Sedalia, Missouri

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Sedalia, Missouri
City of Sedalia
KDRO-KPOW.JPG
Former Third National Bank building located in downtown Sedalia
Pettis County Missouri Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Sedalia Highlighted.svg
Location of Sedalia, Missouri
Coordinates: 38°42′11″N93°13′52″W / 38.70306°N 93.23111°W / 38.70306; -93.23111 Coordinates: 38°42′11″N93°13′52″W / 38.70306°N 93.23111°W / 38.70306; -93.23111
Country United States
State Missouri
County Pettis
Founded1857
Government
   Mayor John Kehde
  City AdministratorKelvin Shaw
Area
[1]
  Total13.96 sq mi (36.14 km2)
  Land13.93 sq mi (36.09 km2)
  Water0.02 sq mi (0.05 km2)
Elevation
909 ft (277 m)
Population
 (2010) [2]
  Total21,387
  Estimate 
(2019) [3]
21,629
  Density1,552.25/sq mi (599.33/km2)
Time zone UTC-6 (Central (CST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
65301-65302
Area code(s) 660
FIPS code 29-66440 [4]
GNIS feature ID0729812 [5]
U.S. Routes US 50.svg US 65.svg
Website www.cityofsedalia.com

Sedalia is a city located approximately 30 miles (48 km) south of the Missouri River and, as the county seat of Pettis County, Missouri, United States, [6] it is the principal city of the Sedalia Micropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 21,387. [7] Sedalia is also the location of the Missouri State Fair and the Scott Joplin Ragtime Festival. U.S. Routes 50 and 65 intersect in the city.

Contents

Toponymy

Until the city was incorporated in 1860 as Sedalia, it had existed only "on paper" from November 30, 1857 to October 16, 1860. According to local lore, the town council changed the name from Sedville to Sedalia in part because "towns that end in -ville don't amount to anything." (Lawrence Ditton Sr.). Here is another account:

In 1856 General Smith bought the land upon which Sedalia now stands, and founded the city. He named it after his daughter Sarah, familiarly known as "Sed". Smith remarked that he had previously named a flatboat for her elder sister Martha. He first chose the name Sedville but changed it to Sedalia, [8] following the suggestion of a friend, Josiah Dent, of St. Louis. Dent suggested the change for the sake of euphony. [9]

History

Indigenous peoples lived along the Missouri River and its tributaries for thousands of years before European contact. Historians believe the entire area around Sedalia was long occupied by the Osage (among historical American Indian tribes). When the land was first settled by European Americans, bands of Shawnee, who had migrated from east of the Mississippi River, lived in the vicinity of Sedalia. [10]

The area that became the European-American city of Sedalia was founded by General George Rappeen Smith (1804–1879), who also founded nearby Smithton, Missouri. He filed plans for the official record on November 30, 1857, and gave the area the name Sedville. [11] The original plat included the land from today's Missouri Pacific Railroad south to Third Street.

The version jointly filed by General Smith and David W. Bouldin on October 16, 1860, displayed the city extending from Clay Street to the north and to Smith Street (today's Third Street) in the south, and from Missouri Street in the west to Washington Street in the east; and, although Smith and Bouldin predicted that the city would grow to the north, it grew in a southern direction. [12]

Railhead

Following a victory for those proposing the "ridge route" for the railway over those advocating the "river route", the railway reached Sedalia in January 1861. [13] Sedalia's early prosperity was directly related to the railroad industry. Many jobs were associated with men maintaining tracks and operating large and varied machine shops run by both the Missouri Pacific and the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad lines. The Missouri-Kansas & Texas Railroad was widely known as the "KATY," from its "K-T" stock exchange code.

Sedalia was an important railhead for the massive Texas cattle drive of 1866. It maintained stockyards to receive cattle from drives and shipping through much of the 19th century.

Chicago slaughterhouses were willing to pay almost any price [for beef]—longhorns were worth three to four dollars each on the Llano Estacado while in Chicago a steer was worth ten times that amount. It cost about a dollar per head to drive a herd northward to a railroad, and thus with these simple economics, the long drive and the cattle bonanza got its start.
During the spring and summer of 1866, some 260,000 head followed the trail to Sedalia, Missouri, the terminus of the Missouri Pacific Railroad." (McComb, 1989, p.84).

