Bids for Olympic Games

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National Olympic Committees that wish to host an Olympic Games select cities within their territories to put forth Bids for the Olympic Games. The staging of the Paralympic Games is automatically included in the bid. [1] Since the creation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, which successfully appropriated the name of the Ancient Greek Olympics to create a modern sporting event, interested cities have rivaled for selection as host of the Summer or Winter Olympic Games.

Contents

50 different cities have been chosen to host the modern Olympics: three in Eastern Europe, five in East Asia, one in South America, two in Oceania, nine in North America and the remainder in Western Europe. No Central American, African, Central Asian, Middle Eastern, South Asian, or Southeast Asian city has ever been chosen to host an Olympics.

Recent decisions have been made at IOC Sessions seven to twelve years from the games; for example, the 2020 Summer Olympics were awarded to Tokyo on 7 September 2013, the 2022 Winter Olympics were awarded to Beijing on 31 July 2015, the 2024 Summer Olympics were awarded to Paris on 13 September 2017, the 2026 Winter Olympics were awarded to Milan-Cortina d'Ampezzo on 24 June 2019, the 2028 Summer Olympics were awarded to Los Angeles on 13 September 2017 and the 2032 Summer Olympics were awarded to Brisbane on 21 July 2021.

IOC – IPC co-operation

In June 2001, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) signed an agreement that would ensure that the staging of the Paralympic Games is automatically included in the bid for the Olympic Games. [1] The agreement came into effect at the 2008 Paralympic Summer Games in Beijing, and the 2010 Paralympic Winter Games in Vancouver. However, the Salt Lake 2002 Organizing Committee (SLOC), chose to follow the practice of "one bid, one city" already at the 2002 Games in Salt Lake City, with one Organizing Committee for both Games, which was followed up by the 2004 Games in Athens and Turin in 2006. The agreement was adjusted in 2003. An extension was signed in June 2006. [1]

