Adams County, Pennsylvania

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Adams County
Adams PA Courthouse 1.JPG
Seal of Adams County Pennsylvania.svg
Seal
Map of Pennsylvania highlighting Adams County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania in United States.svg
Pennsylvania's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 39°52′N77°13′W / 39.87°N 77.22°W / 39.87; -77.22
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
StateFlag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania
FoundedJanuary 22, 1800
Named for John Adams
Seat Gettysburg
Largest boroughGettysburg
Area
  Total522 sq mi (1,350 km2)
  Land519 sq mi (1,340 km2)
  Water3.1 sq mi (8 km2)  0.6%%
Population
  Estimate 
(2018)
102,811
  Density197/sq mi (76/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district 13th
Website www.adamscounty.us
TypeCity
DesignatedNovember 6, 1982 [1]

Adams County is a county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,407. [2] Its county seat is Gettysburg. [3] The county was created on January 22, 1800, from part of York County, and was named for the second President of the United States, John Adams. On July 1–3, 1863, the area around Gettysburg was the site of the pivotal battle of the American Civil War, and as a result is a center for Civil War tourism.

Contents

Adams County comprises the Gettysburg, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area.

Geography

Eternal Light Peace Memorial at Gettysburg Battlefield Gettysburg ELPMemorial.jpg
Eternal Light Peace Memorial at Gettysburg Battlefield

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 522 square miles (1,350 km2), of which 519 square miles (1,340 km2) is land and 3.1 square miles (8.0 km2) (0.6%) is water. [4] The Borough of Gettysburg is located at the center of Adams County. This county seat community is surrounded on three sides by the Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP). The Eisenhower National Historic Site adjoins GNMP on its southwest edge. Most of Adams County's rural landscapes and its mid-19th century roadway pattern remain intact today. Thirteen historic roadways converge at or near Gettysburg Borough. Two circular rings of towns surround Gettysburg; the first is typically found at a distance of about 7 miles (11 km) from Gettysburg. The second ring is found at a distance of 12 to 15 miles (24 km) from the County Seat. This "spokes and wheel" pattern is one of the few examples of Central Place Theory in the Eastern United States.

The county is in the watershed of the Chesapeake Bay and is drained by the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers.

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Climate

Adams has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa).

Climate data for Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)72
(22)
78
(26)
87
(31)
93
(34)
93
(34)
98
(37)
104
(40)
104
(40)
98
(37)
92
(33)
83
(28)
79
(26)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C)39
(4)
43
(6)
52
(11)
64
(18)
73
(23)
82
(28)
86
(30)
84
(29)
77
(25)
66
(19)
55
(13)
43
(6)
64
(18)
Average low °F (°C)21
(−6)
23
(−5)
30
(−1)
40
(4)
49
(9)
58
(14)
63
(17)
61
(16)
53
(12)
41
(5)
33
(1)
25
(−4)
41
(5)
Record low °F (°C)−25
(−32)
−14
(−26)
0
(−18)
16
(−9)
27
(−3)
35
(2)
43
(6)
35
(2)
31
(−1)
20
(−7)
12
(−11)
−5
(−21)
−25
(−32)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.24
(82)
3.00
(76)
3.54
(90)
3.53
(90)
4.33
(110)
4.29
(109)
3.36
(85)
3.81
(97)
4.22
(107)
3.28
(83)
3.40
(86)
3.23
(82)
43.23
(1,097)
Source: The Weather Channel [5]

Government

Commissioners

Adams County is administered by a three-person Board of Commissioners, who serve four-year terms. Elections occur in the odd-numbered years that precede U.S. Presidential elections, with the next election falling in 2023. All three Commissioners are chosen in the same election, and voters may vote for no more than two of the candidates. The Commissioners are responsible for the management of the fiscal and administrative functions of the county.

