists from bourgeois tendencies and ensuring that rock musicians continued to engage with and represent the counterculture of the 1960s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Counterculture of the 1960s</span> Anti-establishment cultural phenomenon

The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon and political movement that developed in the Western world during the mid-20th century. It began in the early 1960s, and continued through the early 1970s. It is often synonymous with cultural liberalism, and with the various social changes of the decade. The effects of the movement have been ongoing to the present day. The aggregate movement gained momentum as the civil rights movement in the United States had made significant progress, such as the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and with the intensification of the Vietnam War that same year, it became revolutionary to some. As the movement progressed, widespread social tensions also developed concerning other issues, and tended to flow along generational lines regarding respect for the individual, human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, rights of people of color, end of racial segregation, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the American Dream. Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the 1960s.

The hippie subculture began its development as a youth movement in the United States during the early 1960s and then developed around the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Beatles' 1966 US tour</span> 1966 concert tour by the Beatles

The Beatles staged their third and final concert tour of North America in August 1966. It consisted of 18 performances, with 16 shows in United States venues and two in Canada. The tour was plagued with backlash regarding the controversy of John Lennon's remark about the Beatles being "more popular than Jesus", death threats, and the band's own dissatisfaction with the noise levels and their ability to perform live. Their speaking out against the Vietnam War added further controversy to the visit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Beatles in Bangor</span> Stay by the Beatles in Bangor, Wales to attend a Transcendental Meditation seminar

In late August 1967, the English rock band the Beatles attended a seminar on Transcendental Meditation (TM) held by Indian teacher Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at a training college in Bangor in north-west Wales. The visit attracted international publicity for Transcendental Meditation and presented the 1960s youth movement with an alternative to psychedelic drugs as a means to attaining higher consciousness. The Beatles' endorsement of the technique followed the band's incorporation of Indian musical and philosophical influences in their work, and was initiated by George Harrison's disillusionment with Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco, which he visited in early August.


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  54. Moyer, Justin Wm. (2015-04-08). "Gloomy Don McLean reveals meaning of 'American Pie' – and sells lyrics for $1.2 million". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-01-17. Shoved into unheated buses on a "Winter Dance Party" tour in 1959, Holly – tired of rattling through the Midwest with dirty clothes – chartered a plane on Feb. 3 to fly from Clear Lake, Iowa, to Fargo, N.D., where he hoped he could make an appointment with a washing machine. Joining him on the plane were Ritchie Valens and, after future country star Waylon Jennings gave up his seat, J.P. Richardson, a.k.a. "the Big Bopper." Taking off in bad weather with a pilot not certified to do so, the plane crashed, killing everyone aboard. The toll was incalculable: The singers of "Peggy Sue" and "Come On Let's Go" and "Donna" and "La Bamba" were dead. Holly was just 22; incredibly, Valens was just 17. Rock and roll would never be the same.
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  61. Drury, Jeffrey P. (2006). "Paul Potter, "The Incredible War" (17 April 1965)". Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Although the beginnings of the 1965 March on Washington can be located in a number of places, it is perhaps best to begin with the origins of the chief organization behind the march: the Students for a Democratic Society. As a social movement organization, the SDS grew out of a parent group founded in 1905 called the League for Industrial Democracy (LID). The LID embraced a largely socialist orientation toward democratic governance; the organization was initially called the Intercollegiate Socialist Society before changing its name in 1921. Many prominent political thinkers were members of the LID, including Upton Sinclair, Walter Lippmann, Michael Harrington, and John Dewey (who was president for a short time). Growing out of the larger organization, the student section of the LID – aptly titled the Student League for Industrial Democracy, or SLID – existed in early 1960 on only three campuses: Yale, Columbia, and the University of Michigan.
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  66. "Freedom Struggle – Sitting for Justice: Woolworth's Lunch Counter". A collective effort of the staff of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center via Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved September 22, 2014. On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, and politely asked for service. Their request was refused. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their passive resistance and peaceful sit-down demand helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South. (text and photos)
  67. "Investigation is Ordered in Sit-In Demonstration" (PDF). March 26, 1960. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2015. Governor Buford Ellington ordered today a full investigation into the activities of a television network camera crew...
  68. "SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)". northcarolinahistory.org. North Carolina History Project via John Locke Foundation. Retrieved September 22, 2014. SNCC evolved out of that Easter weekend at Shaw University. Students in the SCLC had wished, for some time, for a student-led organization. (There were student chapters within the SCLC, but Martin Luther King Jr. had not been pushing for an official student organization). Students wanted leadership opportunities and had different strategies than the SCLC leadership, which they believed moved toward progress at a glacial speed. At the 1960 Shaw meeting, students also expressed a fear that a strong centralized organization (even if student-led) would be a foe of democracy. Therefore, Baker and others established SNCC as a decentralized organization, with the national headquarters providing support and literature, including a newspaper, but not the strategy and leadership.
