Illinois's 2nd congressional district

Last updated
Illinois's 2nd congressional district
Illinois US Congressional District 2 (since 2013).tif
Illinois's 2nd congressional district since January 3, 2013
Representative
  Robin Kelly
DMatteson
Area1,081 sq mi (2,800 km2)
Distribution
  • 94.7% urban
  • 3.3% rural
Population (2018 est.)694,459
Median income$49,210 [1]
Ethnicity
Cook PVI D+29 [5] [6]

Illinois's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Illinois. Based in the south suburbs of Chicago, the district includes southern Cook county, eastern Will county, and Kankakee county, as well as the city of Chicago's far southeast side.

Contents

2011 redistricting

The district covers parts of Cook and Will counties and all of Kankakee, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Bradley, Bourbonnais, Calumet City, Chicago, Chicago Heights, Country Club Hills, Dolton, Harvey, Hazel Crest, Homewood, Kankakee, Lansing, Markham, Matteson, Park Forest, Richton Park, Riverdale, Sauk Village, Steger and Thornton are included. [7] The representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, and the boundaries became effective on January 3, 2013.

Composition

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District is adjacent to the 1st Congressional District to the north and west, the 11th Congressional District to the south, and Indiana's 1st Congressional District to the east. The district's northeast border follows Lake Michigan's shoreline for several miles. The district was created following the 1830 U.S. Census and came into existence in 1833, five months before Chicago was organized as a town. The 2nd Congressional District initially included Southeastern Illinois until 1853 [8] [9] and stretches of Northern Illinois until 1873. [10] [11] It has been based in Chicago since 1853, and part of the southeast side since 1903. Redistricting following the 2000 U.S. Census placed a majority of the district's population outside Chicago for the first time in 100 years, and moved the district's borders beyond Cook County for the first time since 1873.

As in the neighboring 1st District, a majority of this district's residents (62.4%) are African American. The district has been reliably Democratic since the 1960s; it has been in Democratic hands for all but two terms since 1935, and last elected a Republican to Congress in 1950. Democratic congressional candidates regularly receive over 80% of the vote here. It has been held by black representatives since 1981.

Demographics

The southeast side of Chicago was for many decades the home of numerous Eastern European and Irish immigrants who sought the industrial work of the steel mills and railroad companies which were then dominant in the area. However, as local industry declined in the 1950s and 1960s, these groups were increasingly displaced by African Americans who were gradually migrating southward from other parts of the city. Whereas barely 20% of district residents were black in the 1960s, [12] this figure increased to 70% by the 1980s, [13] and by the 1990s the racial demographics of the 1st and 2nd Congressional Districts were very similar. At the same time, decreasing population in the district required expanding its borders into the suburbs, and it is now nearly three times the size it was in the 1980s, when it covered only 68 square miles (180 km2).

Following redistricting for the 2000s (decade), 59% of the 2nd Congressional District's population resides in the suburbs, with a total of 98.4% living in Cook County. The district's white population (almost 30% of its residents) now primarily resides in the southern suburbs and a few far southeastern Chicago neighborhoods such as East Side and Hegewisch. [14]

Several suburbs closer to Chicago near Interstate 57 have black populations exceeding 75%: Calumet Park, Country Club Hills, Dolton, Harvey, Hazel Crest, Markham, Matteson, Phoenix, Richton Park, Riverdale, and University Park. In contrast, there are five suburbs further southeast with white populations exceeding 75% Homewood, Lansing, South Chicago Heights, Steger and Thornton although they surround Ford Heights, with a population of only about 2800 the district's most racially one-sided population (96% black). Chicago Heights features the most even racial mix, with a population that is 45% white and 38% black. The district's largest white ethnic groups are German (5.8%), Irish (4.4%), Polish (4.4%) and Italian (3.1%), [15] similar to other districts in southern Cook County.

Hispanics represent 10% of the district's population, with sizable communities in East Side and Chicago Heights. Chicago's South Shore neighborhood was the longtime home to a Jewish community which has since migrated to suburbs such as Homewood and Flossmoor . South Shore is now primarily a middle-class black community and is also home to a notable minority of Black Muslims including the national headquarters of the Nation of Islam, Mosque Maryam.

