Philadelphia Main Line

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Main Line of Philadelphia

Main Line, Philadelphia Main Line
Collection of suburban communities
Main Line 1895.jpg
Map of the historic Main Line, circa 1895
Pennsylvania in United States (US48).svg
Location of Pennsylvania in the United States
Coordinates: 40°01′08″N75°18′47″W / 40.019°N 75.313°W / 40.019; -75.313 Coordinates: 40°01′08″N75°18′47″W / 40.019°N 75.313°W / 40.019; -75.313
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania
County Primarily Montgomery and Chester counties; certain northern parts of Delaware County
Named for The Pennsylvania Railroad's Main Line
Demonym(s) Main Liner
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
Area codes 215, 267, 445, 484, 610
La Ronda Estate (1929-2009) in Bryn Mawr, by architect Addison Mizner.(photo: Lower Merion Historical Society, William Morrison Collection) Laronda2.jpg
La Ronda Estate (1929–2009) in Bryn Mawr, by architect Addison Mizner.(photo: Lower Merion Historical Society, William Morrison Collection)

The Philadelphia Main Line, known simply as the Main Line, is an informally delineated historical and social region of suburban Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lying along the former Pennsylvania Railroad's once prestigious Main Line, it runs northwest from Center City Philadelphia parallel to Lancaster Avenue (U.S. Route 30).

Contents

The railroad first connected the Main Line towns in the 19th century. They became home to sprawling country estates belonging to Philadelphia's wealthiest families, and over the decades became a bastion of "old money". Today, the Main Line includes some of the wealthiest communities in the country, including Gladwyne, [1] Villanova, and Radnor. [2] Today, the railroad is Amtrak's Keystone Corridor, along which SEPTA's Paoli/Thorndale Line operates.

History

Wayne Station on SEPTA's Paoli/Thorndale line after renovations in 2010 Wayne-Station-Pennsylvania-08.27.2010.jpg
Wayne Station on SEPTA's Paoli/Thorndale line after renovations in 2010

The Main Line region was long part of Lenapehoking, the homeland of the matrilineal Lenni Lenape Native Americans (the "true people", or "Delaware Indians"). Europeans arrived in the 1600s, after William Penn sold a tract of land, called the Welsh Tract, to a group of Welsh Quakers in London in 1681. This accounts for the many Welsh place names in the area. [3] However, what might be termed the "Celtification" of many Main Line place and street names occurred long after colonial times. So, for instance, as a marketing device to attract wealthy new residents, the area once awkwardly named Athensville became the more culturally glamorous Ardmore (Ardmore is a place name found in Ireland and Scotland) in 1873.

The Pennsylvania Railroad built its main line during the early 19th century as part of the Main Line of Public Works that spanned Pennsylvania. Later in the century, the railroad, which owned much of the land surrounding the tracks, encouraged the development of this picturesque environment by building way stations along the portion of its track closest to Philadelphia. The benefits of what was touted as "healthy yet cultivated country living" attracted Philadelphia's social elite, many of whom had one house in the city and another larger "country home" on the Main Line.

In the 20th century, many wealthy Philadelphia families moved to the Main Line suburbs. Part of the national trend of suburbanization, this drove rapid investment, prosperity, and growth that turned the area into greater Philadelphia's most affluent and fashionable region. Estates with sweeping lawns and towering maples, the débutante balls and the Merion Cricket Club, which drew crowds of 25,000 spectators to its matches in the early 1900s, were the setting for the 1940 Grant/Hepburn/Stewart motion picture The Philadelphia Story. [4]