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  70. Wise, David; Ross, Thomas (1962). The U-2 Affair (Bantam, 1962-11 ed.). New York: Random House / Bantam. Here, told for the first time, is the remarkable story behind the most explosive espionage case of the 20th century...
  71. "FDA Approves the Pill". History Channel.
  72. Fink, Brenda (September 29, 2011). "The pill and the marriage revolution". gender.stanford.edu. Clayman Institute / Stanford University. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved November 26, 2014. The birth control pill arrived on the market in 1960. Within two years, 1.2 million American women were "on the pill." By 1964, it was the most popular contraceptive in the country. Looking back, Americans credit – or blame – the pill with unleashing the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. The pill is widely believed to have loosened sexual mores, including the double standard that sanctioned premarital sex for men but not for women. But, according to historian Elaine Tyler May, this idea is largely a myth. As May explained to a Stanford audience, the pill's impact on the sexual revolution is unclear. What is clear is that the drug had a far greater impact within marriage itself.
  73. "The Sixties: House Un-American Activities Committee" at PBS.org
  74. Carl Nolte (May 13, 2010). "'Black Friday,' birth of U.S. protest movement". San Francisco Chronicle .
  75. Stack, Barbara. "HUAC Black Friday Police Riot – May 13, 1960 (Archival Material: Free Speech Movement)". btstack.com. Barbara Toby Stack. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  76. "Timeline". Peace Action.
  77. Mejia, Paula (2016-02-19). "Harper Lee, Author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' Dies at 89". newsweek.com. Newsweek. Retrieved 2016-02-20. Lee became a literary phenomenon upon the publication of Mockingbird on July 11, 1960. It was a best-seller and earned the author the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1961 – an astonishing feat for a debut novel. "No book in years has commanded the kind of volunteer claque which is now pushing an unassuming first novel toward the best-seller list's summit," wrote Newsweek in its profile of Lee that same year. The following year the Mockingbird film adaptation, starring Gregory Peck as the white lawyer Atticus Finch who defends a black man wrongfully accused of rape, was released. The film was also hailed an instant classic.
  78. Wooley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "Election of 1960". presidency.ucsb.edu. Gerhard Peters – The American Presidency Project via University of California-Santa Barbara. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  79. "Key Counties May Indicate Closest Election Since 1916". AP via The Milwaukee Journal (Google capture). October 20, 1960. Retrieved June 12, 2014.[ permanent dead link ]
  80. Shribman, David (October 24, 2010). "Nixon v. Kennedy: 50 years ago America chose between two men who were dramatically different – and eerily similar". post-gazette.com. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette/PG Publishing Co. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  81. White, Theodore H. (1961). The Making of the President 1960 (First ed.). New York: Atheneum House. p. 386. ISBN   9780689708039.
  82. Jones, Carolyn (January 7, 2010). "Human potential pioneer George Leonard dies". sfgate.com. San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  83. Martin, Douglas (January 18, 2010). "George Leonard, Voice of '60s Counterculture, Dies at 86". The New York Times . Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  84. "President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address (1961): On January 17, 1961, in this farewell address, President Dwight Eisenhower warned against the establishment of a "military-industrial complex."". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  85. "President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
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  87. "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  88. Gunston, Bill (1973). Bombers of the West. New York: Scribner. p.  254. ISBN   978-0684136233.
  89. 1 2 "International Drug Control Conventions". unodc.org. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  90. Glines, Jr., Carroll V (1963). The Compact History of the United States Air Force (New & Revised, May 1973 ed.). New York: Hawthorn Books. pp.  319–320. ISBN   0-405-12169-5.
  91. "The Bay of Pigs". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Before his inauguration, John F. Kennedy was briefed on a plan by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) developed during the Eisenhower administration to train Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland. The plan anticipated that the Cuban people and elements of the Cuban military would support the invasion. The ultimate goal was the overthrow of Castro and the establishment of a non-communist government friendly to the United States.
  92. Cia History Office Staff; Jack B. Pfeiffer (September 2011). CIA Official History of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Volume IV: The Taylor Committee Investigation of the Bay of Pigs. Military Bookshop. ISBN   978-1-78039-476-3.