OfficialPartyTerm ends
Randy Phiel Republican 2023
Jim Martin Republican 2023
Marty Qually Democratic 2023

Elected County Officials

As of the November 2017 election: [6]

OfficeOfficialPartyTerm ends
Clerk of CourtsKelly A. Lawver Republican 2023
ControllerJohn Phillips Republican 2023
CoronerPatricia Felix Republican 2023
TreasurerChrissy Redding Republican 2021
District AttorneyBrian Sinnett Republican 2023
ProthonotaryBeverly Boyd Republican 2023
Recorder of Deeds and Register of WillsKaren Heflin Republican 2023
SheriffJames W. Muller Republican 2021

Politics

Presidential politics

Adams is a consistently Republican County. In 2020, Donald Trump carried the county with 66.3% of the vote to Joe Biden's 32.2%. In 2016, Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton only received 29.6% of the vote, the lowest share any Democrat had received in the county since George McGovern 44 years prior. [7] No Democratic presidential candidate has won Adams County since Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 landslide. [8]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [9] [10]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 66.1%37,56732.1% 18,2541.7% 988
2016 65.5%31,42329.6% 14,2194.9% 2,348
2012 62.8%26,76735.4% 15,0911.8% 767
2008 58.9%26,34939.4% 17,6331.7% 759
2004 66.9%28,24732.6% 13,7640.5% 217
2000 62.3%20,84834.9% 11,6822.7% 914
1996 52.0%15,33836.5% 10,77411.5% 3,396
1992 45.9%13,55232.5% 9,57621.6% 6,373
1988 64.9%15,65034.4% 8,2990.7% 156
1984 69.4%16,78630.2% 7,2890.4% 99
1980 61.4%13,76032.4% 7,2666.2% 1,378
1976 56.9%12,13341.1% 8,7712.0% 418
1972 70.2%13,59328.6% 5,5291.3% 243
1968 59.8%11,30331.7% 5,9938.5% 1,611
1964 43.4% 8,61756.1%11,1480.5% 95
1960 62.0%12,93337.9% 7,8950.1% 26
1956 66.1%12,25033.9% 6,2810.0% 0
1952 65.8%11,01634.0% 5,6910.2% 30
1948 59.1%7,98840.0% 5,4090.8% 112
1944 59.6%8,78739.9% 5,8810.5% 67
1940 53.9%8,60946.0% 7,3540.1% 21
1936 47.8% 8,31347.9%8,3364.4% 761
1932 45.1% 6,08453.3%7,1851.7% 225
1928 67.3%9,65632.3% 4,6350.4% 58
1924 52.9%5,77844.3% 4,8402.8% 300
1920 56.9%5,32341.2% 3,8521.9% 174
1916 43.8% 3,29052.7%3,9633.5% 266
1912 11.4% 81951.1%3,68237.6% 2,709
1908 47.0% 3,68551.4%4,0341.7% 130
1904 50.7%4,01748.1% 3,8121.3% 102
1900 47.5% 3,71850.7%3,9671.9% 147
1896 51.0%4,17046.6% 3,8142.5% 201
1892 47.2% 3,38451.8%3,7161.0% 70
1888 46.5% 3,37152.4%3,7941.1% 78
1884 46.1% 3,08052.9%3,5301.0% 64
1880 45.1% 3,13753.9%3,7521.0% 69

Pennsylvania House of Representatives

Adams County consists of two Pennsylvania House Districts. The 91st district is exclusively in Adams County, comprising the southern and middle parts of the county, including Gettysburg. The 193rd District spans into Cumberland County to the north.

DistrictRepresentativeParty
91 Dan Moul Republican
193 Torren Ecker Republican

Pennsylvania Senate

Adams County is entirely contained within the 33rd Senatorial District, which also includes parts of York and Franklin Counties.

DistrictRepresentativeParty
33 Doug Mastriano Republican

United States House of Representatives

From 2012 until 2018, Adams County was part of the 4th Congressional District until the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled that the Commonwealth's Congressional Districts constituted an illegal partisan Gerrymander. [11] As a result, Adams County was moved from the 4th District to the 13th Congressional District and elected a new Representative in the 2018 election.

