# Tropomyosin kinase

Last updated
tropomyosin kinase
Identifiers
EC number 2.7.11.28
CAS number 90804-56-1
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures
Gene Ontology

In enzymology, a tropomyosin kinase (EC 2.7.11.28) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

The Enzyme Commission number is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Because of this, only very small amounts of catalyst are required to alter the reaction rate in principle.

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur.

ATP + tropomyosin ${\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }$ ADP + O-phosphotropomyosin

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and tropomyosin, whereas its two products are ADP and O-phosphotropomyosin.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, e.g. muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, and chemical synthesis. Found in all forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Other processes regenerate ATP so that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA, and is used as a coenzyme.

Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons.

Products are the species formed from chemical reactions. During a chemical reaction reactants are transformed into products after passing through a high energy transition state. This process results in the consumption of the reactants. It can be a spontaneous reaction or mediated by catalysts which lower the energy of the transition state, and by solvents which provide the chemical environment necessary for the reaction to take place. When represented in chemical equations products are by convention drawn on the right-hand side, even in the case of reversible reactions. The properties of products such as their energies help determine several characteristics of a chemical reaction such as whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic. Additionally the properties of a product can make it easier to extract and purify following a chemical reaction, especially if the product has a different state of matter than the reactants. Reactants are molecular materials used to create chemical reactions. The atoms aren't created or destroyed. The materials are reactive and reactants are rearranging during a chemical reaction. Here is an example of reactants: CH4 + O2. A non-example is CO2 + H2O or "energy".

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring a phosphate group to the sidechain oxygen atom of serine or threonine residues in proteins (protein-serine/threonine kinases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:tropomyosin O-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include tropomyosin kinase (phosphorylating), and STK.

A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups from one molecule to another. They are involved in hundreds of different biochemical pathways throughout biology, and are integral to some of life’s most important processes.

Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8, meaning its nucleus has 8 protons. The number of neutrons varies according to the isotope: the stable isotopes have 8, 9, or 10 neutrons. Oxygen is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O
2
. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth's crust.

Serine is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain consisting of a hydroxymethyl group, classifying it as a polar amino acid. It can be synthesized in the human body under normal physiological circumstances, making it a nonessential amino acid. It is encoded by the codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU and AGC.

## Related Research Articles

A serine/threonine protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine. At least 125 of the 500+ human protein kinases are serine/threonine kinases (STK).

The IκB kinase (IKK) is an enzyme complex that is involved in propagating the cellular response to inflammation.

In enzymology, a [3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:

In enzymology, a dephospho-[reductase kinase] kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, an elongation factor 2 kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:

In enzymology, a Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a [isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)] kinase (EC 2.7.11.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:

Aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase, also known as aminoglycoside kinase, is an enzyme that primarily catalyzes the addition of phosphate from ATP to the 3'-hydroxyl group of a 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycoside, such as kanamycin. However, APH(3') has also been found to phosphorylate at the 5'-hydroxyl group in 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycosides, which lack a 3'-hydroxyl group, and to diphosphorylate hydroxyl groups in aminoglycosides that have both 3'- and 5'-hydroxyl groups. Primarily positively charged at biological conditions, aminoglycosides bind to the negatively charged backbone of nucleic acids to disrupt protein synthesis, effectively inhibiting bacterial cell growth. APH(3') mediated phosphorylation of aminoglycosides effectively disrupts their mechanism of action, introducing a phosphate group that reduces their binding affinity due to steric hindrances and unfavorable electrostatic interactions. APH(3') is primarily found in certain species of gram-positive bacteria.

In enzymology, a low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a myosin-heavy-chain kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

Receptor protein serine/threonine kinases are enzyme-linked receptors that belong to protein-serine/threonine kinases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:[receptor-protein] phosphotransferase. Proteins from this group participate in 7 metabolic pathways: MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, TGF beta signaling pathway, adherens junction, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia.

In enzymology, a polo kinase is a kinase enzyme i.e. one that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a [RNA-polymerase]-subunit kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a tau-protein kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

In enzymology, a [tyrosine 3-monooxygenase] kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

Actin depolymerizing factors are a family of microfilament proteins associated with the rapid depolymerization of actin microfilaments that give actin its characteristic dynamic instability. This dynamic instability is central to actin's role in muscle contraction, cell motility and transcription regulation. The actin depolymerizing factor protein family includes cofilin/ADF, Cofilin-1, and Cofilin-2.

Myosin light chain kinase 4 also known as MYLK4 is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the MYLK2 gene. MYLK4 is a member of the myosin light-chain kinase family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that phosphorylate the regulatory light chain of myosin II.

## References

• deBelle I, Mak AS (1987). "Isolation and characterization of tropomyosin kinase from chicken embryo". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 925 (1): 17–26. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(87)90143-7. PMID   3593768.
• Montgomery K, Mak AS (1984). "In vitro phosphorylation of tropomyosin by a kinase from chicken embryo". J. Biol. Chem. 259 (9): 5555–60. PMID   6325440.
• Watson MH, Taneja AK, Hodges RS, Mak AS (1988). "Phosphorylation of alpha alpha- and beta beta-tropomyosin and synthetic peptide analogues". Biochemistry. 27 (12): 4506–12. doi:10.1021/bi00412a043. PMID   3166994.

In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.