The railroad placed stops about two minutes apart, starting with Overbrook. The surrounding communities became known by the railroad station names which started at Broad Street Station in Center City Philadelphia and went on to 32nd Street Station (replaced by 30th Street Station in 1933), the 52nd Street Station (decommissioned), and then the Main Line stations: Overbrook, Merion, Narberth, Wynnewood, Ardmore, Haverford, Bryn Mawr, Rosemont, Villanova, Radnor, St. Davids, Wayne, Strafford, Devon, Berwyn, Daylesford, Paoli, and Malvern. [5] At least five of these station buildings, along with the first Bryn Mawr Hotel, were designed by Wilson Brothers & Company. A branch line of the Main Line (currently known as SEPTA's Cynwyd Line) extended to the communities now known as Bala and Cynwyd (via Wynnefield Station in Philadelphia), then proceeded to the West Laurel Hill Cemetery (where there was once a station, as well,) and crossed back into Philadelphia over the Schuylkill River via the famous Manayunk Bridge. Broad Street Station was replaced with Suburban Station in 1930, and 30th Street Station replaced 32nd Street three years later. Suburban service now extends west of the Main Line to the communities of Exton, Whitford, Downingtown, and Thorndale. [6]

The railroad line then continued on to Chicago, with major stations at Lancaster, Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. The railroad, since taken over by Amtrak, is still in service, although its route is slightly different from the original. It also serves the Paoli/Thorndale Line of the SEPTA Regional Rail system. [6]

Demographics of the Gilded Age

It was not only extremely wealthy people on the Main Line in the period 1880-1920. Wealthy households required large numbers of servants in order to maintain their lifestyle. Often these servants were Black migrants from the South and recent immigrants from Europe. For example, in the 1900 census, [7] Tredyffrin Township was 13.5% Black; another 15% had been born in Europe. The two largest countries of origin were Italy and Ireland. The corresponding figures for Lower Merion Township [8] were 6% Black and 15% born in Europe; almost 11% were from Ireland.

Another dimension of this story is illustrated by the community of Mount Pleasant, in Tredyffrin Township just north of Wayne. This is a community that became predominantly Black in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [9] As shown in the census for 1920, [10] most of the Black residents of this neighborhood or their parents had come from the South. Many of the men in this neighborhood (along Henry Avenue and Mount Pleasant Avenue) were employed by the railroad, as quarry workers, or as chauffeurs and gardeners by private families. The occupations often given for women were cook and laundress. This remains a predominantly Black community to the present day.

Today

Memorial mile post on U.S. Route 30, in front of the Anthony Wayne Theater with AT&T tower in background. MilePostRadnor.JPG
Memorial mile post on U.S. Route 30, in front of the Anthony Wayne Theater with AT&T tower in background.

Today, the "Main Line" is another name for the western suburbs of Philadelphia along Lancaster Avenue (U.S. Route 30) and the former main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad (including its branch line to Manayunk) and extending from the city limits to, traditionally, Bryn Mawr and ultimately Paoli, [11] an area of about 200 square miles (520 km2). The upper- and upper middle-class enclave has historically been one of the bastions of "old money" in the Northeast, along with places like Long Island's North Shore (AKA: "Gold Coast"), Westchester County, New York, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and Fairfield County, Connecticut.

Neighborhoods along the Main Line include nineteenth and early twentieth-century railroad suburbs and post-war subdivisions, as well as a few surviving buildings from before the suburban development era. The area today is known primarily for several educational institutions as well as robust suburban life. [12]

Core towns

The original Main Line towns are widely considered to follow the acronym "Old Maids Never Wed And Have Babies." [13] From Philadelphia, they are:

These seven towns are characterized as one of the primary bastions of old money in Southeastern Pennsylvania. They are comparably more dense than other suburbs and have lively, walkable downtowns. All of these communities were established along Lancaster Avenue prior to the railroad's construction.

Further, as early as 1887, Bala and Cynwyd were also included in atlases of the Pennsylvania Railroad in Lower Merion Township and Montgomery County. (By 1908, one of the first atlases to refer specifically to the "Main Line" as a socio-cultural entity, also includes Bala and Cynwyd.)

Additionally, the following towns are often grouped with the core Main Line:

Infill communities

Beyond the 9 aforementioned communities, many nearby communities have seeded growth in the twentieth century, either in between the core towns or nearby them. They include:

These communities are primarily residential and consist of larger lot sizes than in the nine core towns. All of them, except Gladwyne, are on the railroad and have their own station stop.

