Lakewood, Ohio

Last updated

Lakewood, Ohio
OH Cuyahoga Lakewood Downtown Historic District 016.jpg
Lakewood Downtown Historic District
Nickname: 
City of Homes
Motto: 
"A Great Place to Call Home"
Cuyahoga County Ohio incorporated and unincorporated areas Lakewood highlighted.svg
Location in Cuyahoga County and the state of Ohio.
Coordinates: 41°28′55″N81°47′54″W / 41.48194°N 81.79833°W / 41.48194; -81.79833
Country Flag of the United States (23px).png  United States
State Flag of Ohio.svg  Ohio
County Cuyahoga
Government
  Type Mayor-council
   Mayor Meghan George (D) [1]
Area
[2]
  Total6.70 sq mi (17.34 km2)
  Land5.54 sq mi (14.36 km2)
  Water1.15 sq mi (2.98 km2)
Elevation
[3]
702 ft (214 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total50,942
  Density9,190.33/sq mi (3,548.69/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code
44107
Area code 216
FIPS code [4] 39-41664
GNIS feature ID1064966 [3]
Website lakewoodoh.gov

Lakewood is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, on the southern shore of Lake Erie. Established in 1889, it is one of Cleveland's historical streetcar suburbs and part of the Cleveland metropolitan area. The population was 50,942 at the 2020 census, making it the third largest city in Cuyahoga County, behind Cleveland and Parma. [5]

Contents

History

The former Lakewood Hospital as depicted c. 1930s Lakewood Hospital, Lakewood, Ohio (67969).jpg
The former Lakewood Hospital as depicted c.1930s

Establishment

The area now called Lakewood was populated by the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Chippewa, Wyandot, Munsee, Delaware and Shawnee tribes until the Treaty of Ft. Industry pushed them west in 1805. [6] Prior to the treaty, American settlers were prohibited from moving west of the Cuyahoga River. The treaty ceded 500,000 acres of some of the tribes' land to the United States for about $18,000 or 3.5 cents/acre. The Shawnee and Seneca, living with the Wyandot, were to get $1000 "...every year forever hereafter." [7]

In 1806, the area was formally surveyed as Rockport Township, Township 7, Range 14, of the Connecticut Western Reserve. It was purchased from the Connecticut Land Company by a syndicate of six men headed by Judson Canfield on April 4, 1807, for $26,084. In 1818, permanent settlement began with the arrival from Connecticut of James Nicholson. [8] Other early pioneers included Jared Kirtland and Mars Wagar. Settlements were mostly along Detroit Avenue, a toll road operated by the Rockport Plank Company from 1848 to 1901, with large farms and properties extending north to Lake Erie. Making bricks and planting orchards were among the most prolific occupations until natural gas and oil wells were developed in the early 1880s. [6] By 1819, 18 families lived in Rockport Township. Early settlers sustained their lives through farming. The land was ideal for fruit farming and many vineyards began to emerge. [9] Current street names reflect this history such as Orchard Grove and Blossom Park.The most common occupations in Lakewood were farming and the building trades.

Incorporation and growth

A toll road was established from Cleveland to Lakewood by the Rockport Plank Road Company, operating from 1848 to 1901. Lakewood was incorporated as a village in 1889, and named for its lakefront location. [10] In 1893, streetcars came from Cleveland to Lakewood with the construction of the Detroit Avenue line, followed by the Clifton Boulevard line in 1903 and the Madison Avenue line in 1916. [11]

Under the Ohio Common School Act of April 9, 1867, three schools were allotted to East Rockport, called 6, 8, and 10; they were later designated East, Middle, and West. Each school had one teacher. As the community began to grow and more schools were required, the school board adopted the policy of honoring Ohio's presidents by assigning their names to the school buildings. The Rocky River Railroad was organized in 1869 by speculators as an excursion line to bring Clevelanders to the resort area they developed at the mouth of the Rocky River. Financially unsuccessful as a pleasure and amusement venture, the line was sold to the Nickel Plate Railroad in 1881. The railroad line still exists today, running in an east–west direction north of Detroit Avenue.[ citation needed ]

Notably, Lakewood was home to two pioneering automobile manufacturers: Winton Motor Carriage Company (est. 1897) and Baker Motor Vehicle (1899). By 1906, the latter became the largest electric vehicle maker in the world at the time.