The district includes some sharp economic disparities. Olympia Fields, Country Club Hills and Matteson are suburbs with black majority populations, but Ford Heights (only four miles east of Olympia Fields) is one of the most impoverished places in the United States, with a median household income of just $17,500 in 2000 less than 42% of the national average. It is home to more single mothers per capita than anyplace else in the country. [16]

Economy

The 2nd Congressional District was, for most of the 20th century, a thriving center of heavy industry centered around Lake Calumet and the Port of Chicago, augmented by the nearby railroad industry which had the Pullman Company as its centerpiece. The steel industry was a major component, with U.S. Steel at one time employing 20,000 district residents, but the Wisconsin Steelworks in South Deering [17] closed in March 1980, and U.S. Steel's South Works plant in South Chicago [18] source of the steel for Chicago skyscrapers including the Sears Tower was closed in April 1992; both have since been dismantled. Virtually the last remnant of the industry in the area is ISG Riverdale (formerly the Acme Steel Co.), which began a shutdown in 2001 before being sold and restructured as a smaller company. [19] The most significant remaining industrial presence in the district is now the Ford Motor Company, which operates the Chicago Assembly plant (where the Ford Taurus is manufactured) on the border between South Deering and Hegewisch, as well as the Chicago Stamping facility in Chicago Heights. Like the 1st District, the area is struggling to overcome economic downturns in recent decades.

Local educational institutions include Governors State University in University Park, Chicago State University in Roseland, Prairie State College in Chicago Heights, South Suburban College in South Holland and Olive-Harvey College, a Chicago city college, in Pullman. The University of Chicago is directly west of the district's northern end. Hospitals in the district include Ingalls Memorial Hospital in Harvey, Advocate South Suburban Hospital in Hazel Crest, St. James Hospitals in Chicago Heights and Olympia Fields, Advocate Trinity Hospital in Calumet Heights, La Rabida Children's Hospital in Woodlawn, South Shore Hospital in South Chicago and Roseland Community Hospital in Roseland.

The Museum of Science and Industry is located almost at the district's northern tip. Various areas of the Cook County Forest Preserves are scattered throughout the suburban part of the district, particularly in the area northeast of Chicago Heights. Other notable business and industrial presences in the district include Jays Foods, a manufacturer of snack foods based in Pullman; the Norfolk Southern Railway; Allied Tube and Conduit, a piping and electrical manufacturer in Harvey ; and UGN Inc., an automotive soundproofing manufacturer in Chicago Heights .

Federal facilities in the district include Coast Guard Station Calumet Harbor in East Side and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Army Reserve Center, home of the 308th Civil Affairs Brigade, in Homewood.

In addition to the Jackson Park Historic Landscape District and the Museum of Science and Industry's U-505, district locations on the National Register of Historic Places include:

Recent election results from statewide races

YearOfficeResults
2000 President Al Gore 81% - George W. Bush 17%
2004 President John Kerry 84% - George W. Bush 16%
2008 President Barack Obama 90% - John McCain 10%
2012 President Barack Obama 80.7% - Mitt Romney 18.5%
2016 President Hillary Clinton 78% - Donald Trump 19%