Games of the Olympiad

GamesYearBid partyResultFinal selection processNote
CityNOCsDateIOC Session
I 1896 Athens Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg  Greece Awarded to host the Games of the I Olympiad (sole bid)23 June 18941st in Paris, France [lower-roman 1]
II 1900 Paris Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France Awarded to host the Games of the II Olympiad (sole bid)23 June 18941st in Paris, France [lower-roman 1]
III 1904 Chicago Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg  United States Awarded to host the Games of the III Olympiad (moved to St. Louis)22 May 19014th in Paris, France [lower-roman 2]
St. Louis Inherently awarded to host the Games of the III Olympiad
IV 1908 Rome Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy Awarded to host the Games of the IV Olympiad (reattributed)June 19046th in London [lower-roman 3]
London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Inherently awarded to host the Games of the IV Olympiad
Berlin Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany Not selected to host the games
Milan Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy
V 1912 Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Awarded to host the Games of the V Olympiad (sole bid)27 May 190910th in Berlin, Germany
VI 1916 Berlin Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany Awarded to host the Games of the VI Olympiad (cancelled)27 May 191214th in Stockholm, Sweden [lower-roman 4]
Alexandria Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg  Egypt Not selected to host the games
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Budapest Flag of Hungary (1896-1915; angels).svg  Hungary
Cleveland Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
VII 1920 Antwerp Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Awarded to host the Games of the VII Olympiad 5 April 191917th in Lausanne, Switzerland [lower-roman 5]
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Not selected to host the games
Atlanta Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Budapest Flag of Hungary (1915-1918; angels).svg  Hungary
Cleveland Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Havana Flag of Cuba (sky blue).svg  Cuba
Philadelphia Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Lyon Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France Withdrew during the host selection process
VIII 1924 Paris Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France Awarded to host the Games of the VIII Olympiad 2 June 192119th in Lausanne, Switzerland [lower-roman 6]
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Not selected to host the games
Barcelona Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spain
Los Angeles Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Prague Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Rome Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy
IX 1928 Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Awarded to host the Games of the IX Olympiad 2 June 192119th in Lausanne, Switzerland
Los Angeles Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Not selected to host the games
X 1932 Los Angeles Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Awarded to host the Games of the X Olympiad (sole bid)9 April 192321st in Rome, Italy
XI 1936 Berlin Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany Awarded to host the Games of the XI Olympiad (43 votes)13 May 193130th in Lausanne, Switzerland
Barcelona Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg  Spain Eliminated in the first voting (16 votes)
Alexandria Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg  Egypt Withdrew during the host selection process
Budapest Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary
Buenos Aires Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Cologne Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Dublin Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
Frankfurt Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Lausanne Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Montevideo Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
Nuremberg Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg  Brazil
Rome Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy
XII 1940 Tokyo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Awarded to host the Games of the XII Olympiad (relinquished)31 July 193635th in Berlin, Germany [lower-roman 7]
Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Inherently awarded to host the Games of the XII Olympiad (cancelled)
Barcelona Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg  Spain Not selected to host the games
Rome Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy Not selected to host the games
XIII 1944 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Awarded to host the Games of the XIII Olympiad (20 votes; cancelled)9 June 193938th in London [lower-roman 8]
Rome Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy Eliminated in the first voting (11 votes)
Detroit Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (2 votes)
Lausanne Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Eliminated in the first voting (1 vote)
Athens Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg  Greece Eliminated in the first voting (no vote)
Budapest Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary
Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Montreal Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada
XIV 1948 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Awarded to host the Games of the XIV Olympiad September 194639th in Lausanne, Switzerland [lower-roman 9]
Baltimore Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Not selected to host the games
Lausanne Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Los Angeles Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Minneapolis
Philadelphia
XV 1952 Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Awarded to host the Games of the XV Olympiad (15 votes)21 June 194740th in Stockholm, Sweden
Minneapolis Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the second voting (5 votes)
Los Angeles
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Eliminated in the second voting (3 votes)
Detroit Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (2 votes)
Chicago Eliminated in the first voting (1 vote)
Philadelphia Eliminated in the first voting (no vote)
XVI 1956 Melbourne Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Awarded to host the Games of the XVI Olympiad (21 votes)28 April 194943rd in Rome, Italy [lower-roman 10]
Buenos Aires Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Eliminated in the fourth voting (20 votes)
Los Angeles Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the third voting (5 votes)
Detroit Eliminated in the third voting (4 votes)
Mexico City Flag of Mexico (1934-1968).svg  Mexico Eliminated in the second voting (3 votes)
Chicago Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (1 vote)
Minneapolis
Philadelphia
San Francisco Eliminated in the first voting (no vote)
Montreal Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada
XVII 1960 Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Awarded to host the Games of the XVII Olympiad (35 votes)15 June 195550th in Paris, France
Lausanne Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Eliminated in the third voting (24 votes)
Detroit Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the second voting (11 votes)
Budapest Flag of Hungary (1949-1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svg  Hungary Eliminated in the second voting (1 vote)
Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Eliminated in the first voting (6 votes)
Mexico City Flag of Mexico (1934-1968).svg  Mexico
Tokyo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Eliminated in the first voting (4 votes)
XVIII 1964 Tokyo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Awarded to host the Games of the XVIII Olympiad (34 votes)26 May 195955th in Munich, West Germany
Detroit Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (10 votes)
Vienna Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Eliminated in the first voting (9 votes)
Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Eliminated in the first voting (5 votes)
XIX 1968 Mexico City Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Awarded to host the Games of the XIX Olympiad (30 votes)18 October 196360th in Baden-Baden, West Germany