For nearly a century, Sedalia's economy was tied to the railroads. By the end of the 19th century, the MK&T had numerous buildings and a wide variety of workers in the city: the MK&T shops, stockyards, roundhouse, and the hospital for employees working in the Sedalia Division were among the Katy's properties in Sedalia.

After the KATY reduced its operations in the 20th century, its railroad right-of-way through much of Missouri was converted to a 240-mile multi-use trail. The KATY Trail is used by bikers, walkers and horseback riders. This has been the largest new trail developed in the nation among the late 20th-century federal and state "Rails to Trails" projects.

Civil War

During the Civil War, the U.S. Army had a small garrison in the area, adding to its boomtown atmosphere of accelerated development as merchants and traders attracted to the military business came to the area. In the postbellum period, two railroads were constructed connecting it to other locations, and Sedalia grew at a rapid pace, with the rough energy of travelers and cowboys. From 1866 to 1874, it was a railhead terminus for cattle drives, and stockyards occupied a large area. At the same time, the town established schools (racially segregated for white and black children), churches, and other civic amenities. [14]

Sedalia was made a military post early in the war and remained such until its close in 1865. For this reason it was an active theater of operations for military supplies and an objective point for capture by "the boys in gray." Confederate raids into Pettis County, and the offensive and defensive activities of Union troops against them, kept the inhabitants of Sedalia in [a] high state of excitement. The progress of the city was retarded [during that time]. Sentiment in the county was about evenly divided. [15]

On October 15, 1864, Shelby's Confederate cavalry brigade surrounded the Union post of Sedalia. The post commander, Colonel John D. Crawford, fled. Captain Oscar B. Queen of Company M, 7th Cavalry, Missouri State Militia, surrendered the post shortly thereafter. [16] Missouri State Guard Brigadier-General M. Jeff Thompson subsequently paroled the prisoners of war and moved on, leaving Sedalia to itself. [17]

Late 19th century

Sedalia in 1869 Sedalia Ruger Map 1869.jpg
Sedalia in 1869

While the Civil War delayed development of the town in some respects, Sedalia was the terminus of the railroad for three years. Once the war was over, many of the thousands of Union soldiers who had been stationed more or less permanently at Sedalia and recognized its potential, made the choice to migrate there from their former homes in other areas. The population grew rapidly. [18]

In the late 19th century, Sedalia was well known as a center of vice, especially prostitution, which accompanied its large floating class of railroad workers and commercial travelers. In 1877 the St. Louis Post-Dispatch called Sedalia the "Sodom and Gomorrah of the nineteenth century."[ citation needed ] Middle-class businessmen made money off illegal prostitution as building owners and lessees; others did business with people in the industry, who banked, used lawyers, etc., in town. Residents were reluctant to raise taxes and services were provided from the fines charged to prostitutes.[ citation needed ]

In the 1870s brothels were distributed throughout the city, but in the 1890s, they became more concentrated above businesses on West Main Street, as the middle class tried to isolate less desirable elements in town. [19] These establishments also employed musicians, particularly piano players, contributing to a thriving musical culture. It fostered the development of many artists, including the renowned ragtime composer Scott Joplin.

20th and 21st centuries

While the city attracted many commercial travelers and railroad workers, its population of married couples and families also grew. By 1900 its population of more than 15,000 made it the sixth-largest city in the state. The entrepreneurial middle class created more formal separations between its residential areas and those of working class whites and African Americans. [14]

During World War II, the military built Sedalia Glider Base in Johnson County to the west. After the war, this facility was transferred to the Strategic Air Command. It was converted to a bomber base, the Whiteman Air Force Base, named after 2nd Lt. George A. Whiteman, an Army Air Corps pilot who was killed during the 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. After a massive construction program, the base became the center of 150 ICBM silos and administrative offices. These were decommissioned in the 1990s.

Sedalia is home to the nation's first sheltered workshop, which opened in 1965.