List of members representing the district

MemberPartyYearsCong
ress
Electoral history
District createdMarch 4, 1833
ZadokCasey.jpg
Zadok Casey
Jacksonian March 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1837
23rd
24th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
Democratic March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1841
25th
26th
Independent Democratic March 4, 1841 –
March 3, 1843
27th
John Alexander McClernand.jpg
John A. McClernand
Democratic March 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1851
28th
29th
30th
31st
[ data unknown/missing ]
Retired.
Willis Allen Democratic March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
32nd [ data unknown/missing ]
Redistricted to the 9th district .
John Wentworth of Chicago.jpeg
John Wentworth
Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
33rd [ data unknown/missing ]
Jameswoodworth.jpeg
James H. Woodworth
Republican March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
34th [ data unknown/missing ]
Retired.
John F. Farnsworth - Brady-Handy.jpg
John F. Farnsworth
Republican March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1861
35th
36th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Retired.
INArnold.jpg
Isaac N. Arnold
Republican March 4, 1861 –
March 3, 1863
37th [ data unknown/missing ]
Redistricted to the 1st district .
John F. Farnsworth - Brady-Handy.jpg
John F. Farnsworth
Republican March 4, 1863 –
March 3, 1873
38th
39th
40th
41st
42nd
[ data unknown/missing ]
Lost renomination.
Jasper D. Ward Republican March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1875
43rd [ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
Carter Harrison, Sr. - Brady-Handy.jpg
Carter H. Harrison
Democratic March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1879
44th
45th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Retired.
George R. Davis Republican March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1883
46th
47th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Redistricted to the 3rd district .
John F. Finerty.jpg
John F. Finerty
Independent Democratic March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1885
48th [ data unknown/missing ]
Frank Lawler.jpg
Frank Lawler
Democratic March 4, 1885 –
March 3, 1891
49th
50th
51st
[ data unknown/missing ]
LawrenceEMcGann.jpg
Lawrence E. McGann
Democratic March 4, 1891 –
March 3, 1895
52nd
53rd
[ data unknown/missing ]
Redistricted to the 3rd district .
William Lorimer, Illinois Senator, GGB photo.jpg
William Lorimer
Republican March 4, 1895 –
March 3, 1901
54th
55th
56th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
JohnJFeely.jpg
John J. Feely
Democratic March 4, 1901 –
March 3, 1903
57th [ data unknown/missing ]
Retired.
James Robert Mann (Illinois) in 1916.jpg
James Robert Mann
Republican March 4, 1903 –
November 30, 1922
58th
59th
60th
61st
62nd
63rd
64th
65th
66th
67th
Redistricted from the 1st district .
Died.
VacantNovember 30, 1922 –
April 3, 1923
MortonDHull.jpg
Morton D. Hull
Republican April 23, 1923 –
March 3, 1933
68th
69th
70th
71st
72nd
Elected to finish Feely's term.
Retired.
P. H. Moynihan Republican March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1935
73rd [ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
Raymond S. McKeough Democratic January 3, 1935 –
January 3, 1943
74th
75th
76th
77th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Retired.
William A. Rowan Democratic January 3, 1943 –
January 3, 1947
78th
79th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
VAIL, RICHARD B. HONORABLE LCCN2016862791.jpg
Richard B. Vail
Republican January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1949
80th [ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
Barratt O'Hara.jpg
Barratt O'Hara
Democratic January 3, 1949 –
January 3, 1951
81st [ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
VAIL, RICHARD B. HONORABLE LCCN2016862791.jpg
Richard B. Vail
Republican January 3, 1951 –
January 3, 1953
82nd [ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election.
Barratt O'Hara.jpg
Barratt O'Hara
Democratic January 3, 1953 –
January 3, 1969
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
88th
89th
90th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Lost renomination.
Abner Mikva.jpg
Abner Mikva
Democratic January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1973
91st
92nd
[ data unknown/missing ]
Lost re-election when redistricted to the 10th district .
Morgan Murphy.png
Morgan F. Murphy
Democratic January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1981
93rd
94th
95th
96th
Redistricted from the 3rd district .
Retired.
Rep. Gus Savage.jpg
Gus Savage
Democratic January 3, 1981 –
January 3, 1993
97th
98th
99th
100th
101st
102nd
[ data unknown/missing ]
Lost renomination.
Mel Reynolds.jpg
Mel Reynolds
Democratic January 3, 1993 –
October 1, 1995
103rd
104th
[ data unknown/missing ]
Resigned.
VacantOctober 1, 1995 –
December 12, 1995
Jesse Jackson, Jr., official photo portrait.jpg
Jesse Jackson Jr.
Democratic December 12, 1995 –
November 21, 2012
104th
105th
106th
107th
108th
109th
110th
111th
112th
Elected to finish Reynolds's term.
Resigned.
VacantNovember 21, 2012 –
April 9, 2013
Robin Kelly official photo.jpg
Robin Kelly
Democratic April 9, 2013–
Present
113th
114th
115th
116th
Elected to finish Jackson's term.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.

Election results

2002

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District Election (2002)
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Jesse Jackson, Jr.* 151,443 82.30
Republican Doug Nelson32,56717.70
Total votes184,010100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold

2004

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District Election (2004)
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Jesse Jackson, Jr.* 202,176 88.34
Libertarian Stephanie Sailor26,69311.66
Total votes228,869100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold

2006

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District Election (2006)
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Jesse Jackson, Jr.* 146,347 84.84
Republican Robert Belin20,39511.82
Libertarian Anthony W. Williams5,7483.33
Total votes172,490100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold

2008

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District Election (2008)
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Jesse Jackson, Jr.* 251,052 89.41
Republican Anthony W. Williams29,72110.59
Total votes280,773100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold

2010

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District Election (2010)
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Jesse Jackson, Jr.* 150,666 80.52
Republican Isaac Hayes25,88313.83
Green Anthony W. Williams10,5645.65
Total votes187,113100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold

2012

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District Election (2012)
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Jesse Jackson, Jr.* 188,303 63.3
Republican Brian Woodworth69,11523.2
Independent Marcus Lewis40,00613.5
Total votes297,424100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold

2013 (Special)

Illinois's 2nd Congressional District Special Election (2013)
PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Robin Kelly 58,142 70.8
Republican Paul McKinley18,07222.0
Independent Elizabeth "Liz" Pahlke2,4773.0
Green LeAlan Jones1,5051.8
Independent Marcus Lewis1,3451.6
Independent Curtiss Llong Bey5390.7
Total votes82,080100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold

History of district boundaries

The total number of representatives allotted to Illinois during each period follows the years in parentheses; boundaries went into effect beginning with the previous year's elections:

Presidential voting

This table indicates how the 2nd District has voted in U.S. presidential elections; election results reflect voting in the district as it was configured at the time of the election, not as it is configured today. The candidate who received the most votes in the district is listed first; the candidate who won the election nationally is in CAPS, and the candidate who won the state of Illinois is indicated with a †.

ElectionDistrict winnerRunnerupOther candidates
1852 [32] PIERCE† (D), 8,021 (49%) Scott (W), 5,882 (36%) Hale (Free Soil), 2,500 (15%)
1856 [32] Frémont (R), 21,556 (67%) BUCHANAN† (D), 9,843 (30%) Fillmore (American), 966 (3%)
1860 [32] LINCOLN† (R), 30,856 (64%) Douglas (D), 16,993 (35%) Bell (Constitutional Union), 192 (0.4%); Breckinridge (D), 128 (0.3%)
1864 [32] LINCOLN† (R), 18,305 (78%) McClellan (D), 5,231 (22%)
1868 [32] GRANT† (R), 20,946 (77%) Seymour (D), 6,270 (23%)
1952 [33] Stevenson (D), 94,905 (51%) EISENHOWER† (R), 91,522 (49%)
1956 [33] Stevenson (D), 81,570 (50%) EISENHOWER† (R), 81,296 (50%)
1968 [34] Humphrey (D), 103,924 (59%) NIXON† (R), 52,311 (30%) Wallace (AIP), 18,896 (11%)
1972 [35] McGovern (D), 116,534 (66%) NIXON† (R), 60,220 (34%)
1976 [36] CARTER (D), 137,384 (83%) Ford† (R), 28,498 (17%)
1980 [37] Carter (D), 145,205 (84%) REAGAN† (R), 20,946 (12%) Anderson (Indep.), 3,612 (2%)
1984 [38] Mondale (D), 168,174 (84%) REAGAN† (R), 32,693 (16%)
1988 [39] Dukakis (D), 150,387 (84%) BUSH† (R), 25,896 (15%)
1992 [40] CLINTON† (D), 194,639 (80%) Bush (R), 31,634 (13%) Perot (Indep.), 16,950 (7%)
1996 [41] CLINTON† (D), 170,819 (85%) Dole (R), 22,204 (11%) Perot (Reform), 6,395 (3%)
2000 [42] Gore† (D), 188,289 (89%) BUSH (R), 21,838 (10%) Nader (Green), 1,626 (1%)
2004 [43] Kerry† (D), 230,613 (84%) BUSH (R), 43,822 (16%)
2008 [44] OBAMA† (D), 260,869 (90%) McCain (R), 28,676 (10%)
2012 [45] OBAMA† (D), (81%) Romney (R), (19%)

Living former members

As of May 2015, there are two living former members of the House from the district. The most recent to die was Abner J. Mikva (served 1969–1973) on July 4, 2016. The most recently serving representative to die was Gus Savage (served 1981–1993) on October 31, 2015.