Detroit Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (14 votes)
Lyon Flag of France.svg  France Eliminated in the first voting (12 votes)
Buenos Aires Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Eliminated in the first voting (2 votes)
XX 1972 Munich Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Awarded to host the Games of the XX Olympiad (31 votes)26 April 196664th in Rome, Italy
Madrid Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  Spain Eliminated in the second voting (16 votes)
Montreal Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Eliminated in the second voting (13 votes)
Detroit Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (6 votes)
XXI 1976 Montreal Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Awarded to host the Games of the XXI Olympiad (41 votes)12 May 197069th in Amsterdam, Netherlands
Moscow Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Eliminated in the second voting (28 votes)
Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (17 votes)
XXII 1980 Moscow Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Awarded to host the Games of the XXII Olympiad (39 votes)23 October 197475th in Vienna, Austria
Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (20 votes)
XXIII 1984 Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States Awarded to host the Games of the XXIII Olympiad (sole bid)18 May 197880th in Athens, Greece
XXIV 1988 Seoul Flag of South Korea (1949-1984).svg  South Korea Awarded to host the Games of the XXIV Olympiad (52 votes)30 September 198184th in Baden-Baden, West Germany
Nagoya Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Eliminated in the first voting (27 votes)
XXV 1992 Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Awarded to host the Games of the XXV Olympiad (47 votes)17 October 198691st in Lausanne, Switzerland
Paris Flag of France.svg  France Eliminated in the third voting (23 votes)
Brisbane Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Eliminated in the third voting (10 votes)
Belgrade Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  SFR Yugoslavia Eliminated in the third voting (5 votes)
Birmingham Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Eliminated in the second voting (8 votes)
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Eliminated in the first voting (5 votes)
XXVI 1996 Atlanta Flag of the United States.svg  United States Awarded to host the Games of the XXVI Olympiad (51 votes)18 September 199096th in Tokyo, Japan
Athens Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Eliminated in the fifth voting (35 votes)
Toronto Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Eliminated in the fourth voting (22 votes)
Melbourne Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Eliminated in the third voting (16 votes)
Manchester Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Eliminated in the second voting (5 votes)
Belgrade Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  SFR Yugoslavia Eliminated in the first voting (7 votes)
XXVII 2000 Sydney Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Awarded to host the Games of the XXVII Olympiad (45 votes)23 September 1993101st in Monte Carlo, Monaco
Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Eliminated in the fourth voting (43 votes)
Manchester Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Eliminated in the third voting (11 votes)
Berlin Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Eliminated in the second voting (9 votes)
Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Eliminated in the first voting (7 votes)
Brasilia Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Withdrew during the host selection process
Milan Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Tashkent Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan
XXVIII 2004 Athens Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Awarded to host the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad (66 votes)9 May 1997106th in Lausanne, Switzerland
Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Eliminated in the fourth voting (41 votes)
Cape Town Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Eliminated in the third voting (20 votes)
Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the second voting (19 votes)
Buenos Aires Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Eliminated in the run-off voting (44 votes)
Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Lille Flag of France.svg  France
Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Saint Petersburg Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
San Juan Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico
Seville Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
XXIX 2008 Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Awarded to host the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (56 votes from 107 voters; 52.34%)13 July 2001112th in Moscow, Russia
Toronto Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Eliminated in the second voting (22 votes from 107 voters; 20.56%)
Paris Flag of France.svg  France Eliminated in the second voting (18 votes from 107 voters; 16.82%)
Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Eliminated in the second voting (9 votes from 107 voters; 8.41%)
Osaka Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Eliminated in the first voting (6 votes from 105 voters; 5.71%)
Bangkok Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Cairo Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
Havana Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Kuala Lumpur Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Seville Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
XXX 2012 London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Awarded to host the Games of the XXX Olympiad (54 votes from 107 voters; 50.47%)6 July 2005 117th in Singapore
Paris Flag of France.svg  France Eliminated in the fourth voting (50 votes from 107 voters; 46.73%)
Madrid Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Eliminated in the third voting (31 votes from 105 voters; 29.52%)
New York City Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the second voting (16 votes from 102 voters; 15.69%)
Moscow Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Eliminated in the first voting (15 votes from 99 voters; 15.15%)
Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Leipzig Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Havana Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
XXXI 2016 Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Awarded to host the Games of the XXXI Olympiad (66 votes from 98 voters; 67.35%)2 October 2009 121st in Copenhagen, Denmark
Madrid Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Eliminated in the third voting (32 votes from 98 voters; 32.65%)
Tokyo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Eliminated in the second voting (20 votes from 96 voters; 21.05%)
Chicago Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (18 votes from 94 voters; 19.15%)
Baku Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Doha Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar
Prague Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
XXXII 2020 Tokyo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Awarded to host the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (60 votes)7 September 2013 125th in Buenos Aires, Argentina [lower-roman 11]
Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Eliminated in the second voting (36 votes)
Madrid Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Eliminated in the run-off voting (49 votes)
Baku Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Doha Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar
Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
XXXIII
&
XXXIV
2024
&
2028
Paris Flag of France.svg  France Awarded to host the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad (unanimous vote)13 September 2017 131st in Lima, Peru [lower-roman 12]
Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg  United States Awarded to host the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad (unanimous vote)
Budapest Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Withdrew during the candidature stage
Hamburg Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
XXXV 2032 Brisbane Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Awarded to host the Games of the XXXV Olympiad 21 July 2021138th in Tokyo, Japan [12]