Modern redevelopment

Rockport Square was developed on the eastern end of the city in 2004 and incorporated residential townhouses all along Detroit Avenue. [12]

Lakewood was accepted into the nationally renowned Ohio Main Street Program in 2005. [13] In 2009, the American Institute of Architects and the Cleveland Restoration Society honored the City of Lakewood Department of Planning & Development and LakewoodAlive with an award for Creative & Effective Preservation Advocacy. [14] Lakewood first introduced curbside recycling in 1989 and has one of the highest recycling rates in all of Ohio at 79% in 2009. [15]

Lakewood operates a CERT program. This all-citizen emergency response program was created in 2005. [16]

Geography

Lake Erie shore at Lakewood Park Lakewood Park (22109567484).jpg
Lake Erie shore at Lakewood Park

Lakewood is located about 6 miles (9.7 km) west of Downtown Cleveland. The city borders Lake Erie to the north, the Cleveland neighborhoods of Edgewater and Cudell to the east, and the neighborhoods of Jefferson and Kamm's Corners to the south. It borders the suburb of Rocky River to the west at the Rocky River valley. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.69 square miles (17.33 km2), of which 5.53 square miles (14.32 km2) is land and 1.16 square miles (3.00 km2) is water. [17]

Neighborhoods

Houses on Lake Road in the Clifton Park Lakefront District Lake Road in Clifton Park.jpg
Houses on Lake Road in the Clifton Park Lakefront District

Historical housing throughout the city and an active historical society are the norm in Lakewood. The "Make Lakewood Beautiful" program involves contests in which residents compete to make their homes look and resemble their original design and architecture, and awards are given to several homeowners each year. The city offers tours of the most famous homes in the spring, summer, and fall. [18]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1900 3,355
1910 15,181352.5%
1920 41,732174.9%
1930 70,50969.0%
1940 69,160−1.9%
1950 68,071−1.6%
1960 66,154−2.8%
1970 70,1736.1%
1980 61,963−11.7%
1990 59,718−3.6%
2000 56,646−5.1%
2010 52,131−8.0%
2020 50,942−2.3%
Sources: [4] [25] [26] [27]

As of the census [28] of 2010, there were 52,131 people, 25,274 households, and 11,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,426.9 inhabitants per square mile (3,639.7/km2). There were 28,498 housing units at an average density of 5,153.3 per square mile (1,989.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 87.5% White, 6.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 1.3% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population.

There were 25,274 households, of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.7% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 55.7% were non-families. 44.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.99.

The median age in the city was 35.4 years. 19.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 34.3% were from 25 to 44; 25.7% were from 45 to 64; and 11% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female.

As of the 2007 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $42,602, and the median income for a family was $59,201. Males had a median income of $42,599 versus $35,497 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,939. About 10.9% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. Of the city's population over the age of 25, 39.0% hold a bachelor's degree or higher. [29]

According to the 2020 United States census, Lakewood had a population of 50,942. Of which, 82.7% were non-hispanic White, 5.2% were non-hispanic Black, 4.8% were Hispanic/Latino, 2.4% were Asian, 5.9% were mixed or other. [30]

Ethnicity and immigration

Lakewood's ethnic mosaic includes Albanian, Arab, Chinese, German, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Mexican, Nepalese, Puerto Rican, Polish, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian ancestries. [31] As of 2019, 12.2% spoke a language other than English at home, including Arabic, Spanish, Albanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, and Hungarian. [32] The community is a hotspot for immigrants, arriving primarily from Southeast Europe (especially Albania, Romania, Greece, and the former Yugoslavia), [33] [34] the Middle East (Lebanon, Syria, and Iran), [34] [35] South Asia (India, Nepal, and Myanmar), [6] [36] and the former USSR (Russia, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine). [6] [37] The foreign-born population was approximately 8.6% in 2019. [32]

Economy

Lakewood Hospital first opened its doors in 1907. The city of Lakewood purchased the hospital in 1931. The Cleveland Clinic added the hospital to its health system in 2006. [38] In January 2015, the Cleveland Clinic announced it would close the hospital in 2016 and replace it with a family medical center. The new medical center which included outpatient programs, an emergency department and wellness services opened across the street from the old hospital site in 2018. None of the 845 employees of Lakewood lost their jobs, as they were offered other positions in the Cleveland Clinic system. [39] There was opposition to the closing from a citizens' group called "Save Lakewood Hospital" who contended that the city could find another entity to manage the hospital and keep it open. [40]