RepresentativeTerm of officeDate of birth (and age)
Mel Reynolds 1993–1995January 8, 1952 (age 68)
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 1995–2012March 11, 1965 (age 54)

Historical district boundaries

2003-2013 Illinois' 2nd congressional district.png
2003–2013

See also

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References

  1. https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=17&cd=02
  2. https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=17&cd=02
  3. https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=17&cd=02
  4. https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=17&cd=02
  5. "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  6. Barone, Michael; McCutcheon, Chuck (2013). The Almanac of American Politics 2014. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 555. ISBN   978-0-226-10544-4. Copyright National Journal.
  7. Illinois Congressional District 2, Illinois Board of Elections
  8. 1 2 Parsons, Stanley B.; William W. Beach; Dan Hermann (1978). United States Congressional Districts 1788-1841. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 302–304. ISBN   0-8371-9828-3.
  9. 1 2 Parsons, Stanley B.; William W. Beach; Michael J. Dubin (1986). United States Congressional Districts and Data, 1843-1883. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN   0-313-22045-X.
  10. 1 2 Parsons, et al. (1986), pp. 53-54.
  11. 1 2 Parsons, et al. (1986), pp. 102-103.
  12. 1 2 Congressional District Data Book, Illinois supplement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1966. pp. 2–4.
  13. Gottron, Martha V. (ed.) (1983). Congressional Districts in the 1980s. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. p. 156. ISBN   0-87187-264-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  14. See U.S. Census Bureau map showing distribution of district's white population.
  15. Congressional Districts in the 2000s: A Portrait of America, p. 299.
  16. Barone, Michael; Richard E. Cohen (2005). The Almanac of American Politics 2006 . Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. p.  565. ISBN   0-89234-111-4.
  17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-09. Retrieved 2010-12-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. Parsons, et al. (1986), pp. 159–160.
  20. Parsons, Stanley B.; Michael J. Dubin; Karen Toombs Parsons (1990). United States Congressional Districts, 1883–1913. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 23–27. ISBN   0-313-26482-1.
  21. Parsons, et al. (1990), pp. 182–186.
  22. Parsons, et al. (1990), pp. 187–191.
  23. Parsons, et al. (1990), pp. 326–330.
  24. Barrett, Edward A. (ed.). Blue Book of the State of Illinois, 1947–1948. Springfield, IL: State of Illinois. p. 110.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  25. Barrett, pp. 113-114.
  26. Congressional District Atlas of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. pp. 18–20.
  27. Congressional District Data Book: Districts of the 88th Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1963. pp. 125–127.
  28. Congressional District Data Book: 93rd Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1973. pp. 145, 147–148.
  29. Gottron, Martha V. (ed.) (1983). Congressional Districts in the 1980s. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. p. 163. ISBN   0-87187-264-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  30. Congressional District Atlas: 103rd Congress of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1993. pp. Illinois-1, 5, 25, 29, 31, 33–35. ISBN   0-16-041689-2.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Vote totals from 1852 to 1868 are based on cumulative county totals as listed in Illinois: Historical and Statistical (1892), John Moses, Chicago: Fergus Printing Co., pp. 1208-1209.
  32. 1 2 Congressional District Data Book: Districts of the 87th Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1961. p. 17.
  33. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa; Douglas Matthews (1972). The Almanac of American Politics. Boston: Gambit. p. 198. ISBN   0-87645-053-2.
  34. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa; Douglas Matthews (1973). The Almanac of American Politics. Boston: Gambit. p. 265. ISBN   0-87645-077-X.
  35. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa; Douglas Matthews (1977). The Almanac of American Politics 1978. New York City: E. P. Dutton. p. 227. ISBN   0-87690-255-7.
  36. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa (1981). The Almanac of American Politics 1982. Washington, D.C.: Barone & Co. p. 297. ISBN   0-940702-00-2.
  37. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa (1985). The Almanac of American Politics 1986. Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. p.  395. ISBN   0-89234-032-0.
  38. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa (1989). The Almanac of American Politics 1990. Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. p. 353. ISBN   0-89234-043-6.
  39. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa (1993). The Almanac of American Politics 1994. Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. p. 392. ISBN   0-89234-057-6.
  40. Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa; Richard E. Cohen (1997). The Almanac of American Politics 1998. Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. p.  477. ISBN   0-89234-081-9.
  41. Barone, Michael; Richard E. Cohen; Charles E. Cook Jr (2001). The Almanac of American Politics 2002 . Washington, D.C.: National Journal Group. p.  510. ISBN   0-89234-099-1.
  42. Barone, et al. (2005), p. 564.
  43. Presidential Results by Congressional District, 2000-2008; Illinois
  44. Presidential Results by Congressional District, 2000-2012; Illinois

Coordinates: 41°15′22″N87°47′24″W / 41.25611°N 87.79000°W / 41.25611; -87.79000