Olympic Winter Games

GamesYearBid partyResultFinal selection processNote
CityNOCsDateIOC Session
I 1924 Chamonix Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France Awarded to host the I Olympic Winter Games (sole bid)2 June 192119th in Lausanne, Switzerland [lower-roman 13]
II 1928 St. Moritz Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Awarded to host the II Olympic Winter Games 5 June 192624th in Lisbon, Portugal
Davos Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Not selected to host the games
Engelberg
III 1932 Lake Placid Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Awarded to host the III Olympic Winter Games 10 April 192927th in Lausanne, Switzerland [lower-roman 14]
Bear Mountain Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Not selected to host the games
Denver
Duluth
Minneapolis
Montreal Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada
Oslo Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Yosemite Valley Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
IV 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Flag of Germany (1933-1935).svg  Germany Awarded to host the IV Olympic Winter Games 7 June 193331st in Vienna, Austria [lower-roman 14]
Montreal Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada Not selected to host the games
St. Moritz Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Not selected to host the games
V 1940 Sapporo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Awarded to host the V Olympic Winter Games (sole bid; relinquished)9 June 193736th in Warsaw, Poland [lower-roman 14]
[lower-roman 7]
St. Moritz Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Secondly awarded to host the V Olympic Winter Games (withdrew)
Garmisch-Partenkirchen Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany Thirdly awarded to host the V Olympic Winter Games (cancelled)
1944 Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy Awarded to host the V Olympic Winter Games (16 votes; cancelled)9 June 193938th in London [lower-roman 14]
[lower-roman 7]
Montreal Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada Eliminated in the first voting (12 votes)
Oslo Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Eliminated in the first voting (2 votes)
1948 St. Moritz Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Awarded to host the V Olympic Winter Games September 194639th in Lausanne, Switzerland [lower-roman 9]
Lake Placid Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Not selected to host the games
VI 1952 Oslo Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Awarded to host the VI Olympic Winter Games (17 votes)21 June 194740th in Stockholm, Sweden
Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Eliminated in the first voting (9 votes)
Lake Placid Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (1 vote)
VII 1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Awarded to host the VII Olympic Winter Games (31 votes)28 April 194943rd in Rome, Italy
Montreal Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada Eliminated in the first voting (7 votes)
Colorado Springs Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (2 votes)
Lake Placid Eliminated in the first voting (1 vote)
VIII 1960 Squaw Valley Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States Awarded to host the VIII Olympic Winter Games (32 votes)16 June 195550th in Paris, France
Innsbruck Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Eliminated in the second voting (30 votes)
Garmisch-Partenkirchen Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Eliminated in the first voting (5 votes)
St. Moritz Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Eliminated in the first voting (3 votes)
IX 1964 Innsbruck Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Awarded to host the IX Olympic Winter Games (48 votes)28 April 195955th in Munich, West Germany
Calgary Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg  Canada Eliminated in the first voting (12 votes)
Lahti Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Eliminated in the first voting (1 vote)
X 1968 Grenoble Flag of France.svg  France Awarded to host the X Olympic Winter Games (32 votes)28 January 196461st in Vienna, Austria
Calgary Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg  Canada Eliminated in the third voting (24 votes)
Lahti Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Eliminated in the second voting (14 votes)
Sapporo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Eliminated in the first voting (6 votes)
Oslo Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Eliminated in the first voting (4 votes)
Lake Placid Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (3 votes)
XI 1972 Sapporo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Awarded to host the XI Olympic Winter Games (32 votes)26 April 196664th in Rome, Italy
Banff Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg  Canada Eliminated in the first voting (16 votes)
Lahti Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Eliminated in the first voting (7 votes)
Salt Lake City Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the first voting (7 votes)
XII 1976 Denver Flag of the United States.svg  United States Awarded to host the XII Olympic Winter Games (39 votes; withdrew)12 May 197069th in Amsterdam, Netherlands [lower-roman 15]
Innsbruck Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Secondly awarded to host the XII Olympic Winter Games
Sion Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Eliminated in the third voting (30 votes)
Tampere Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Eliminated in the second voting (8 votes)
Vancouver and Garibaldi Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Eliminated in the first voting (9 votes)
XIII 1980 Lake Placid Flag of the United States.svg  United States Awarded to host the XIII Olympic Winter Games (sole bid)23 October 197475th in Vienna, Austria
Vancouver and Garibaldi Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Withdrew during the host selection process
XIV 1984 Sarajevo Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia Awarded to host the XIV Olympic Winter Games (39 votes)18 May 197880th in Athens, Greece
Sapporo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Eliminated in the second voting (36 votes)
Gothenburg Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the first voting (10 votes)
XV 1988 Calgary Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Awarded to host the XV Olympic Winter Games (48 votes)30 September 198184th in Baden-Baden, West Germany