Cleveland Clinic completed construction of a new one-story facility on Detroit Avenue in 2005, adjacent to Rockport Square. Cleveland Clinic began demolition in 2016 of a professional office building and garage in preparation for the construction of a new $34 million, 62,000 square foot family health building, which will serve as a replacement, in part, for Lakewood Hospital. The hospital's emergency department remains open through the construction, which is scheduled to be completed in 2018. [41]

Arts and culture

Lakewood Civic Auditorium Lakewood civic auditorium 2.jpg
Lakewood Civic Auditorium

Lakewood Public Library has won numerous awards [42] and has two branches: the main branch on Detroit Avenue and a smaller branch on Madison Avenue. [43] [44] The Lakewood Library's 2008 expansion increased the main library to 93,000 square feet; the collection then grew to over 474,000 items by 2015. The Lakewood Library celebrated its centennial in 2016. [45] The Madison branch of the Library, designed by architectural firm Walter and Weeks, opened in 1929 in the southeastern part of the city. It underwent a $2.1 million renovation and expansion, and reopened to the public in March 2022. [46]

The Lakewood Civic Auditorium, a 2,000-seat performing arts venue located on the campus of Lakewood High School, opened in 1955. The auditorium hosted the Great Lakes Shakespeare Festival from 1962 to 1981. [47] The facade of the auditorium features the world's largest free-standing ceramic sculpture, Early Settler, created by Viktor Schreckengost. [48] The sculpture is commonly known as "Johnny Appleseed" who was the subject of Schreckengost's design. [49]

The Beck Center for the Arts is the largest cultural arts center on Cleveland's west shore. [50]

Geiger's, a retailer of clothing and ski equipment and accessories, was founded in downtown Lakewood in 1932. The company, now run by the third generation of the Geiger family, moved to its present location in 1936. [51] The home of Malley's Chocolates is in Lakewood. [52] Aladdin's Eatery, a national restaurant brand, is also based in Lakewood. Their first restaurant was founded in Lakewood by Fady and Sally Chamoun in 1994. [53] Aladdin's Lakewood Headquarters was expanded in 2007.

Parks and recreation

Lakewood Park gazebo Lakewood Park (26182794339).jpg
Lakewood Park gazebo

Lakewood Park is one of the largest lakefront parks in Ohio and features a live concert stage, outdoor swimming pool, picnic pavilions, 4-season public pavilion, kids' playground, baseball, volleyball, and a skate park, which opened in 2004. Lakewood has more than 150 acres (0.61 km2) of greenspace citywide. The park's million dollar lakefront promenade opened in 2006 and offers an excellent panorama of Downtown Cleveland and the presence of viewing telescopes enhances the viewing experience of Downtown Cleveland. An all-purpose trail that circles the park was built in 2006.

On October 30, 2015, Lakewood opened its "Solstice Steps" in the northwest corner of the park. The steps are aligned in the direction of sunset on the summer solstice. They are constructed of white concrete blocks in five tiers; each tier has four steps separated by green grass strips. [54]

A renovated Charles A. Foster Pool is expected to open for the 2023 outdoor swimming season. [55]

The Rocky River Reservation of the Cleveland Metroparks System forms part of the city's western border. The Lakewood Dog Park, built in 2004, is located next to the Metroparks, in the Rocky River valley.

Government

Lakewood is governed by an elected mayor and elected council. The council has seven members, with four members representing wards in the city and the other three are at-large council members. [56] Once politically dominated by New England Republicans, Lakewood has become a center for the progressive wing of the Democratic Party in Ohio. It was a stronghold of support for former Congressman Dennis Kucinich, and in the 2016 Democratic presidential primary, its voters strongly backed Bernie Sanders. [57] The city is currently represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by Shontel Brown (OH-11, D). [58] In the Ohio General Assembly it is represented by Nickie Antonio (D) in the State Senate [59] and by Michael Skindell in the (D) State House. [60]

Notable former mayors include Anthony Sinagra (1978 1990), Madeline Cain (1996 2003), and Ed FitzGerald (2008 2010). [61]

Education

Public schools

Lakewood High School Lakewood (2).jpg
Lakewood High School

The Lakewood City School District is managed by a directly elected school board. [62] The Lakewood City Schools was rated as having "Continuous Improvement" by the Ohio Department of Education in 2013. Lakewood rebuilt or renovated the city's high school, two middle schools and seven elementary schools in a process completed in 2017. [63] The investment was the first major school building program in Lakewood since 1920. The school system is one of the largest employers in the city of Lakewood.