The expansion of the railroad and cattle drives in the late 19th century brought many male laborers to the rough town on the frontier. It sparked the related rise of a notorious "red light district," with numerous prostitutes who did business with the men in saloons and brothels, which also featured musical entertainments.

As more families settled in the area, they made the culture more stable, creating institutions such as schools and churches. In the late 20th century, structural changes in the railroads meant the loss of many industrial jobs, but the city has held on to a population close to its 1960 peak while developing new bases for the economy. The city is informally known as the "Trailer Capital of the Midwest," due to the high number of trailer manufacturers and dealers in the area.

Residents have emphasized the colorful history of the town for heritage tourism, and identified many significant historic structures for state and national recognition. Good quality retail and craft items are sold in the historic districts and buildings of the city.

Registered Historic Places

The following Sedalia locations have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places: [20]

Geography

Sedalia is located at 38°42'11" North, 93°13'52" West (38.702918, -93.231147). [34] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.32 square miles (34.50 km2), of which 13.29 square miles (34.42 km2) is land and 0.03 square miles (0.08 km2) is water. [35]

Climate

Sedalia has a typical temperate climate. As with most continental climates, the micropolitan area has four seasons. Springs in Sedalia are noted for their rainy days and variable temperatures. Thunderstorms are common and tornadoes occur during this time of year. Summers are usually hot and humid, with droughts occurring during several summers. Autumns are usually cool and rainy, although several days of warm weather are not uncommon. Winters are generally cold, with snow accumulating several days of the winter season. Although not as common, ice storms occur as well.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1870 4,560
1880 9,561109.7%
1890 14,06847.1%
1900 15,2318.3%
1910 17,82217.0%
1920 21,14418.6%
1930 20,806−1.6%
1940 20,428−1.8%
1950 20,354−0.4%
1960 23,87417.3%
1970 22,847−4.3%
1980 20,927−8.4%
1990 19,800−5.4%
2000 20,3392.7%
2010 21,3875.2%
2019 (est.)21,629 [3] 1.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [36]
1881 advertisement for the K-T line Missouri-Kansas-Texas Advertisement 1881.jpg
1881 advertisement for the K-T line

Sedalia had a population of around 300 people in 1860, and what was described as a "bona fide population" of around 1,000 in 1865. [37] [38] Sedalia has recently become home to many immigrants from Russia or former Soviet bloc nations, who may account for up to 15% of the population. [39] Most of the Russian and Ukrainian immigrants who live in Sedalia are members of one of the seven Pentecostal Churches there. [40]

2010 census

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 21,387 people, 8,850 households, and 5,226 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,609.3 inhabitants per square mile (621.4/km2). There were 9,979 housing units at an average density of 750.9 per square mile (289.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.3% White, 5.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.2% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.0% of the population.

There were 8,850 households, of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.3% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.9% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.00.

The median age in the city was 34.6 years. 25% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26% were from 25 to 44; 23% were from 45 to 64; and 15% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48% male and 52% female.

2000 census

As of the census [4] of 2000, there were 20,339 people in the city, organized into 8,628 households and 5,228 families. The population density was 1,700.8 people per square mile (656.6/km2). There were 9,419 housing units at an average density of 787.6 per square mile (304.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.6% White, 5.0% African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% Native American, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.8% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. 5.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,628 households, out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.4% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.7% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,641, and the median income for a family was $34,938. Males had a median income of $28,208 versus $19,520 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,931. 15.3% of the population and 12.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.8% of those under the age of 18 and 10.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Culture

Carnegie Library

The Sedalia Public Library was the first Carnegie Grant awarded in Missouri. The Board of Trustees received word of the $50,000 grant in the fall of 1899. After securing the property on which to build, and having gained voter approval of a tax to support the library, the Board laid the cornerstone in 1900. The building was completed in July 1901. [41] Dedicated in 1901, the library is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Museums

Sedalia is home to the Daum Museum of Contemporary Art, [42] named after its primary benefactor, Sedalia radiologist and art collector Harold Daum. The museum, located on the State Fair Community College campus, is home to the works of many famous artists including Dale Chihuly (1941–), Sam Francis (1923–1994), Helen Frankenthaler (1928–), Sol LeWitt (1928–2007), Robert Motherwell (1915–1991), Julian Schnabel (1951–), and Andy Warhol (1928–1987).