Falun Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the second voting (31 votes)
Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Eliminated in the first voting (18 votes)
XVI 1992 Albertville Flag of France.svg  France Awarded to host the XVI Olympic Winter Games (51 votes)17 October 198691st in Lausanne, Switzerland
Sofia Flag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg  Bulgaria Eliminated in the fifth voting (25 votes)
Falun Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the fifth voting (9 votes)
Lillehammer Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Eliminated in the run-off voting (40 votes)
Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Eliminated in the third voting (7 votes)
Anchorage Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the second voting (5 votes)
Berchtesgaden Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Eliminated in the first voting (6 votes)
XVII 1994 Lillehammer Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Awarded to host the XVII Olympic Winter Games (45 votes)15 September 198894th in Seoul, South Korea
Östersund Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the third voting (39 votes)
Anchorage Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the second voting (22 votes)
Sofia Flag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg  Bulgaria Eliminated in the first voting (17 votes)
XVIII 1998 Nagano Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Awarded to host the XVIII Olympic Winter Games (46 votes)15 June 199197th in Birmingham, United Kingdom
Salt Lake City Flag of the United States.svg  United States Eliminated in the fourth voting (42 votes)
Östersund Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the third voting (23 votes)
Jaca Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Eliminated in the second voting (5 votes)
Aosta Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Eliminated in the run-off voting (29 votes)
XIX 2002 Salt Lake City Flag of the United States.svg  United States Awarded to host the XIX Olympic Winter Games (54 votes)16 June 1995104th in Budapest, Hungary
Östersund Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the first voting (14 votes)
Sion Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Eliminated in the first voting (14 votes)
Quebec City Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Eliminated in the first voting (7 votes)
Graz Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Jaca Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Poprad Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia
Sochi Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Tarvisio Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
XX 2006 Turin Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Awarded to host the XX Olympic Winter Games (53 votes)16 June 1999109th in Seoul, South Korea
Sion Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Eliminated in the first voting (36 votes)
Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Not shortlisted to the final candidature stage
Klagenfurt Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Poprad-Tatry Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia
Zakopane Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
XXI 2010 Vancouver Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Awarded to host the XXI Olympic Winter Games (54 votes)2 July 2003115th in Prague, Czech Republic
Pyeongchang Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Eliminated in the second voting (53 votes)
Salzburg Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Eliminated in the first voting (16 votes)
Bern Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Withdrew during the candidature stage
Andorra la Vella Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Harbin Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Jaca Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Sarajevo Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina
XXII 2014 Sochi Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Awarded to host the XXII Olympic Winter Games (51 votes)4 July 2007119th in Guatemala City, Guatemala
Pyeongchang Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Eliminated in the second voting (47 votes)
Salzburg Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Eliminated in the first voting (25 votes)
Almaty Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Borjomi Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia
Jaca Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Sofia Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
XXIII 2018 Pyeongchang Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Awarded to host the XXIII Olympic Winter Games (63 votes)6 July 2011 123rd in Durban, South Africa
Munich Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Eliminated in the first voting (25 votes)
Annecy Flag of France.svg  France Eliminated in the first voting (7 votes)
XXIV 2022 Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Awarded to host the XXIV Olympic Winter Games (44 votes)31 July 2015 127th in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Almaty Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Eliminated in the first voting (40 votes)
Oslo Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Withdrew during the candidature stage
Kraków Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Not shortlisted to the candidature stage
Lviv Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
XXV 2026 Milan and Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Awarded to host the XXV Olympic Winter Games (47 votes)24 June 2019 134th in Lausanne, Switzerland
Stockholm and Åre Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Eliminated in the first voting (34 votes)
Calgary Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Withdrew during the candidature stage
Graz Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Sapporo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Sion Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Erzurum Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Not invited to the candidature stage
XXVI 2030 Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Taking part in the permanent, ongoing dialogue stage
Vancouver Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Sapporo Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Salt Lake City Flag of the United States.svg  United States