DistrictRepresentativeParty
13 John Joyce Republican

United States Senate

Voter Registration

As of November 16, 2020 there were 72,357 registered voters in the county. Republicans hold a majority of the voters. There was 40,767 registered Republicans, 20,051 registered Democrats, 8,078 voters without any partisan affiliation, and 3,461 voters registered to other parties. "Other Parties" also includes voters who left their preferred party blank; only those who chose No Affiliation are included under No Partisan Affiliation. [12]

Chart of Voter Registration

   Republican (56.34%)
   Democratic (27.71%)
  No Party Affiliation (11.16%)
  Other Parties (4.16%)
Voter registration and party enrollment
PartyNumber of votersPercentage
Republican 40,76756.34
Democratic 20,05127.71
No Partisan Affiliation8,07811.16
Other Parties3,4614.16
Total72,357100%

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1800 13,172
1810 15,15215.0%
1820 19,37027.8%
1830 21,37910.4%
1840 23,0447.8%
1850 25,98112.7%
1860 28,0067.8%
1870 30,3158.2%
1880 32,4557.1%
1890 33,4863.2%
1900 34,4963.0%
1910 34,319−0.5%
1920 34,5830.8%
1930 37,1287.4%
1940 39,4356.2%
1950 44,19712.1%
1960 51,90617.4%
1970 56,9379.7%
1980 68,29219.9%
1990 78,27414.6%
2000 91,29216.6%
2010 101,40711.1%
2018 (est.)102,811 [13] 1.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [14]
1790–1960 [15] 1900–1990 [16]
1990–2000 [17] 2010–2017 [2]

As of the 2010 census, [18] there were 101,407 people, 33,652 households, and 24,767 families in the county. The population density was 194 people per square mile (75/km2). There were 35,831 housing units at an average density of 69 per square mile (27/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 95.39% White, 1.21% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.71% from other races, and 0.97% from two or more races. 3.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 42.7% were of German, 14.1% American, 8.5% Irish and 7.1% English ancestry. 95.0% spoke English and 3.6% Spanish as their first language.

There were 33,652 households, of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.10% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.40% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.02.

The county population was spread out, with 24.90% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. Adams County is one of two counties in Pennsylvania where Latter-Day Saints make up 1% of the population.

Birth rate

Per the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Adams County's live birth rate was 1,132 births in 1990. The County's live birth rate in 2000 was 1,048 births, while in 2011 it had declined to 1,039 babies. [19] Over the past 50 years (1960 to 2010), rural Pennsylvania saw a steady decline in both the number and proportion of residents under 18 years old. In 1960, 1.06 million rural residents, or 35 percent of the rural population, were children.

Teen pregnancy rate

Adams County had 29 babies born to teens (age15-19) in 2011. In 2014, the number of teen births in Adams County was 27. [20]

County poverty demographics

According to research by The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the poverty rate for Adams County was 10.8% in 2014. [21] The statewide poverty rate was 13.6% in 2014. The 2012 childhood poverty rate by school district was: Bermudian Springs School District – 32.4% living at 185% or below than the Federal Poverty Level, Conewago Valley School District – 37.3%, Fairfield Area School District – 19.5%, Gettysburg Area School District – 42.3%, Littlestown Area School District – 32.1%, and Upper Adams School District – 45.5%. [22]

Metropolitan and Combined Statistical Area

The US OMB [23] has designated Adams County as the Gettysburg, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of the 2010 census [24] the metropolitan area population of 101,407 ranked 19th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 349th most populous in the United States. Adams County is also a part of the larger Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area (CSA), which combines the populations of Adams County with those of Cumberland, Dauphin, Lebanon, Perry and York Counties in Pennsylvania. The Combined Statistical Area ranked 5th in the State of Pennsylvania and 43rd most populous in the United States with a population of 1,219,422.

Education

Map of Adams County, Pennsylvania School Districts Map of Adams County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Map of Adams County, Pennsylvania School Districts

Colleges and universities

Community, junior and technical colleges

Public school districts

The 496 school districts of Pennsylvania that operate high schools were ranked for student academic achievement, as demonstrated by three years of math, reading, writing and science PSSA results. [26] [27]

Public charter schools

County residents may apply to attend any of the Commonwealth's 14 (as of 2015) public, cyber charter schools at no additional cost to the parents. [28]