The 16,000-square-foot (1,500 m2) museum, designed by St. Louis-based Gunn & Smith Architects, features three stories of gallery space—including a 3,400-square-foot (320 m2) main gallery with a translucent clerestory, a cantilevered stairway, a two-story atrium, and an open-air sculpture court. [43] It features both permanent displays as well as temporary displays from world-renowned artists. [44]

Poster stamp for the Missouri State Fair, c.1930. USA-Poster-stamp c1930 Missouri State Fair.jpg
Poster stamp for the Missouri State Fair, c.1930.

Sedalia is also home to The Pettis County Museum and Historical Society, located at 228 Dundee Ave. The building was once a Jewish Synagogue and features many Historical artifacts from all periods of Pettis County history. It is currently open on Friday and Saturday from 1:00pm to 4:00pm, and by appointment at other times.

State Fair

Since 1901, the Missouri State Fair has been held in Sedalia every August, with the exception of 1943 and 1944 because of World War II. Many singers and actors make the annual trip to the fair. Ronald Reagan, George W. Bush and other presidents have given speeches on the fairgrounds, though not during the State Fair.

In 1974, the Missouri State Fairgrounds was the site of the Ozark Music Festival, one of the largest but least remembered major music festivals of the 1970s. While the plan was for the pop/rock/bluegrass festival's selling about 50,000 tickets, an influx of about 184,000 fans and many rock bands strained the capacity of the fairgrounds and the city. Some estimates put the crowd count at 350,000. It counts as one of the largest music events (Rock Festivals) in history. The festival, hosted by Wolfman Jack, took out a full-page ad in Rolling Stone magazine and attracted people from outside the region.

Film

The 1948 film Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay! premiered at Fox Theatres. The premiere was attended by Lon McCallister, Colleen Townsend, Luanne Hogan and Betty Ann Lynn. A crowd of over 10,000 gathered to watch the celebrities paraded through downtown Sedalia on a donkey cart. [45]

In the American television movie The Day After (1983), aired by ABC, Sedalia is destroyed when the Soviet Union attacks the Minuteman II Missile silos around the area. At the time of the movie's release, 150 of the missiles were located in the Sedalia area in underground silos. They had been sited there since activation in early 1964 of the first Minuteman missiles under the control of the 351st Missile Wing located at Whiteman Air Force Base. The release of the movie led to a significant (if belated) increase in local community concern about the missiles. Concern remained high until all the missiles were dismantled between 1992 and 1997 as a result of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty between the United States and Russia.

Minuteman II missile launch Minuteman II.jpg
Minuteman II missile launch

Sedalia was featured in two widely seen 1977 films: Heroes , starring Henry Winkler and Harrison Ford; and the made-for-TV movie Scott Joplin , starring Billy Dee Williams. [46]

Sedalia was mentioned briefly in the motion picture MASH . Parts of the 1941 film Bad Men of Missouri are set in Sedalia. The city was mentioned in Old Yeller .

Television

The classic, long running Western series Rawhide , which ran on CBS from 1959 to 1966, featured Sedalia as a destination for cattle drives. It starred Eric Fleming as the trail boss, Gil Favor, and the emerging Clint Eastwood as the "ramrod" (i.e., second in charge), Rowdy Yates.

Scott Joplin Ragtime Festival, Sedalia, 1990 1990SedaliaJoplinFestBanjoPiano.jpg
Scott Joplin Ragtime Festival, Sedalia, 1990

Music

Sedalia is well known as the adopted home of ragtime music's most well known musician and stylist Scott Joplin. Joplin's famous Maple Leaf Rag was named for a saloon in Sedalia. [47] Sedalia was also the hometown to Joe Harris, vocalist and trombonist with Benny Goodman and His Orchestra and later MGM Studios. [48]

In 1935, in the midst of the Great Depression, which affected Sedalia severely, Abe Rosenthal along with other music-loving residents formed the Sedalia Symphony Society and established a symphony orchestra, which, as the second oldest in Missouri, celebrated its 75th season in 2009–2010.