Current schools in the public system include Emerson, Grant, Harrison, Hayes, Horace Mann, Lincoln and Roosevelt elementary schools (grades PK–5); Garfield and Harding middle schools (grades 6–8) and Lakewood High School (grades 9–12). [64]

Private schools

Lakewood Catholic Academy (grades K–8) was founded in 2005 through a consolidation of four parochial elementary schools, St. James, St. Luke and St. Clements and Transfiguration on the site of the former St. Augustine Academy. Since its founding, over $1.5 million has been invested in capital improvements, making LCA a "significant institution for parochial education in Lakewood. [65] St. Edward High School serves boys in grades 9–12 throughout the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cleveland. Padre Pio Academy is a K–12 elementary/high school founded by lay Catholics that operates independently of the Diocese.

Lakewood Lutheran School offers a K–8 integrated elementary education.

Colleges

Post secondary education in Lakewood includes The North Coast College, focusing on graphic and fashion design. [66]

Media

A handful of print and online media chronicle Lakewood, including The Sun Post-Herald, and The Lakewood Observer. [67] [68]

Transportation

Cove Avenue & Lake Road RTA station RTA Cleveland State Line Station2.jpg
Cove Avenue & Lake Road RTA station

The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority's Cleveland State Line (routes 55,55B,55C), run east and west along Clifton Boulevard, terminating at Cleveland State University in downtown Cleveland to the east and in North Olmsted (55) or Bay Village (55B) and Westlake (55C) to the west. [69] RTA Routes 26 and 26A serve Detroit Avenue, Route 83 serves Warren Road, Route 78 serves as the border line on West 117th Street, and Route 25 serves Madison Avenue. [69] Two RTA rapid transit stations exist just across the Lakewood/Cleveland border, at W. 117th St. and Madison Avenue and the other between Lakewood Heights and Triskett near West 140. Both stations provide access to the Red Line east to Windermere via Downtown Cleveland and west to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. [69] RTA's Route 804, the Lakewood Community Circulator, was discontinued by RTA in late 2009. Lakewood residents and city officials were campaigning for it to return. [69]

I-90 borders the south side of Lakewood and has on/off-ramps at W. 117th St., Bunts Road, Warren Road, and McKinley Road. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway begins approximately 1-mile (1.6 km) east of Lakewood via Lake Avenue and Clifton Boulevard and serves as a transportation hub to and from downtown Cleveland.

Lakewood is bicycle-friendly, with designated "share the road" paths through the city. [70]