Private schools

As reported by Pennsylvania Department of Education April 2015

  • Academy for Media Production – McSherrystown
  • Adams County Christian Academy – Gettysburg
  • Delone Catholic High School – McSherrystown
  • Forest Lane Mennonite School – Gettysburg
  • Freedom Christian School – Gettysburg
  • Gettysburg SDA Church School – Gettysburg
  • Independent Baptist Day School – Biglerville
  • JIL Christian School – Biglerville
  • Littlestown Christian Academy – Littlestown
  • Oxford Christian Academy – New Oxford
  • Paradise School – Abbottstown
  • St. Teresa of Calcutta School -McSherrystown
  • St James Child Care Center – Gettysburg
  • St Joseph Academy Preschool – McSherrystown

Intermediate Unit

Lincoln Intermediate Unit (IU#12) region includes: Adams, Franklin, and York Counties. The agency offers school districts, home schooled students and private schools many services including: Special education services, combined purchasing, and instructional technology services. It runs Summer Academy which offers both art and academic strands designed to meet the needs of gifted, talented and high achieving students. Additional services include: Curriculum Mapping, Professional Development for school employees, Adult Education, Nonpublic School Services, Business Services, Migrant & ESL (English as a Second Language), Instructional Services, Special Education, Management Services, and Technology Services. It provides a GED program for adults to earn a high school diploma, and offers literacy programs. The Lincoln Intermediate Unit is governed by a 13-member Board of Directors, each a member of a local school board from the 25 school districts. Board members are elected by school directors of all 25 school districts for three-year terms that begin July 1. [29] There are 29 intermediate units in Pennsylvania. They are funded by school districts, state and federal program specific funding and grants; they do not have the power to tax.

Libraries

  • A R Wentz Library – Gettysburg
  • Adams County Historical Society [30] – Gettysburg
  • Adams County Library at Carroll Valley – Carroll Valley [31]
  • Adams County Law Library – Gettysburg [31]
  • Gettysburg Library - Gettysburg [31]
  • Harbaugh-Thomas Library – Biglervilleh [31]
  • Jean Barnett Trone Memorial Library of East Berlin [32] – East Berlin
  • Littlestown Community Library – Littlestown [31]
  • Musselman Library – Gettysburg
  • New Oxford Area Library – New Oxford [31]

Transportation

Air

There are currently no scheduled commercial flights into Adams County. The nearest airports with regular commercial service are in Hagerstown, Maryland (Hagerstown Regional Airport), Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (Harrisburg International Airport), and Lancaster, Pennsylvania (Lancaster Airport).

Bus

Public bus service in Adams County is available through the Adams County Transit Authority.

Major Highways

Recreation

Recreational areas of Adams County include

Communities

Map of Adams County with Municipal Labels showing Boroughs (red), Townships (white), and Census-designated places (blue) Map of Adams County Pennsylvania With Municipal and Township Labels.png
Map of Adams County with Municipal Labels showing Boroughs (red), Townships (white), and Census-designated places (blue)

Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, boroughs, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns. The following boroughs and townships are located in Adams County, as well as unincorporated areas and CDPs:

Boroughs

Townships

Census-designated places

Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U.S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data, but are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well.

Unincorporated areas

Population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Adams County. [24]

county seat

RankCity/Town/etc.Population (2010 Census)Municipal typeIncorporated
1Gettysburg 7,620Borough1806
2 Littlestown 4,434Borough1864
3 Carroll Valley 3,876Borough1974
4 McSherrystown 3,038Borough1882
5 Lake Meade 2,563CDP
6 Midway 2,125CDP
7 Bonneauville 1,800Borough1961
8 New Oxford 1,783Borough1874
9 East Berlin 1,521Borough1879
10 Lake Heritage 1,333CDP
11 Biglerville 1,200Borough1903
12 Abbottstown 1,011Borough1835
13 Arendtsville 952Borough1896
14 York Springs 833Borough1868
15 Heidlersburg 707CDP
16 Bendersville 641Borough1866
17 Hampton 632CDP
18 Hunterstown 547CDP
19 Fairfield 507Borough1896
20 Cashtown 459CDP
21 Aspers 350CDP
22 McKnightstown 226CDP
23 Idaville 177CDP
24 Orrtanna 173CDP
25 Gardners 150CDP
26 Table Rock 62CDP
27 Floradale 38CDP

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Gettysburg is a borough and the county seat of Adams County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg (1863) and President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address are named for this town. The town hosts visitors to the Gettysburg National Battlefield in the Gettysburg National Military Park. As of the 2010 census, the borough had a population of 7,620 people.