  93. "The Freedom Rides: CORE Volunteers Put Their Lives on the Road". core-online.org. Congress of Racial Equality. Retrieved September 22, 2014. In 1961 CORE undertook a new tactic aimed at desegregating public transportation throughout the south. These tactics became known as the "Freedom Rides". The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional. In the first few days, the riders encountered only minor hostility, but in the second week the riders were severely beaten. Outside Anniston, Alabama, one of their buses was burned, and in Birmingham several dozen whites attacked the riders only two blocks from the sheriff's office. With the intervention of the U.S. Justice Department, most of CORE's Freedom Riders were evacuated from Birmingham, Alabama to New Orleans. John Lewis, a former seminary student who would later lead SNCC and become a US congressman, stayed in Birmingham. CORE Leaders decided that letting violence end the trip would send the wrong signal to the country. They reinforced the pair of remaining riders with volunteers, and the trip continued. The group traveled from Birmingham to Montgomery without incident, but on their arrival in Montgomery they were savagely attacked by a mob of more than 1000 whites. The extreme violence and the indifference of local police prompted a national outcry of support for the riders, putting pressure on President Kennedy to end the violence. The riders continued to Mississippi, where they endured further brutality and jail terms but generated more publicity and inspired dozens more Freedom Rides. By the end of the summer, the protests had spread to train stations and airports across the South, and in November, the Interstate Commerce Commission issued rules prohibiting segregated transportation facilities.
  94. "Berlin Crises". Archived from the original on December 3, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014. At the Vienna Summit in June 1961, Khrushchev reiterated his threat to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany if the West did not come to terms over Berlin by the end of the year. Rather than submit to such pressure, President John F. Kennedy replied that it would be a "cold winter." When he returned to the United States, Kennedy faced instead a summer of decision. On July 25 he announced plans to meet the Soviet challenge in Berlin, including a dramatic buildup of American conventional forces and drawing the line on interference with Allied access to West Berlin. This warning, in fact, contained the basis for resolving the crisis. On August 13 the East German Government, supported by Khrushchev, finally closed the border between East and West Berlin by erecting what eventually became the most concrete symbol of the Cold War: the Berlin Wall. Although the citizens of Berlin reacted to the wall with outrage, many in the West – certainly within the Kennedy administration – reacted with relief. The wall interfered with the personal lives of the people but not with the political position of the Allies in Berlin. The result was a "satisfactory" stalemate – the Soviets did not challenge the legality of Allied rights, and the Allies did not challenge the reality of Soviet power.
  95. Kennedy, John F. "Report on the Berlin Crisis (July 25, 1961) by John F. Kennedy". millercenter.org. Miller Center / University of Virginia. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2014. So long as the Communists insist that they are preparing to end by themselves unilaterally our rights in West Berlin and our commitments to its people, we must be prepared to defend those rights and those commitments. We will at all times be ready to talk, if talk will help. But we must also be ready to resist with force, if force is used upon us. Either alone would fail. Together, they can serve the cause of freedom and peace.
  96. "Amnesty International: Where it All Began". amnesty.org. Amnesty International. Retrieved 2016-04-29. In 1961, British lawyer Peter Benenson was outraged when two Portuguese students were jailed just for raising a toast to freedom. He wrote an article in The Observer newspaper and launched a campaign that provoked an incredible response. Reprinted in newspapers across the world, his call to action sparked the idea that people everywhere can unite in solidarity for justice and freedom. This inspiring moment didn't just give birth to an extraordinary movement, it was the start of extraordinary social change.
  97. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1977 Amnesty International". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-04-30. Amnesty International was founded in 1961 by Peter Benenson, a British lawyer. It was originally his intention to launch an appeal in Britain with the aim of obtaining an amnesty for prisoners of conscience all over the world. The committee working for this cause soon found that a detailed documentation of this category of prisoners would be needed. Gradually they realized that the work would have to be carried out on a more permanent basis; the number of prisoners of conscience was enormous and they were to be found in every part of the world.
  98. "The construction of the Berlin Wall". berlion.de. Governing Mayor of Berlin – Senate Chancellery. Retrieved 2017-01-12. Around 2.7 million people left the GDR and East Berlin between 1949 and 1961, causing increasing difficulties for the leadership of the East German communist party, the SED. Around half of this steady stream of refugees were young people under the age of 25. Roughly half a million people crossed the sector borders in Berlin each day in both directions, enabling them to compare living conditions on both sides. In 1960 alone, around 200,000 people made a permanent move to the West. The GDR was on the brink of social and economic collapse.