Notable people

Birthplace

Former/current residents

Notes

  1. Exner, Rich (November 16, 2013). "Democrats outnumber Republicans as mayors in Cuyahoga County, 39-14". Cleveland.com . Archived from the original on October 8, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  2. "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 19, 2022. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  3. 1 2 U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lakewood, Ohio
  4. 1 2 "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. "U.S. Census website". Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Miller, April. "Lakewood". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  7. Erb, Robin (November 16, 2003). "1805 Fort Industry treaty entices Toledo historians". The Blade. Toledo Ohio: Block Communications. Archived from the original on April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  8. Murray, Lorraine. "Lakewood Ohio US". Britannica.com. Chicago IL: Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on May 19, 2020. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  9. Becker, Thea Gallo (2003). Lakewood. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. pp. Introduction, i, 12–13. ISBN   073852333X.
  10. Overman, William Daniel (1958). Ohio Town Names. Akron, OH: Atlantic Press. p. 72. Archived from the original on March 28, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  11. Johnston, Laura (January 11, 2019). "9 Lakewood historical milestones: Inner-ring Divide". Cleveland.com. Cleveland OH: AdvanceOhio. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  12. "Lakewood City Council Approves New Townhomes at Rockport Square | The City of Lakewood, Ohio". www.lakewoodoh.gov. Archived from the original on September 28, 2023. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  13. "Lakewood Is Ohio's Newest Main Street - The Lakewood Observer". lakewoodobserver.com. Archived from the original on April 19, 2023. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  14. "Home - LakewoodAlive". Archived from the original on July 11, 2005. Retrieved July 13, 2005.
  15. according to the city web site, accessed October 1, 2009[ verification needed ]
  16. "CERT Training To Be Held Beginning February 20th | The City of Lakewood, Ohio". www.onelakewood.com. Archived from the original on February 18, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
  17. "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  18. "State of the suburbs: Lakewood". wkyc.com. Archived from the original on September 28, 2023. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  19. 1 2 "Birdtown". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. May 11, 2020. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  20. "Birdtown". Cleveland Historical. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  21. Becker, Thea Gallo (2003). Lakewood. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 97–99, 103. ISBN   073852333X.
  22. "Downtown Lakewood | Studio Graphique". August 25, 2014. Archived from the original on August 25, 2014.
  23. Butler, Margaret Manor (1949). The Lakewood Story. Stratford House. pp. 256–257.
  24. "How the West End Was Won". clevelandmagazine.com. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  25. "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. 1960. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  26. "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 16, 2019. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  27. "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  28. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  29. "Population estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015)". Archived from the original on March 1, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  30. "Explore Census Data". Archived from the original on September 1, 2022. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  31. "Ancestry in Lakewood, Ohio". Statistical Atlas. Archived from the original on April 19, 2023. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  32. 1 2 "U.S. Census Bureau Quick Facts: Lakewood, Ohio". Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  33. "Albanians". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  34. 1 2 Meiser, Rebecca (November 29, 2006). "Destination Lakewood: How a bar town became an immigration hot spot". Cleveland Scene. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  35. "National Origin in Lakewood, Ohio". Statistical Atlas. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  36. Kim, Joon-Li (January 6, 2015). "Asia in Lakewood". The Lakewood Observer. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  37. "Russians". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on August 18, 2019. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  38. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History (May 11, 2018). LAKEWOOD HOSPITAL. Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on April 21, 2022. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  39. Ellison, Alya (February 11, 2016). "Cleveland Clinic's Lakewood Hospital ceases inpatient services". Becker's Hospital Review. Archived from the original on April 19, 2023. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  40. Geiselman, Bruce; Clevel, Special to (February 11, 2016). "Mayor Michael Summers describes orderly wind down at Lakewood Hospital". cleveland. Archived from the original on April 21, 2022. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  41. Magaw, Timothy (October 25, 2016). "Site prep starts for Cleveland Clinic's new Lakewood health center". Crain's Cleveland Business. Crain Publishing Co. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  42. http://www.lkwdpl.org/about/awards/awards [ permanent dead link ]
  43. "Lakewood Public Library (Lakewood, Ohio)". Archived from the original on October 7, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2004.
  44. "Library Name". Archived from the original on March 23, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
  45. Kovach, Carol (May 31, 2016). "Lakewood Public Library turns the page on its first 100 years". cleveland.com. AdvanceOhio. Archived from the original on August 5, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  46. John Benson, special to cleveland com (March 25, 2022). "Lakewood Public Library opening newly renovated Madison branch: Photos". cleveland. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  47. Miller, William (April 19, 1981). "Can Great Lakes Shakespeare round out Playhouse Square?". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio.
  48. "lha5401". clevelandmemory.contentdm.oclc.org. Archived from the original on February 19, 2023. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  49. Amata, Carmie (August 14, 1983). "An Artist Catches the Essence of an Era". The Plain Dealer Magazine. Cleveland, Ohio. Of course, somewhere along the line city fathers decided that Johnny Appleseed wasn't a proper image for young people. They figured that he was a wanderer — an early hippie — and they started calling him Early Settler. But they can call him what they want, I made him and I know he's Johnny Appleseed all right.