Bidding cities

CityCountryGames of the OlympiadOlympic Winter GamesTotal
Andorra la Vella Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 1 (2010)1 (0)
Buenos Aires Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 4 (1936, 1956, 1968, 2004)4 (0)
Brisbane Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 2 (1992, 2032)2 (1)
Melbourne 2 (1956, 1996)2 (1)
Sydney 1 (2000)1 (1)
Graz Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 2 (2002, 2026)2 (0)
Innsbruck 3 (1960, 1964, 1976)3 (2)
Klagenfurt 1 (2006)1 (0)
Salzburg 2 (2010, 2014)2 (0)
Vienna 1 (1964)1 (0)
Baku Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 2 (2016, 2020)2 (0)
Antwerp Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1 (1920)1 (1)
Brussels 3 (1916, 1960, 1964)3 (0)
Sarajevo Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 (1984, 2010)2 (1)
Brasilia Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1 (2000)1 (0)
Rio de Janeiro 4 (1936, 2004, 2012, 2016)4 (1)
Sofia Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 3 (1992, 1994, 2014)3 (0)
Banff Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1 (1972)1 (0)
Calgary 4 (1964, 1968, 1988, 2026)4 (1)
Garibaldi 2 (1976, 1980)2 (0)
Montreal 4 (1944, 1956, 1972, 1976)4 (1932, 1936, 1944, 1956)8 (1)
Quebec City 1 (2002)1 (0)
Toronto 2 (1996, 2008)2 (0)
Vancouver 3 (1976, 1980, 2010)3 (1)
Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2 (2000, 2008)1 (2022)3 (2)
Harbin 1 (2010)1 (0)
Havana Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 3 (1920, 2008, 2012)3 (0)
Prague Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 2 (1924, 2016)2 (0)
Alexandria Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 2 (1916, 1936)2 (0)
Cairo 1 (2008)1 (0)
Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 5 (1936, 1940, 1944, 1952)1 (2006)5 (1)
Lahti 3 (1964, 1968, 1972)3 (0)
Tampere 1 (1976)1 (0)
Albertville Flag of France.svg  France 1 (1992)1 (1)
Annecy 1 (2018)1 (0)
Chamonix 1 (1924)1 (1)
Grenoble 1 (1968)1 (1)
Lille 1 (2004)1 (0)
Lyon 2 (1920, 1968)2 (0)
Paris 6 (1900, 1924, 1992, 2008, 2012, 2024)6 (3)
Borjomi Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 1 (2014)1 (0)
Berchtesgaden Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1 (1992)1 (0)
Berlin 4 (1908, 1916, 1936, 2000)4 (1)
Cologne 1 (1936)1 (0)
Frankfurt 1 (1936)1 (0)
Garmisch-Partenkirchen 3 (1936, 1940, 1960)3 (1)
Hamburg 1 (2024)1 (0)
Leipzig 1 (2012)1 (0)
Munich 1 (1972)1 (2018)2 (1)
Nuremberg 1 (1936)1 (0)
Birmingham Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1 (1992)1 (0)
London 4 (1908, 1944, 1948, 2012)4 (3)
Manchester 2 (1996, 2000)2 (0)
Athens Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 4 (1896, 1944, 1996, 2004)4 (2)
Budapest Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 6 (1916, 1920, 1936, 1944, 1960, 2024)6 (0)
Dublin Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 1 (1936)1 (0)
Aosta Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1 (1998)1 (0)
Cortina d'Ampezzo 6 (1944, 1952, 1956, 1988, 1992, 2026)6 (2)
Milan 2 (1908, 2000)1 (2026)3 (1)
Rome 9 (1908, 1924, 1936, 1940, 1944, 1960, 2004, 2020, 2024)9 (2)
Tarvisio 1 (2006)1 (0)
Turin 1 (2006)1 (1)
Nagano Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1 (1998)1 (1)
Nagoya 1 (1988)1 (0)
Osaka 1 (2008)1 (0)
Sapporo 5 (1940, 1968, 1972, 1984, 2026)5 (1)
Tokyo 5 (1940, 1960, 1964, 2016, 2020)5 (2)
Almaty Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 2 (2014, 2022)2 (0)
Kuala Lumpur Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 1 (2008)1 (0)
Mexico City Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 3 (1956, 1960, 1968)3 (1)
Amsterdam Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 6 (1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1952, 1992)6 (1)
Lillehammer Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 2 (1992, 1994)2 (1)
Oslo 5 (1932, 1944, 1952, 1968, 2022)5 (1)
Kraków Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1 (2022)1 (0)
Zakopane 1 (2006)1 (0)
San Juan Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico 1 (2004)1 (0)
Doha Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 2 (2016, 2020)2 (0)
Moscow Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 3 (1976, 1980, 2012)3 (1)
Saint Petersburg 1 (2004)1 (0)
Sochi 2 (2010, 2014)2 (1)
Belgrade Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2 (1992, 1996)2 (0)
Poprad-Tatry Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 2 (2002, 2026)2 (0)
Cape Town Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1 (2004)1 (0)
Pyeongchang Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 3 (2010, 2014, 2018)3 (1)
Seoul 1 (1988)1 (1)
Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 4 (1924, 1936, 1940, 1992)4 (1)
Jaca 4 (1998, 2002, 2010, 2014)4 (0)
Madrid 4 (1972, 2012, 2016, 2020)4 (0)
Seville 2 (2004, 2008)2 (0)
Åre Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1 (2026)1 (0)
Falun 2 (1988, 1992)2 (0)
Gothenburg 1 (1984)1 (0)
Östersund 3 (1994, 1998, 2002)3 (0)
Stockholm 2 (1912, 2004)2 (2022, 2026)4 (1)
Bern Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1 (2010)1 (0)
Davos 1 (1928)1 (0)
Engelberg 1 (1928)1 (0)
Lausanne 4 (1936, 1944, 1948, 1960)4 (0)
Sion 4 (1976, 2002, 2006, 2026)4 (0)
St. Moritz 5 (1928, 1936, 1940, 1948, 1960)5 (2)
Bangkok Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1 (2008)1 (0)
Erzurum Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1 (2026)1 (0)
Istanbul 5 (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2020)5 (0)
Lviv Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 1 (2022)1 (0)
Anchorage Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2 (1992, 1994)2 (0)
Atlanta 2 (1920, 1996)2 (1)
Baltimore 1 (1948)1 (0)
Bear Mountain 1 (1932)1 (0)
Chicago 4 (1904, 1952, 1956, 2016)4 (0)
Cleveland 2 (1916, 1920)2 (0)
Colorado Springs 1 (1956)1 (0)
Denver 2 (1932, 1976)2 (0)
Detroit 7 (1944, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972)7 (0)
Duluth 1 (1932)1 (0)
Lake Placid 6 (1932, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1968, 1980)6 (2)
Los Angeles 10 (1924, 1928, 1932, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1976, 1980, 1984, 2028)10 (3)
Minneapolis 3 (1948, 1952, 1956)1 (1932)4 (0)
New York City 1 (2012)1 (0)
Philadelphia 4 (1920, 1948, 1952, 1956)4 (0)
Salt Lake City 1 (1972, 1998, 2002)3 (1)
San Francisco 1 (1956)1 (0)
Squaw Valley 1 (1960)1 (1)
St. Louis 1 (1904)1 (1)
Yosemite Valley 1 (1932)1 (0)
Montevideo Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1 (1936)1 (0)
Tashkent Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 1 (2000)1 (0)