  99. Brian J. Collins (January 2011). NATO: A Guide to the Issues. ABC-CLIO. p. 73. ISBN   978-0-313-35491-5.
  100. File:EUCOM Checkpoint Charlie Standoff 1961.jpg
  101. "Women Strike for Peace". jwa.org. Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved September 22, 2014. On November 1, 1961, Women Strike For Peace (WSP) was inaugurated with a day-long strike by an estimated 50,000 women in 60 cities, all pressing for nuclear disarmament. The organization was composed primarily of mothers who feared the effects of nuclear proliferation on the short- and long-term health of their children. They were particularly concerned with levels of irradiation in milk and the increase in nuclear testing. WSP had the slogan "End the Arms Race – Not the Human Race," as well as "Pure Milk, Not Poison." Bella Abzug joined the group in its early organizational stages as an active participant in the New York contingent and as creator and chairperson of WSP's legislative committee. By pushing the organization to incorporate legislative lobbying into its efforts, she helped it to become an effective political force. By 1964, the emphasis of Women Strike for Peace had shifted to focus as much on the Vietnam War as on disarmament, protesting against the draft and the war's effects on Vietnamese children. Abzug remained active in WSP until she was elected to Congress in 1970.
  102. Marder, Dorothy. "Photographs of Dorothy Marder – Women Strike for Peace, 1961–1975". swarthmore.edu. Elizabeth Matlock and Wendy Chmielewski via Swarthmore College (Swarthmore College Peace Collection). Retrieved September 22, 2014. Women Strike for Peace (WSP) was formed in 1961 after over 50,000 women across the country marched for peace and against above ground testing of nuclear weapons. By the mid 1960s the focus of the organization shifted to working against the Vietnam war. Dorothy Marder took photographs at many WSP demonstrations on the East Coast and her images appeared in WSP publications. Her photographs show the women behind WSP who wanted to protect their families from nuclear testing and a male-dominated militarism. Leaders of the organization include Dagmar Wilson, Bella Abzug, Amy Swerdlow, Cora Weiss, and many more are featured in Dorothy Marder's photography.
  103. "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation and Associated Documents" (PDF). February 16, 1962. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  104. Lansdale (February 20, 1962). "[Internal Memo] The Cuba Project". p. 1. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  105. Weiner, Tim (1997-11-23). "Stupid Dirty Tricks; The Trouble With Assassinations". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-30. Editor's Note: October 30, 1998, Friday An article on Sept. 29 discussed the release of 60,000 secret documents on the killing of President John F. Kennedy. Their declassification occurred over a period, leading up to the final report of a citizens' commission created by Congress six years ago to dispel lingering suspicions that the truth had been hidden. Discussing criticism of the Warren Commission, which investigated the assassination at the time, the article said that one member, Allen W. Dulles, a former Director of Central Intelligence, had failed to tell fellow members that Kennedy had ordered the C.I.A. to assassinate Castro. The article did not cite evidence or authority for the assertion about the President. Earlier articles, on July 20, 1997, and Nov. 23, 1997, also declared without qualification that Kennedy ordered Fidel Castro's assassination. A number of prominent historians and officials with knowledge of intelligence matters in that era have asserted in interviews that President Kennedy gave such an order. But others, also close to the President, dispute their account. The Times's practice is to attribute or qualify information that it is unable to report firsthand. That should have been done in these cases.
  106. "Betty Friedan and the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women". Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study / Harvard University. November 20, 2013. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2014. Text & Video
  107. American Women: Report of The President's Commission on the Status of Women. 1963 (PDF). US Government via University of Michigan via Hathitrust.org. 1963. Retrieved November 26, 2014. Google digitized pdf from U-M library
  108. Laneri, Raquel (2018-02-05). "How a Harlem fashion show started the 'Black is Beautiful' movement". New York Post. Retrieved 2018-02-06. The event, held in the basement of the Harlem Purple Manor, a popular nightclub on East 125th Street, was called "Naturally '62" and was intended to promote African culture and fashion. What made the show revolutionary were the models: a group of nonprofessionals with unabashedly dark skin and natural, unprocessed, curly hair. They were part of the newly formed Grandassa Models, and they were as unlike any fashion plates as the crowd had ever seen. "It was a pioneering concept, women coming out on stage wearing their hair in a natural state," former AJASS member Robert Gumbs told The Post. "We didn't know how the community would respond. I think a number of people came to laugh." Yet by the end of the evening, audience members were cheering the models. And the show's slogan, "Black Is Beautiful" – printed on fliers and posters announcing the event – would become a rallying cry and movement celebrating natural hair, darker skin and African heritage.
  109. "Battlefield: Timeline". PBS. Retrieved 2016-02-11. In Operation Chopper, helicopters flown by U.S. Army pilots ferry 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers to sweep a NLF stronghold near Saigon. It marks America's first combat missions against the Vietcong.