  50. "About Lakewood Ohio". Mellott Investments LLC. Archived from the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  51. Segal, Grant (November 5, 2015). "Geiger's count on downtown for their third store". The Plain Dealer. Advance Ohio. Archived from the original on November 1, 2016. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  52. "Malley's Chocolates Corporate Headquarters". Malleys Chocolates. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  53. Trattner, Douglas. "The Production Facility and Bakery Behind Aladdin's 40 Restaurants". Cleveland Scene. Archived from the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  54. Litt, Steven (October 26, 2015). "Lakewood Solstice Steps give city a quietly spectacular lakefront amenity". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland OH). Archived from the original on July 30, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  55. Benson, John (February 17, 2022). "Lakewood tweaks $4.5 million Foster Pool renovation, plans for late summer construction". Cleveland.com. Archived from the original on March 18, 2023. Retrieved March 18, 2023.
  56. "Third Amended Charter of the City of Lakewood, Ohio" (PDF). The City of Lakewood, Ohio. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  57. Exner, Rich (March 16, 2016). "Did your neighborhood vote for Hillary Clinton or Bernie Sanders? Cuyahoga County city and precinct votes". The Plain Dealer . Archived from the original on August 6, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  58. "District". Congresswoman Marcy Kaptur. U.S. House of Representatives. December 4, 2012. Archived from the original on April 7, 2020. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  59. "Senator Nickie J. Antonio". The Ohio Senate. Archived from the original on April 26, 2020. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  60. "Representative Michael J. Skindell". The Ohio House of Representatives. Ohio House of Representatives. Archived from the original on April 23, 2020. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  61. "History of the Mayor's Office". City of Lakewood, Ohio. Archived from the original on September 26, 2020. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
  62. "Board of Education". Lakewood City Schools. SchoolPointe. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  63. "School Construction". Lakewood City Schools. SchoolPointe. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  64. "Lakewood City". National Center for Education Statistics. Archived from the original on September 26, 2023. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  65. "The History & Formation of LCA | Lakewood Catholic Academy". Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  66. "The North Coast College". The North Coast College. Archived from the original on September 27, 2023. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  67. "The Sun-Herald (Lakewood, Ohio) 1966-Current". Library of Congress. Retrieved March 7, 2024.
  68. "About Us - The Lakewood Observer". lakewoodobserver.com. Retrieved March 7, 2024.
  69. 1 2 3 4 "Routes". Archived from the original on August 20, 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2008.
  70. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  71. "Board Votes to Name Cornerstone Venue 'Richard F. Celeste Theatre'". May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  72. Welsh, James M.; Phillips, Gene D.; Hill, Rodney F. (August 27, 2010). The Francis Ford Coppola Encyclopedia. Scarecrow Press. p. 100. ISBN   978-0-8108-7651-4. Archived from the original on September 28, 2023. Retrieved October 23, 2021.
  73. "Brian Hoyer". NFL.com . Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
  74. Cabot, Mary Kay (May 16, 2013). "Cleveland Browns agree to terms with QB Brian Hoyer, a Cleveland native". Cleveland Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved January 20, 2014. Born in Lakewood and a resident of North Olmsted...
  75. "Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources | University of Wyoming". Archived from the original on October 19, 2022. Retrieved October 19, 2022.
  76. Simakis, Andrea (June 11, 2017). "Lakewood native Dave Malloy made Tony darling the "Great Comet," but what made Dave Malloy?". Cleveland.com. AdvanceOhio. Archived from the original on June 14, 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  77. "A look at Boston's Cardinal Sean O'Malley". Boston.com. February 27, 2013. Archived from the original on July 25, 2022. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  78. Larkin, Colin (2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Omnibus Press. p. 30. ISBN   9780857125958.
  79. Endress, Jeff (April 23, 2007). "Davis Celebration to Feature Renowned LHS Grad David Conte". Lakewood Observer. Archived from the original on March 31, 2022. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
  80. Washington, Julie (September 6, 2011). "Mike Douglas made me famous (sort of): Cleveland Remembers". cleveland.com. The Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  81. "Jimmie Foxx Field". Lakewood Community Baseball Association. Archived from the original on June 1, 2023. Retrieved May 31, 2023.
  82. Bennett, John. "James E. Foxx". ALL-AMERICAN GIRLS PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL LEAGUE. Society of American Baseball Research. Archived from the original on June 1, 2023. Retrieved May 31, 2023.
  83. Ingraham, Jim (December 25, 2013). "Indians: Former broadcaster Mike Hegan dies". News-Herald. Willoughby Ohio. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  84. Theiss, Evelyn (April 25, 2011). "Gary Lewis of Gary Lewis and the Playboys: Whatever happened to ...?". cleveland.com. The Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on November 11, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  85. Mark, Dawidziak (April 12, 2013). "John Lithgow returns to Akron to share stories and talk about storytelling". The Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on October 14, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  86. "Prick Rising". Archived from the original on June 21, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  87. Chabek, Dan (December 7, 1995). "Meredith's Lakewood memories are mostly unhappy". Lakewood Sun Post. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  88. Cacho, Daniela (February 13, 2015). "One of many Tri-C Alumni Contains a Creator of Children's Literature – The Voice". Cccvoice.com. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  89. Mosby, Chris (November 8, 2019). "Lakewood Soccer Player To Join Columbus Crew". Lakewood, Ohio Patch. Archived from the original on October 23, 2021. Retrieved October 23, 2021.
  90. "In memoriam". JCU Alumni Magazine. John Carroll University. November 7, 2016. Archived from the original on October 14, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  91. Portmann, Milton. "US Veterans Bureau". Library of Congress. United States of America.
  92. Rob Raines, Bob Broeg (1997). Thats a winner!. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing. ISBN   1-57167-111-0.