Sedalia has been the host to several rock and roll events, such as the Ozark Music Festival in 1974, and the Delicious Rox Festival in 2006.

Little Sister of Liberty

In 1950, to celebrate its fortieth anniversary—which had the theme of "Strengthen the Arm of Liberty" [49] —the Boy Scouts of America donated two hundred 8 ft 6in (260 cm) copper replicas of the Statue of Liberty, which were known collectively as the "Little Sisters of Liberty", to various communities in 39 states. The project was the brainchild of the Scout Commissioner of the (then) Kansas City Area Council, Kansas City businessman J.P. Whitaker.

One of the 200 replicas was donated to Sedalia; and it was installed at the County Courthouse. [50] [51]

Boy Scouts of America

According to The History of the Boy Scouts of America (William D. Murray, 1937), the first Boy Scout Troop in Missouri (and one of the first in the nation) was formed in Sedalia in 1909, a year before the national organization was officially chartered on February 8, 1910.

A Sedalia Christmas

A Sedalia Christmas is a multi-media play written in celebration of the Christmas traditions and celebrations of Sedalia from 1866 to 1969. [52] It was written by Rebecca Imhauser, a Sedalia native. Local actors and actresses [53] portray Sedalians [54] and the events that shaped their lives. Historic photos are projected during the play to represent pivotal time frames, with an emphasis on Christmas during the depression and World War II eras. Sedalia's Christmas heritage is celebrated through favorite holiday and patriotic songs, as well as choreographed dance numbers. This musical is set in Sedalia. Imhauser, a member of the Board of the Liberty Center Arts Association, created the show in 2008, [55] basing it on her own knowledge, extensive research of Sedalia's history and from her book All Along Ohio Street. The musical was first performed in the Liberty Center, a theater in downtown Sedalia, on December 5, 2008. It was shown again in December 2009 [56] with an improved script and a slightly altered cast.

Media

Newspapers

A number of newspapers have been published in Sedalia, in alphabetical order:

Radio stations

Television stations

Education

Sedalia School District 200 administers five elementary schools, two middle schools, and Smith-Cotton High School. [57] Sacred Heart High School [58] and St. Paul's Lutheran School [59] are private institutions.

State Fair Community College is a public two-year institution offering post-secondary college level courses.

George R. Smith College, a historically black college (HBCU), operated from 1894 until it burned down on April 26, 1925. [60]

The Sedalia Business College and Institute of Penmanship was founded in 1881. It was the predecessor of Robbins' Business College, founded by Clark W. Robbins (1858–1918) in 1883. This evolved into Central Business College. [61]