  110. Buckingham, Jr., William (1983). "Operation Ranch Hand: Herbicides In Southeast Asia". Air University Review (United States Edition). Air University Review. 34 (5): 42–53. PMID   12879499. Archived from the original on February 22, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  111. Essoyan, Roy (1962-02-05). "U.S. Copter Shot Down in Viet Nam". The Chicago Tribune. No. Volume CXXI- No. 31. Archived from the original on 2015-12-25. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  112. "UN Session Seen as Help to U.S., Red Space Ties". news.google.com/newspapers. AP via Schenectady Gazette. February 27, 1962. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  113. "Bob Dylan". Billboard. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  114. "The Official Web Page of the United Farm Workers of America". UFW. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  115. "The Statement". University of Michigan Department of History. 2012. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 21, 2014. The Port Huron Statement was the declaration of principles issued June 15, 1962, by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a major radical student organization in the United States during the 1960s. Having only a few hundred members across the country at the time the Statement was drafted, SDS drew tens of thousands of students into its ranks as the movement against the Vietnam War grew – before a deep factional split destroyed the organization in 1969. During SDS's history of activism, 60,000 copies of the Statement were distributed. It has become a historical landmark of American leftwing radicalism and a widely influential discourse on the meaning of democracy in modern society.
  116. Lopez-Munoz, Francisco; Ucha-Udabe, Ronaldo; Alamo, Cecilio (December 2005). "The History of Barbiturates a Century after their Clinical Introduction". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Dove Press via US National Institutes of Health. 1 (4): 329–343. PMC   2424120 . PMID   18568113. In relation to the frequent cases of death by overdose, given the small therapeutic margin of these substances, it should be pointed out that this was a common method in suicide attempts. It suffices to recall, in this regard, the famous case of Marilyn Monroe, on whose death certificate it clearly states "acute poisoning by overdose of barbiturates" (Figure 7). The lethal effect of these compounds was such that a mixture of barbiturates with other substances was even employed in some USA states for the execution of prisoners sentenced to death. Furthermore, there are classic reports of fatal overdose due to the "automatism phenomenon", whereby the patient would take his or her dose, only to forget that he or she had already taken it, given the amnesic effect of the drug, and take it again, this process being repeated several times (Richards 1934). Figure 8 shows the evolution of number of deaths (accidental or suicide) by barbiturate overdose in England and Wales for the period 1905–1960. In this regard, and in the city of New York alone, in the period 1957–1963, there were 8469 cases of barbiturate overdose, with 1165 deaths (Sharpless 1970), whilst in the United Kingdom, between 1965 and 1970, there were 12 354 deaths attributed directly to barbiturates (Barraclough 1974). These data should not surprise us, since in a period of just one year (1968), 24.7 million prescriptions for barbiturates were issued in the United Kingdom (Plant 1981). In view of these data, the Advisory Council Campaign in Britain took measures restricting the prescription of these drugs. Meanwhile, the prescription of prolonged-acting sedative barbiturates was strongly opposed through citizens' action campaigns such as CURB (Campaign on the Use and Restrictions of Barbiturates), especially active during the 1970s.
  117. "Top 10 Mistresses: #4, Marilyn Monroe". Time. July 1, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2014. Monroe died later in 1962 of a drug overdose, but tales about her alleged fling with the President grew increasingly tall. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover tried to prove that the man on a secret FBI sex tape of Monroe was Kennedy, but he lacked definitive proof. Others claim Kennedy was involved in her death. Needless to say, the rumors are even less substantiated than the affair itself.
  118. Kennedy, John (30 March 2022). "John F. Kennedy Moon Speech – Rice Stadium". US National Aeronautical & Space Administration.
  119. Griswold, Eliza (September 21, 2012). "How 'Silent Spring' Ignited the Environmental Movement". The New York Times . Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  120. Meyer, Michal; Kenworthy, Bob (2016-02-02). "DDT: The Britney Spears of Chemicals (Audio Podcast)". Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2018. Americans have had a long, complicated relationship with the pesticide DDT, or dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, if you want to get fancy. First we loved it, then we hated it, then we realized it might not be as bad as we thought. But we'll never restore it to its former glory. And couldn't you say the same about America's once-favorite pop star?
  121. James Meredith (August 7, 2012). A Mission from God: A Memoir and Challenge for America. Simon and Schuster. ISBN   978-1-4516-7474-3.
  122. "The Integration of Ole Miss (Historical video and text resources)". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  123. "The Beatles' 'Love Me Do' Hits the Public Domain in Europe". Rolling Stone. January 12, 2013.