Further reading

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cleveland</span> City and county seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States

Cleveland, officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. Located in Northeast Ohio along the southern shore of Lake Erie, it is situated across the U.S. maritime border with Canada and lies approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of Pennsylvania. Cleveland ranks as the most populous city on Lake Erie, the second-most populous city in Ohio, and the 54th-most populous city in the U.S. with a 2020 population of 372,624. The city anchors the Cleveland metropolitan area, the 33rd-largest in the U.S. at 2.18 million residents, as well as the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton combined statistical area, the most populous in Ohio and the 17th-largest in the country with a population of 3.63 million in 2020.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cuyahoga County, Ohio</span> County in Ohio, United States

Cuyahoga County is a large urban county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. The county seat and largest city is Cleveland. As of the 2020 census, its population was 1,264,817, making it the second-most populous county in the state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bedford, Ohio</span> City in Ohio, United States

Bedford is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. The population was 13,149 at the 2020 census. It is an eastern suburb of Cleveland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brecksville, Ohio</span> City in Ohio, United States

Brecksville is a city in southern Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. The city's population was 13,635 at the 2020 census. It is a suburb of Cleveland and is included in the Cleveland-Akron-Canton Combined statistical area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Cleveland, Ohio</span> City in Ohio, United States

East Cleveland is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. The population was 13,792 at the 2020 census. It is a suburb lying east and south of Cleveland and west of Cleveland Heights.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rocky River, Ohio</span> City in Ohio, United States

Rocky River is a city in western Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. A suburb of Cleveland, it is located along the shore of Lake Erie approximately 9 miles (14 km) west of downtown Cleveland. The city is named for the Rocky River that forms its eastern border. The population was 21,755 according to the 2020 census data results.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Westlake, Ohio</span> City in Ohio, United States

Westlake is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. It is a suburb of Cleveland located 12 miles (19 km) west of downtown Cleveland. The population was 34,228 at the 2020 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority</span> Public transit agency for the city and suburbs of Cleveland, Ohio, USA

The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority is the public transit agency for Cleveland, Ohio, United States and the surrounding suburbs of Cuyahoga County. RTA is the largest transit agency in Ohio, with a ridership of 19,104,900, or about 70,900 per weekday as of the third quarter of 2023.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cleveland Clinic</span> Hospital in Ohio, United States

Cleveland Clinic is an American nonprofit academic medical center based in Cleveland, Ohio. Owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation, Cleveland Clinic was founded in 1921 by a group of faculty and alumni from the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The Clinic runs a 170-acre (69-hectare) main campus in Cleveland, as well as 14 affiliated hospitals, 20 family health centers in Northeast Ohio, 5 affiliated hospitals in Florida, and cancer center in Nevada. International operations include the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital in the United Arab Emirates and Cleveland Clinic Canada, which has two executive health and sports medicine clinics in Toronto. Another hospital campus in the United Kingdom, Cleveland Clinic London, opened to outpatients in 2021 and fully opened in 2022. Tomislav Mihaljevic is the president and CEO.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Downtown Cleveland</span> Central business district of Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Downtown Cleveland is the central business district of Cleveland, Ohio, United States. The economic and cultural center of the city and the Cleveland metropolitan area, it is Cleveland's oldest district, with its Public Square laid out by city founder General Moses Cleaveland in 1796.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kamm's Corners</span> Neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Kamm's Corners is a neighborhood on the West Side of Cleveland, Ohio. It is bounded by the streetcar suburb of Lakewood to the north, the Rocky River Reservation of the Cleveland Metroparks and the suburbs of Rocky River and Fairview Park to the west, the New York Central Railroad tracks to the east, and Puritas Road to the south. Kamm's Corners Plaza and Warren Village are the major retail centers of the neighborhood. According to the 2019 U.S. census estimate, the neighborhood has the highest concentration of Irish Americans in Cleveland and Cuyahoga County.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dan Gilbert</span> American businessman (born 1962)