Transportation

Air

Train

Notable residents

See also

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References

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  2. 1 2 "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2012-07-08.
  3. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
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  6. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  7. 2010 United States Census [ dead link ]
  8. Also christening the city "The Queen of the Prairies" (Ihrig, et al., 1960, p.9).
  9. "GEORGE R. SMITH", Rootsweb, accessed 10 February 2008. Website states content was "excerpted" from Conard, H.L. (ed), Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri (in Six Volumes), The Southern History Company, (New York), 1901; the volume and page numbers were not cited.
  10. Ihrig, et al., 1960, p.5.
  11. Ihrig, et al., 1960, p.8.
  12. Ihrig, et al., 1960, pp.2, 8.
  13. Ihrig, et al., 1960, p.7.
  14. 1 2 Whites, LeeAnn; Neth, Mary; Kremer, Gary R. (June 14, 2004). Ladies of the Evening: Prostitution and Class in a 19th-century Railroad Town. Women in Missouri History: In Search of Power and Influence. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri. p.  152. ISBN   0-8262-1526-2.
  15. Ihrig, et al., 1960, p.10.
  16. "From Sedalia: It's Late Defence and Capture" (Missouri Democrat, October ?, 1864) Archived 2013-05-21 at Wikiwix, History Sites
  17. Mueller, (2007), pp.85–86
  18. Ihrig, et al., 1960, p.13.
  19. Whites (2004), "Ladies of the Evening," pp. 155-157
  20. "Registered Historic Places in Pettis County, MO", Wikipedia
  21. Building at 217 West Main Street NRHP nomination
  22. 1 2 "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 4/11/11 through 4/15/11. National Park Service. 2011-04-22.
  23. William H. Gentry House NRHP nomination
  24. 1 2 "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  25. NRHP nomination
  26. NRHP nomination
  27. Hotel Bothwell NRHP nomination
  28. McVey School NRHP nomination
  29. Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad Depot NRHP nomination
  30. Missouri/Sedalia Trust Company NRHP nomination
  31. Missouri State Fairgrounds Historic District NRHP nomination
  32. Sedalia Commercial Historic District NRHP nomination
  33. Sedalia Public Library NRHP nomination
  34. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  35. "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
  36. Ihrig et al., (1960 p. 123) also noted "There is considerable disagreement about the 1950 census, as critics contend that many people were missed. The "Survey on [ sic ] Buying Power" [viz., the Sales and Marketing Management magazine's annual Survey of Buying Power] indicates an estimated population of 26,300 on January 1, 1958. The 1960 census had not been taken when this [centenary] history was written, but the 1960 population of Sedalia was estimated to be between 28,000 and 30,000."
  37. Ihrig et al. (1960 p. 12)
  38. The significance of the description of "bona fide population" is that "from 1861 to 1864 Missouri was under martial law and Sedalia, as a military post, was governed by the post commander. There was no mayor, council or executive or legislative body except the military power" (Ihrig et al., 1960 p.12).
  39. http://russianamericanbusiness.org/web_CURRENT/articles/82/1/The-Most-Russian-City-in-the-U.S.
  40. "‘I’ve seen hell, and it is real’ - Ukrainian Pentecostals in the American Midwest ..." at Meduza — The Real Russia. Today. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  41. Sedalia Public Library - Sedalia, MO [lib-web-cats]
  42. Kinzer, S., " IN THE MIDDLE; What's This? An Art Boom In the Heartland", New York Times, (24 April 2002), pp.E1–E2.
  43. Imhauser, Rebecca Carr (2013). Legendary Locals of Sedalia, Missouri. ISBN   9781467100403 . Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  44. "Scott Joplin (1977)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
  45. James Lincoln Collier, Benny Goodman and the Swing Era, Oxford University Press, page 199
  46. Ibid
  47. Attoun, M., "Little Sisters of Liberty", Scouting, (October 2007)
  48. Boy Scouts of America, Troop 101, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Replica Statue of Liberty Search (includes a photograph of Sedalia's "Little Sister of Liberty") Archived 2008-02-10 at the Wayback Machine
  49. The following unsigned tribute appeared on the plaque affixed to its base:
    WITH THE FAITH AND COURAGE OF
    THEIR FOREFATHERS WHO MADE
    POSSIBLE THE FREEDOM OF THESE
    UNITED STATES
    THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA
    DEDICATE THIS REPLICA OF THE
    STATUE OF LIBERTY AS A PLEDGE
    OF EVERLASTING FIDELITY AND
    LOYALTY:
    40TH ANNIVERSARY CRUSADE TO
    STRENGTHEN THE ARM OF LIBERTY
    1950
    Taken from the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Inventory of American Sculpture, Control Number MO000269.
  50. "A Sedalia Christmas" Celebrates Local Holiday Traditions
  51. LCAA Auditions for A Sedalia Christmas
  52. Legendary Locals of Sedalia, Missouri By Rebecca Carr Imhauser (Google Books)
  53. Becky Carr Imhauser personal website
  54. Missouri Life Magazine, page 25
  55. "Sedalia 200 School District". Greatschools. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  56. "Homepage". Sacred Heart School. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  57. "Homepage". Sedalia St. Paul's Lutheran School. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  58. "George R. Smith College". Lost Colleges. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  59. Conroy, (2009), pp. 15–25.

Further reading