Dauphin County, Pennsylvania U.S. county in Pennsylvania

Dauphin County is a county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 268,100. The county seat and the largest city is Harrisburg, Pennsylvania's state capital and ninth largest city. The county was created ("erected") on March 4, 1785, from part of Lancaster County and was named after Louis-Joseph, Dauphin of France, the first son of king Louis XVI.

Abbottstown, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Abbottstown is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 1,011 at the 2010 census.

Arendtsville, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Arendtsville is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The borough lies on Pennsylvania Route 234 and it is well known for its annual Apple Harvest Festival in the fall. The population was 952 at the 2010 census.

Bendersville, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Bendersville is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 641 at the 2010 census.

Berwick Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Berwick Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 2,389 at the 2010 census. Berwick Township is one of 21 townships in Adams County.

Biglerville, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Biglerville is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 1,200 at the 2010 census. The National Apple Museum is located on West Hanover St. in Biglerville. The borough is home to Biglerville High School.

Bonneauville, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Bonneauville is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 1,800 at the 2010 census.

Cumberland Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Cumberland Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 6,162 at the 2010 census. In 1863, the American Civil War Battle of Gettysburg took place mainly in Cumberland Township, which surrounds the borough of Gettysburg on three sides.

Fairfield, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Fairfield is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 507 at the 2010 census.

Franklin Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Franklin Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 4,877 at the 2010 census.

Freedom Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Freedom Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 831 at the 2010 census.

Hamiltonban Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Hamiltonban Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 2,372 at the 2010 census.

Highland Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Created in 1863 from parts of Hamiltonban, Cumberland, and Franklin townships, Highland Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 943 at the 2010 census.

Liberty Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Liberty Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 1,237 at the 2010 census.

Littlestown, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Littlestown is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 4,434 at the 2010 census.

McSherrystown, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

McSherrystown is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,038 as of the 2010 census.

Mount Joy Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Mount Joy Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,670 at the 2010 census.

New Oxford, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

New Oxford is a borough in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 1,783 at the 2010 census.

Union Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania Township in Pennsylvania, United States

Union Township is a township in Adams County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,148 at the 2010 census.

References

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  2. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
  3. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  5. "Gettysburg, PA Monthly Weather". The Weather Channel.
  6. http://www.adamscounty.us/Dept/Pages/default.aspx
  7. "2016 Election Results" (PDF).
  8. Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  9. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.
  10. "Our Campaigns - U.S. President" . Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  11. http://www.pacourts.us/assets/files/setting-6015/file-6740.pdf?cb=b74d61
  12. https://www.dos.pa.gov/VotingElections/OtherServicesEvents/VotingElectionStatistics/Pages/VotingElectionStatistics.aspx
  13. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  14. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  15. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  16. Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  17. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  18. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  19. Pennsylvania Department of Health, Birth Age County Reports 1990 and 2011, 2011
  20. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2016). "Pennsylvania Teen Births 2013".
  21. US Census Bureau (2015). "Poverty Rates by County Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates".
  22. Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center (2012). "Student Poverty Concentration 2012". Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  23. "Office of Management and Budget". The White House.
  24. 1 2 "2010 Census Population Map". Archived from the original on August 5, 2014.
  25. Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide School Academic ranking, April 4, 2016
  26. Pittsburgh Business Times (April 6, 2012). "Statewide School District Rankings". Archived from the original on October 23, 2012.
  27. Pittsburgh Business Times (April 10, 2015). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide School District Ranking 2015".
  28. Pennsylvania Department of Education (2015). "Pennsylvania Charter School".
  29. Lincoln Intermediate Unit 12 website (accessed April 2010)
  30. "Home — Adams County Historical Society". www.achs-pa.org.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Home - Adams County Library". www.adamslibrary.org.
  32. "East Berlin Community Library". October 19, 2011. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011.
  33. 1 2 3 Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago IL: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.

Coordinates: 39°52′N77°13′W / 39.87°N 77.22°W / 39.87; -77.22