Demographics

There is no collective data for the Main Line, so all data is by ZIP code. In comparison, the median family income and home price for the state of Pennsylvania are $68,646 and $155,000, respectively. [15] [16] The following ZIP codes are those within the previously mentioned municipalities that make up the Main Line. All data, with the exception of average home price, are as of the 2000 census. [17] For comparison, the median family income of Beverly Hills, California is $110,040.

ZIP codeName/AliasesPopulationMedian family incomeAverage home price
19003 Ardmore 12,902$80,990$450,000 [18]
19004 Bala Cynwyd 9,719$114,015$692,000 [19]
19010 Bryn Mawr, Rosemont, Garrett Hill 21,485$110,956$866,346 [20]
19035 Gladwyne 3,799$230,625$959,200
19041 Haverford 7,058$104,924 [21] $1,106,031. [22]
19066 Merion 5,951$118,083$635,481 [23]
19072 Narberth, Penn Valley 9,824$106,057$718,746 [24]
19085 Villanova, Radnor 9,189$174,511$1,435,844 [25]
19087 Wayne, St. Davids, Strafford, Chesterbrook 30,892$105,680$737,025 [26]
19096 Wynnewood, Penn Wynne 14,179$111,683$770,538 [27]
19301 Paoli 6,804$87,946$526,731 [28]
19312 Berwyn 10,911$110,083$741,338 [29]
19333 Devon 7,408$101,279$1,355,923 [30]
19355 Malvern 22,605$90,606$850,250 [31]

Transportation

SEPTA and Amtrak share the four track "Main Line" railroad grade between Philadelphia and Thorndale. Amtrak Keystone Corridor Rosemont Curve.jpg
SEPTA and Amtrak share the four track "Main Line" railroad grade between Philadelphia and Thorndale.

The Main Line is served by numerous modes of transportation among which are three commuter rail lines operated by SEPTA. Connecting the region directly with Center City Philadelphia are the Paoli/Thorndale Line which shares the former Pennsylvania Railroad four track Keystone Corridor grade with Amtrak, and the Manayunk/Norristown Line which operates over the former Reading Railroad Norristown grade. The light rail Norristown High Speed Line runs over the Philadelphia and Western Railroad line between 69th terminal in Upper Darby to Norristown. [32] Amtrak's intercity Keystone Service (New York City to Harrisburg) and Pennsylvanian (New York City to Pittsburgh) also serve the region with stops at the jointly operated Amtrak/SEPTA stations at Ardmore and Paoli.

The main thoroughfare through the Main Line is U.S. Route 30 which follows Lancaster Avenue (formerly the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike) running east to west and serves as the backbone of the region by connecting a large majority of its towns and municipalities. Other highways serving the area are the Schuylkill Expressway (I-76) which connects it to Philadelphia, and the Blue Route (I-476) which runs north to south connecting the region with the Northeast Extension and the Pennsylvania Turnpike to the north, and to Philadelphia International Airport and I-95 to the south. Along the northern edge of the Main Line, US 202 runs from the Schuylkill Expressway in a southwesterly direction, crossing US 30 in Frazer.

SEPTA also commissions suburban buses on Routes 105 and 106 to run from the 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby to Bryn Mawr, with rush hour service extended to Paoli. [33] [34] These buses run almost entirely along Lancaster Avenue.

SEPTA also offers light rail service through the Norristown High Speed Line. [35] The Norristown High Speed Line runs along the Main Line from Upper Darby to Ithan Avenue Station and Villanova Station before making a northward turn at the junction of Lancaster Avenue and the Blue Route toward Norristown.

Recreation and attractions

Rider jumping in a sidesaddle class at the Devon Horse Show. Sidesaddle jumping devon pa.jpg
Rider jumping in a sidesaddle class at the Devon Horse Show.