Trivia

Notes

  1. 1 2 At the first Session of the International Olympic Committee, in 1894, Athens was chosen to stage the first Olympic Games of the Modern Era, in 1896, as an honour to the birthplace of the Ancient Olympics. Paris was chosen as the site for the II Olympiad, in 1900, despite Pierre de Coubertin's wish that Paris would celebrate the first Games. [2] [3]
  2. Originally awarded to Chicago, but moved to St. Louis to coincide with the World's Fair.
  3. Rome was the choice of the IOC, but the 1906 eruption of Mount Vesuvius forced the Italians to return the Games to the IOC, which reattributed them to London. [4]
  4. The Games were cancelled because of the ongoing World War I.
  5. Antwerp was awarded with the Olympic Games as a compensation and to honour the Belgians who fought, suffered and died during the war. [5]
  6. Paris got the Games for the second time to fulfill Pierre de Coubertin's wish to see a successful Olympics in his country, erasing the flaws of the 1900 Olympics, before he retired from the IOC. [6]
  7. 1 2 3 Due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan relinquished its hosting rights to both the Summer and Winter Games. On 1938-07-15, the IOC relocated the Summer Games to Helsinki and the Winter Games to St. Moritz. Finland's invasion by the Soviet Union, in 1939, and the ensuing World War II forced the IOC to cancel the 1940 Summer Games. [7] Disagreements with the Swiss officials, concerning the entry of professional skiers in the Games, prompted the IOC to reattribute them for the second consecutive time to Garmisch-Partenkirchen, on 1939-06-09. They were cancelled as well because of the war. [8]
  8. The Games were cancelled because of the ongoing World War II.
  9. 1 2 Selected without election, after the end of the World War II.
  10. Australia's strict quarantine laws concerning the entry of foreign horses made it impossible for the equestrian events to be held within the Games period. In May, 1954, during the 49th IOC Session in Athens, Stockholm was chosen to stage what would be known as "Equestrian Games of the XVIth Olympiad". [9] [10]
  11. The Games were postponed to 2021 because of the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. [11]
  12. Los Angeles' bid was withdrawn on July 31, 2017 as a prerequisite to being awarded 2028, leaving Paris as the only bidder. The USOC initially picked Boston as the US candidate but later withdrew their bid in favor of Los Angeles.
  13. Chamonix was chosen by the IOC to stage the "International Sports Week 1924", which would later be considered the First Olympic Winter Games. [13]
  14. 1 2 3 4 Until the 1938 revision of the Olympic Charter, the IOC rules stated that the host country of the Summer Olympics took priority if it wished to also host the Winter Olympics the same year.
  15. The selection process for the 1976 Winter Olympics consisted of four bids, and saw Denver, United States, selected ahead of Sion, Switzerland; Tampere, Finland; and Vancouver, Canada. The selection was made at the 70th IOC Session in Amsterdam on 12 May 1970. In a statewide referendum on 7 November 1972, Colorado voters rejected funding for the games, and for the only time a city awarded the Games rejected them. Denver officially withdrew on 15 November, and the IOC then offered the games to Whistler, Canada, but they too declined owing to a change of government following elections. Whistler would go on to be associated with neighbouring Vancouver's successful bid for the 2010 games. Salt Lake City offered to host the games, but the IOC, still reeling from the Denver rejection, declined and selected Innsbruck to host the 1976 Winter Olympics, which had hosted the 1964 Winter Olympics games twelve years earlier, on 5 February 1973. Salt Lake City would then host the Winter Olympics in 2002. [14]