  124. Hotten, Russell (2012-10-04). "The Beatles at 50: From Fab Four to fabulously wealthy". BBC. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  125. Viner, Brian (2012-02-11). "The man who rejected the Beatles" . The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07. Retrieved 2016-02-09. Exactly 50 years ago, Decca's Dick Rowe turned down the Fab Four, so heading an unenviable club of talent-spotters who passed up their biggest chance. But is it all an urban myth? A new book suggests so
  126. Dobbs, Michael; Dobbs, Rachel (2012-10-08). "Thirteen Days in October (Annotated Slideshow)". Foreignpolicy.com. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  127. "Aerial Photograph of Missiles in Cuba (1962)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  128. Kennedy, John (1962-10-22). "JFK Addresses Nation". YouTube. US Government (original). Retrieved 2017-02-15. Complete and uncut footage of speech.
  129. Schwartz, Stephen (August 1998). "Skybolt Air-Launched Ballistic Missile (AGM-48A) (Archive Document)". brookings.edu. The Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  130. Anderson, Walter Truett. The Upstart Spring: Esalen and the American Awakening, Addison Wesley Publishing Company (1983, 2004) p. 64
  131. Fox, Margalit (2012-08-13). "Helen Gurley Brown, Who Gave 'Single Girl' a Life in Full, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-30. As Cosmopolitan's editor from 1965 until 1997, Ms. Brown was widely credited with being the first to introduce frank discussions of sex into magazines for women. The look of women's magazines today – a sea of voluptuous models and titillating cover lines – is due in no small part to her influence.
  132. Isserman, Maurice (June 19, 2009). "Essay Michael Harrington: Warrior on Poverty". The New York Times . Retrieved July 13, 2014. Among the book's readers, reputedly, was John F. Kennedy, who in the fall of 1963 began thinking about proposing antipoverty legislation. After Kennedy's assassination, Lyndon Johnson took up the issue, calling in his 1964 State of the Union address for an "unconditional war on poverty." Sargent Shriver headed the task force charged with drawing up the legislation, and invited Harrington to Washington as a consultant.
  133. Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (November 11, 2001). "Ken Kesey, Author of 'Cuckoo's Nest,' Who Defined the Psychedelic Era, Dies at 66". The New York Times . Retrieved July 7, 2014. Ken Kesey, the Pied Piper of the psychedelic era, who was best known as the author of the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, died yesterday in a hospital in Eugene, Ore., said his wife, Faye. He was 66 and lived in Pleasant Hill, Ore.
  134. Hoffman, Jordan (2015-11-19). "'One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest' Still Resonates 40 Years Later". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Archived from the original on 2019-02-01. Retrieved 2016-06-20. Milos Forman's adaptation of Ken Kesey's novel 'One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest' is, in some ways, the essential film document about the 1960s counter-culture.
  135. Dunlap, David (January 4, 2012). "Charles W. Bailey, Journalist and Political Novelist, Dies at 82". The New York Times . Retrieved February 7, 2015. Written with Fletcher Knebel and published in 1962, Seven Days in May tells of an attempted coup by the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in May 1974 after the president negotiates a disarmament treaty with Russia. It was at the top of The New York Times's best-seller list in early 1963 and was made into a movie, with Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas and Fredric March, in 1964.
  136. Jesse Walker (June 1, 2004). Rebels on the Air: An Alternative History of Radio in America. NYU Press. p. 91. ISBN   978-0-8147-8477-8.
  137. Hinckley, David (September 20, 2012). "Documentary 'Radio Unnameable' captures the wee-hour WBAI broadcasts of Bob Fass". New York Daily News. The New York Daily News. Retrieved July 24, 2014. Legendary jock entertained and informed New Yorkers in the '60s and '70s by bringing on guests like Bob Dylan and Abbie Hoffman.
  138. Paul Lovelace & Jessica Wolfson (2012). Radio Unnameable (Film Documentary). New York: Lost Footage Films.
  139. 1 2 Cochrane, Kira (May 6, 2013). "1963: the beginning of the feminist movement – Fifty years on, we look back at the year that signalled the beginning of the modern era". The Guardian Limited. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  140. "Louie Louie (The Song)". fbi.gov. US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2016-05-12. In 1963, a rock group named the Kingsmen recorded the song "Louie, Louie." The popularity of the song and difficulty in discerning the lyrics led some people to suspect the song was obscene. The FBI was asked to investigate whether or not those involved with the song violated laws against the interstate transportation of obscene material. The limited investigation lasted from February to May 1964 and discovered no evidence of obscenity.
  141. McArdle, Terence (2015-04-29). "Jack Ely, whose garbled version of 'Louie Louie' became a sensation, dies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-05-13. According to rock music historian Peter Blecha, advances in recording technology have revealed an actual obscenity on the Kingsmen's recording of "Louie Louie." About 54 seconds in, Blecha said, Easton uses a barely audible profanity after fumbling with a drumstick.