Daniel Gilbert is an American billionaire, businessman, and philanthropist. He is the co-founder and majority owner of Rocket Mortgage, founder of Rock Ventures, and owner of the National Basketball Association's Cleveland Cavaliers. Gilbert owns several sports franchises, including the American Hockey League's Cleveland Monsters, and the NBA G League's Cleveland Charge. He operates the Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse in Cleveland, Ohio, home to the Cavaliers and Monsters. As of January 2023, Forbes estimated his net worth at US$18.3 billion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">HealthLine</span> Bus rapid transit line in Cleveland, Ohio

The HealthLine is a bus rapid transit (BRT) line run by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority in Cleveland and East Cleveland, Ohio, United States. The line runs along Euclid Avenue from Public Square in downtown Cleveland to the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. It began operation on October 24, 2008. Its current name was the result of a naming rights deal with the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals of Cleveland. The HealthLine is denoted with a silver color and abbreviated simply as HL on most RTA publications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kent, Ohio</span> City in Ohio, United States

Kent is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the largest city in Portage County. It is located along the Cuyahoga River in Northeast Ohio on the western edge of the county. The population was 28,215 at the 2020 Census. The city is counted as part of the Akron metropolitan area and the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton combined statistical area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of Cleveland</span>

The demographics of Cleveland have fluctuated throughout the city's history. From its founding in 1796, Cleveland's population grew to 261,353 by 1890, and to 796,841 by 1920, making it the fifth largest city in the United States at the time. By 1930, the population rose to 900,429 and, after World War II, it reached 914,808. Due to various historical factors including deindustrialization, suburbanization, and urban sprawl, Cleveland's population began decreasing in the 1960s. By 1970, the city's population was 750,903. By 1980, it was 573,822 and it had lost its position as one of the top 10 largest cities in the U.S. By 2020, the population had further fallen to 372,624. Beginning in 2018, the city's population began to flatten, after decades of decline. Additionally, between 2010 and 2020, several neighborhoods within Cleveland saw a significant population increase, most notably Downtown, but also University Circle and several West Side neighborhoods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Birdtown</span> Cleveland neighborhood

Birdtown is a neighborhood in Lakewood, a streetcar suburb of Cleveland, Ohio.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Park, Cleveland</span> Historical area of Cleveland, Ohio, United States

West Park is a historical area on the West Side of Cleveland, Ohio. Once an independent municipality, it was annexed by Cleveland after a referendum in 1923. The area covers 12.5 square miles and is bounded by West 117th Street to the east, the Rocky River Valley to the west, Brookpark Road to the South, and the streetcar suburb of Lakewood to the north. The Cleveland City Planning Commission traditionally divides West Park into four neighborhoods: Jefferson, Kamm's Corners, Bellaire–Puritas, and Hopkins.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geiger's</span>

Geiger's is a multi-unit retailer in northeast Ohio. Founded in 1932 by W. Charles "Charley" Geiger Sr., the company markets men's and women's clothing and activewear, including shoes, ski and snowboard equipment and accessories, sporting goods and tailored men's clothing at its main store and headquarters in Lakewood and stores in Chagrin Falls and Cleveland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Superior Avenue</span> Street in Cleveland, Ohio

Superior Avenue is the main wide thoroughfare and part of U.S. Route 6 in Ohio in Downtown Cleveland, the largest and most populated city of Northeast Ohio. Superior runs through the central hub of Cleveland, Public Square. However, the only traffic that can go through the square is bus, bike, and pedestrian transportation. In 2016, the city of Cleveland completed renovation of the Public Square green space and it was decided that no civilian vehicular traffic should be allowed to traverse the park area. Public Square is the "hub" because all of the main streets in downtown jut out from this central greenery. To the east and west, Superior, to the north and south Ontario Street as all the north–south roads are Streets in Cleveland (which goes back to the 1906 Street Plan Decision, and diagonally to the southwest, Euclid Avenue.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transportation in Cleveland</span>

The transportation system of Cleveland is a network that includes several modes of transportation including sidewalks, roads, public transit, bicycle paths and regional and international airports.