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Paris bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics

Paris 2012 was an unsuccessful bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics to be held in Paris. The bidding race was eventually won by the London 2012 bid after a 54–50 vote of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on 6 July 2005. The French capital's failure to win the 2012 games follows the attempts of the Paris 2008 and Paris 1992 bids.

Bids for the 2008 Summer Olympics

Ten cities submitted bids to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics that were recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), five of which made the IOC Executive Committee's shortlist. The games were awarded to Beijing, China on July 13, 2001. The other shortlisted cities were Toronto, Paris, Istanbul and Osaka. Beijing won an absolute majority of votes after two rounds of voting, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds of voting. IOC delegates and the media identified a number of factors in its favor, including the size of the country, improvements in Chinese anti-doping enforcement, and its close loss to Sydney, Australia eight years earlier. In that bidding process, which chose the host city for the 2000 Summer Olympics, Beijing led every round of voting but lost in the final round to Sydney by two votes.

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The 2024 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, and commonly known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France.

Bids for the 2016 Summer Olympics

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The Madrid bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was an unsuccessful bid, first recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on September 14, 2007. The IOC shortlisted four of the seven applicant cities—Chicago, United States; Tokyo, Japan; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Madrid, Spain; over Baku, Azerbaijan; Doha, Qatar; and Prague, Czech Republic—on June 4, 2008 during a meeting in Athens, Greece. This was followed by an intensive bidding process which finished with the election of Rio de Janeiro at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009.

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The 2028 Summer Paralympics also known as the 18th Summer Paralympic Games, and commonly known as Los Angeles, United States 2028, are an upcoming major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, to be held in Los Angeles, United States originally planned from September 4 to 17, 2028, but now likely to be August 22 to September 3. These games mark the first time Los Angeles will host the Paralympics in its history. The final decision was made by the IOC on September 13, 2017, at their annual conference in Lima, Peru.

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The 2032 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXV Olympiad and also known as Brisbane 2032, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event scheduled to take place from 23 July to 8 August 2032, in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The winning bid was selected and announced by the International Olympic Committee on 21 July 2021, the eve of the 2020 Summer Olympics due to bidding rule changes. Brisbane was first announced as the preferred bid on 24 February 2021, gaining the formal approval of the IOC Executive Board on 10 July 2021. Brisbane became the first host city to win an Olympic Games under the new bidding procedures.

References

  1. 1 2 3 IPC-IOC Co-operation, The official website of the International Paralympic Committee
  2. Athens 1896. Games. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 6 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
  3. Factsheet – The Olympic Movement (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 2007-02-07. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
  4. "1908 Olympics: London, England". Hickok Sports. Archived from the original on 22 February 2002. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
  5. "Antwerp 1920". Games. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 17 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
  6. "1924 Olympics: Paris, France". Hickok Sports. Archived from the original on 2002-02-22. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
  7. "1948 Olympics: London, England". Hickok Sports. Archived from the original on 22 February 2002. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  8. "St. Moritz 1948". Games. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
  9. "Melbourne 1956". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  10. The Official Report of the Organizing Committee for the Equestrian Games of the XVIth Olympiad (in Swedish and English). Organizing Committee for the Equestrian Games of the XVIth Olympiad. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  11. "Tokyo 2020: Olympic Games organisers 'agree postponement'". BBC Sport . 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  12. Ben Westcott and Homero De la Fuente. "Australian city named 'preferred host' for 2032 Olympics". CNN. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  13. "Chamonix 1924". Games. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-08.
  14. "Innsbruck 1976". Games. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-23.