  142. File:President Kennedy American University Commencement Address June 10, 1963.jpg
  143. "The Burning Monk: A defining moment photographed by AP's Malcolm Browne". ap.org. Associated Press. 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2015. Nevertheless, it was that picture which shocked President John F. Kennedy, who immediately ordered a review of his administration's Vietnam policy. The review led to more troops, not fewer.
  144. Schudel, Matt (August 28, 2012). "Malcolm W. Browne, Pulitzer-winning journalist who captured indelible Vietnam image, dies at 81". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2015. He chronicled the regime of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and the homegrown opposition led by Buddhist monks. On June 11, 1963, Mr. Browne was present when an elderly monk named Thich Quang Duc, wearing sandals and a robe, calmly sat cross-legged on a cushion in the center of an intersection in Saigon. Other monks poured fuel over him, and the monk struck a match and was immediately engulfed in flames. Mr. Browne shot roll after roll of film, documenting the self-immolation.
  145. Cosgrove, Ben; Loengard, John (June 11, 2013). "Behind the Picture: Medgar Evers' Funeral, June 1963 (Story and Photos)". life.time.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014. In its June 28, 1963, issue, LIFE confronted the assassination with a combination of scorn (for the Klan and for white supremacists in general), anger (at the waste of such a life as Evers') and an occasionally sardonic venom.
  146. "School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp". Cornell University Law School / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved February 27, 2015. Syllabus: Because of the prohibition of the First Amendment against the enactment by Congress of any law "respecting an establishment of religion," which is made applicable to the States by the Fourteenth Amendment, no state law or school board may require that passages from the Bible be read or that the Lord's Prayer be recited in the public schools of a State at the beginning of each school day – even if individual students may be excused from attending or participating in such exercises upon written request of their parents.
  147. "God in America – People & Ideas: Madalyn Murray O'Hair". US PBS. Retrieved February 27, 2015. Madalyn Murray O'Hair was an outspoken advocate of atheism and the founder of the organization American Atheists. In 1960 O'Hair gained notoriety when she sued Baltimore public schools for requiring students to read from the Bible and to recite the Lord's Prayer at school exercises.
  148. Scherman, Rowland (July 31, 2009). "Dylan In Pictures: Newport 1963". NPR. US National Public Radio. Retrieved February 27, 2015. That seminal moment at the 1963 Newport Folk Festival, Dylan went from zero to hero in the course of a weekend.
  149. Ulrich Adelt (2010). Blues Music in the Sixties: A Story in Black and White. Rutgers University Press. p. 38. ISBN   978-0-8135-4750-3.
  150. Suarez, Ray (28 August 2003). "Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" Remembered". pbs.org. Public Broadcasting Service (US). Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  151. "Test Ban Treaty (1963):On August 5, 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty that went into effect on October 10, 1963, banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  152. Richard A. Reuss (2000). American Folk Music and Left-wing Politics, 1927–1957. Scarecrow Press. p. 2. ISBN   978-0-8108-3684-6.
  153. "Harvard Sex Orgies Disclosed by Dean". The Chicago Tribune. UPI. 1963-11-01. Archived from the original on 2015-11-04. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
  154. Robert S. McNamara; James Blight; Robert K. Brigham; Thomas J. Biersteker; Col. Herbert Schandler (2 November 2007). Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy. PublicAffairs. p. 328. ISBN   978-1-58648-621-1.[ permanent dead link ]
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  156. Marrs, Jim (1989). "Preface". Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy (1st Paperback, 1990 ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN   0-88184-648-1.
  157. Jeanette Leech (2010). Seasons They Change: The Story of Acid and Psychedelic Folk . Jawbone Press. p.  37. ISBN   978-1-906002-32-9.
  158. Johnson, Lyndon Baines. "Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union. January 8, 1964". .presidency.ucsb.edu. Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley – The American Presidency Project via UCSB. Archived from the original on October 18, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2015. Let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined; as the session which enacted the most far-reaching tax cut of our time; as the session which declared all-out war on human poverty and unemployment in these United States; as the session which finally recognized the health needs of all our older citizens; as the session which reformed our tangled transportation and transit policies; as the session which achieved the most effective, efficient foreign aid program ever; and as the session which helped to build more homes, more schools, more libraries, and more hospitals than any single session of Congress in the history of our Republic.
  159. "For LBJ, The War On Poverty Was Personal". NPR. January 8, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2015. President Lyndon Johnson stood in the Capitol on Jan. 8, 1964, and, in his first State of the Union address, committed the nation to a war on poverty. "We shall not rest until that war is won," Johnson said. "The richest nation on Earth can afford to win it. We cannot afford to lose it." It was an effort that had been explored under President Kennedy, but it firmly – and quickly – took shape under Johnson.