Sporting and social clubs

Looking down the first fairway at Merion Golf Club. Merion 1.jpg
Looking down the first fairway at Merion Golf Club.

Private clubs played an important role in the development of the Main Line, offering social gathering places and facilities for cricket, golf, tennis, squash, and horseback riding to wealthy or socially connected families. Among them are:

Education

The school districts that serve the Main Line are Lower Merion School District in Montgomery County, Radnor Township School District and School District of Haverford Township in Delaware County, and Tredyffrin/Easttown School District and Great Valley School District in Chester County. The region has numerous nationally ranked public and private schools. Among them are:

Higher education

Saint Thomas of Villanova Church on the campus of Villanova University AKSM EM 2005.jpg
Saint Thomas of Villanova Church on the campus of Villanova University
Philadelphia Story poster Philadelphiastorydvdcover.jpg
Philadelphia Story poster

Film

1940–1989

1990–present

Literature

Television

Notable residents

Sports

Arts

Entertainment

Business

Military / government / science

See also

Related Research Articles

Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania Census-designated place in Pennsylvania, United States

Bryn Mawr is a census-designated place (CDP), located across 3 townships: Radnor Township and Haverford Township, Delaware County, and Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, just west of Philadelphia along Lancaster Avenue (US-30).

Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States of America

Lower Merion Township is a township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania and part of the Philadelphia Main Line. As of the 2016 U.S. Census, the township had a total population of 58,288. Lower Merion has the 5th highest per-capita income and the 12th highest median household income in the country with a population of 50,000 or more.

Narberth, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Narberth is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. It is one of many neighborhoods on the historic Pennsylvania Main Line. The population was 4,282 at the 2010 census.

Ardmore, Pennsylvania Census-designated place in Pennsylvania, United States

Ardmore is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Delaware and Montgomery counties in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The population was 12,455 at the 2010 census. Ardmore is a suburb on the west side of Philadelphia, within Lower Merion Township in Montgomery County and Haverford Township in Delaware County. Originally named "Athensville" in 1853, the community and its railroad station were renamed "Ardmore" in 1873 by the Pennsylvania Railroad, on whose Main Line, west out of Philadelphia, Ardmore sits at Milepost 8.5. The Autocar Company moved his headquarters to Ardmore in 1899 and constructed a factory on the edge of the downtown area. The factory closed in 1954; during demolition in 1956, a major fire broke out that threatened the downtown area before it was extinguished.

Radnor Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania Township with home rule in Pennsylvania, United States

Radnor Township, often called simply Radnor, is a first class township with home rule status in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United States. As of the 2019 United States census estimate, the township population is 31,875. Radnor Township is the largest municipality in Delaware County by land area and the fourth-largest by population, following Upper Darby Township, Haverford Township, and Chester.

Merion Station, Pennsylvania Unincorporated community in Pennsylvania, United States

Merion Station is an unincorporated community in Pennsylvania, United States, bordering Philadelphia to the city's west. It is one of the communities that make up the Philadelphia Main Line, and is part of the municipality of Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County. Merion Station is known for its grand mansions and for the wealth of its residents.

Norristown High Speed Line

The Norristown High Speed Line is a 13.4-mile (21.6 km) interurban light rapid transit line operated by SEPTA, running between the 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby and the Norristown Transportation Center in Norristown, Pennsylvania, United States. The rail line runs entirely on its own right-of-way, inherited from the original Philadelphia and Western Railroad line. In 2018, the Norristown High Speed Line had an average weekday ridership of over 10,000 passengers.

Haverford, Pennsylvania Place in Pennsylvania, United States

Haverford is an affluent, unincorporated community located in both Haverford Township in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, US, and Lower Merion Township in Montgomery County, about 3 miles (4.8 km) west of Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) opened Haverford Station in 1880 on their Main Line west out of Broad Street Station in Philadelphia. Haverford sits at milepost 9.17.

Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania Community in Pennsylvania, United States

Bala Cynwyd is a community in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania, US. It is located on the Main Line in southeastern Pennsylvania, bordering the western edge of Philadelphia at US Route 1. It was originally two separate towns, Bala and Cynwyd, but is commonly treated as a single community. This came about when a single US Post Office served both towns using ZIP code 19004. The community was long known as hyphenated Bala-Cynwyd. Bala and Cynwyd are currently served by separate stations on SEPTA's Cynwyd Line of Regional Rail.

Radnor, Pennsylvania Locality on the Philadelphia Main Line

Radnor is a community located approximately 13 miles west of Philadelphia, in the Main Line suburbs. It straddles Montgomery and Delaware Counties, Pennsylvania. The community was named after Radnor, in Wales.

Wayne, Pennsylvania Unincorporated community in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United States

Wayne is an unincorporated community centered in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, on the Main Line, a series of highly affluent Philadelphia suburbs located along the railroad tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad and one of the wealthiest areas in the nation. While the center of Wayne is in Radnor Township, Wayne extends into both Tredyffrin Township in Chester County and Upper Merion Township in Montgomery County. The center of Wayne was designated the Downtown Wayne Historic District in 2012. Considering the large area served by the Wayne post office, the community may extend slightly into Easttown Township, Chester County, as well.

Rosemont, Pennsylvania Place in Pennsylvania, United States

Rosemont is a neighborhood in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania on the Pennsylvania Main Line. It is located in Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County. It is best known as the home of Rosemont College.

Wynnewood, Pennsylvania Place in Pennsylvania, United States

Wynnewood is a suburban unincorporated community, west of Philadelphia, that straddles Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County and Haverford Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United States. It was named in 1691 for Dr. Thomas Wynne, William Penn's physician and the first Speaker of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. Wynnewood is one of many neighborhoods on the historic Pennsylvania Main Line, and is the home of institutions such as Lankenau Hospital, St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, Palmer Theological Seminary, and Friends' Central School.

Villanova, Pennsylvania Place in Pennsylvania, United States

Villanova is a suburb of Philadelphia. It straddles Lower Merion Township in Montgomery County and Radnor Township in Delaware County. It is located at the center of the Philadelphia Main Line, a series of Philadelphia suburbs located along the original east–west railroad tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad. It is served by the SEPTA Paoli/Thorndale Line regional rail train and Norristown High Speed Line.

Keystone Corridor High-speed rail corridor in Pennsylvania

The Keystone Corridor is a 349-mile (562 km) railroad corridor between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that consists of two rail lines: Amtrak and SEPTA's Philadelphia-to-Harrisburg main line, which hosts SEPTA's Paoli/Thorndale Line commuter rail service, and Amtrak's Keystone and Pennsylvanian inter-city trains; and the Norfolk Southern Pittsburgh Line. The corridor was originally the Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Haverford station (SEPTA Regional Rail)

Haverford station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Haverford, Pennsylvania. It is served by most Paoli/Thorndale Line trains with the exception of a few express runs, and is located on Haverford Station Road. The station was originally built by the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Penn Valley, Pennsylvania Unincorporated community in Pennsylvania, United States

Penn Valley is an unincorporated community located within Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania. Penn Valley residents share a zip code with Merion, Narberth, or Wynnewood because the town does not have its own post office. However, Penn Valley is a distinct community whose civic association demarcates the town's boundaries with iconic signs featuring William Penn and a farmhouse in blue or red on white, dating from the town's incorporation in 1930.

Paoli/Thorndale Line

The Paoli/Thorndale Line, commonly known as the Main Line, is a SEPTA Regional Rail service running from Center City Philadelphia to Thorndale in Chester County. It operates on Amtrak's Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line, which in turn was once the Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad and is now part of the Keystone Corridor, a federally-designated high-speed rail corridor.

Allen Evans

Allen Evans was an American architect and partner in the Philadelphia firm of Furness & Evans. His best known work may be the Merion Cricket Club.

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Further reading