  160. Sanburn, Josh (2011-05-09). "The 10 Best Bob Dylan Songs: 'The Times They Are A-Changin'" . Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  161. "500 Greatest Songs of All Time: 59 Bob Dylan, 'The Times They Are A-Changin'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  162. "Historical Highlights: The 24th Amendment". history.house.gov. U.S. House of Representatives (History, Art & Archives). Retrieved March 1, 2015. On this date in 1962, the House passed the 24th Amendment, outlawing the poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections, by a vote of 295 to 86. At the time, five states maintained poll taxes which disproportionately affected African-American voters: Virginia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas. The poll tax exemplified "Jim Crow" laws, developed in the post-Reconstruction South, which aimed to disenfranchise black voters and institute segregation.
  163. "Beatlemania Comes to the United States". rockhall.com. Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. February 3, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015. In Britain, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" saw its official release on December 5, 1963, reaching Number One the following week. It held the position for five weeks. Soon thereafter, American DJs began spinning the import single and the immediate, positive response prompted Capitol to not only bump up the release date to December 26, but also increase the press run from 200,000 copies to one million. A media blitz followed, as reporters from the Associated Press, CBS, Life, New York Times and more were assigned to cover the Beatles. "I Want to Hold Your Hand" reached Number One on the Billboard charts on February 1, 1964, and remained on the Billboard Hot 100 for seven weeks.
  164. Barry Miles (2009). The British Invasion. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN   978-1-4027-6976-4.
  165. "New York School Boycott". crdl.usg.org. Civil Rights Digital Library/Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  166. Khan, Yasmeen (2016-02-03). "Demand for School Integration Leads to Massive 1964 Boycott – In New York City". wnyc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-17. After hearing too many "vague promises" from the New York City Board of Education to integrate the schools, civil rights activists in 1964 called for swift action: desegregate the city's schools and improve the inferior conditions of many that enrolled black and Latino students. To force the issue, they staged a one-day school boycott on Feb. 3, when approximately 460,000 students refused to go to school.
  167. "The Beatles". edsullivan.com. SOFA Entertainment. 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  168. Harding, Barrie (1964-02-08). "5,000 scream 'welcome' to the Beatles". Daily Mirror. No. 18,704. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  169. Trust, Gary (2013-04-04). "April 4, 1964: The Beatles Control Entire Top Five On Billboard Hot 100". Billboard. Retrieved 2016-08-11. On the Billboard Hot 100 dated April 4, 1964, 49 years ago today, the Beatles made history as the only act ever to occupy the chart's top five positions in a week. With a 27–1 second-week blast to the top for "Can't Buy Me Love," the Fab Four locked up the chart's entire top five: No. 1, "Can't Buy Me Love" No. 2, "Twist and Shout" No. 3, "She Loves You" No. 4, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" No. 5, "Please Please Me"
  170. Bronson, p. 145.
  171. The New York Times (10 June 2014). The New York Times The Times of the Sixties: The Culture, Politics, and Personalities that Shaped the Decade. Running Press. p. 1136. ISBN   978-1-60376-366-0.
  172. France, Lisa Respers (2018-03-01). "All the best actor Oscar winners through the years". CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  173. "The 1964 Cleveland schools' boycott to protest segregation: Black History Month". 2013-02-24.
  174. Winner, David (19 May 2009). "Robert Jasper Grootveld: Artist and activist who helped found the Dutch Provos in the 1960s". www.independent.co.uk. The Independent. Retrieved 3 December 2016. No single person can be said to have created the worldwide cultural phenomenon we call "the Sixties". But the Dutch anti-smoking "magician" and voodoo showman Robert Jasper Grootveld has a better claim than most. In the early Sixties, his surreal, dadaist "happenings" in Amsterdam electrified the city's bored youth and led to the creation of the playful Provo movement (short for "provocation"). With the charismatic, flamboyantly transvestite Grootveld as a spokesman, Provo was a catalyst for cultural revolution. The group provided free bicycles, subverted a royal wedding and humiliated the stiff-necked Dutch establishment and Amsterdam police force so effectively that both groups – and the country – underwent a near-total personality change. Provo lasted only from 1965 to 1967 but the spirit of what Grootveld dubbed "International Magic Centre Amsterdam" broke old Holland, inspired hippies in San Francisco and musicians and artists in London and paved the way, among other things, for the summer of love, Dutch total football and the green movement.
  175. International Institute of Social History – Grootveld flyers
  176. Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Sheraton Palace Demonstration, May 1964". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  177. James J. Farrell (January 1997). The Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism. Psychology Press. p. 180. ISBN   978-0-415-91385-0.