Thorson's rule (named after Gunnar Thorson by S. A. Mileikovsky in 1971) [plankton-feeding]) and widely dispersing larvae, whereas at high latitudes such organisms tend to produce fewer and larger lecithotrophic (yolk-feeding) eggs and larger offspring, often by viviparity or ovoviviparity, which are often brooded.is an ecogeographical rule which states that benthic marine invertebrates at low latitudes tend to produce large numbers of eggs developing to pelagic (often planktotrophic
The rule was originally established for marine bottom invertebrates, but it also applies to a group of parasitic flatworms, monogenean ectoparasites on the gills of marine fish.Most low-latitude species of Monogenea produce large numbers of ciliated larvae. However, at high latitudes, species of the entirely viviparous family Gyrodactylidae, which produce few nonciliated offspring and are very rare at low latitudes, represent the majority of gill Monogenea, i.e., about 80–90% of all species at high northern latitudes, and about one third of all species in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters, against less than 1% in tropical waters. Data compiled by A.V. Gusev in 1978 indicates that Gyrodactylidae may also be more common in cold than tropical freshwater systems, suggesting that Thorson's rule may apply to freshwater invertebrates.
There are exceptions to the rule, such as ascoglossan snails: tropical ascoglossans have a higher incidence of lecithotrophy and direct development than temperate species.A study in 2001 indicated that two factors are important for Thorson's rule to be valid for marine gastropods: 1) the habitat must include rocky substrates, because soft-bottom habitats appear to favour non-pelagic development; and 2) a diverse assemblage of taxa need to be compared to avoid the problem of phyletic constraints, which could limit the evolution of different developmental modes.
The temperature gradient from warm surface waters to the deep sea is similar to that along latitudinal gradients. A gradient as described by Thorson's rule may therefore be expected. However, evidence for such a gradient is ambiguous;Gyrodactylidae have not yet been found in the deep sea.
Several explanations of the rule have been given. They include:
Most of these explanations can be excluded for the Monogenea, whose larvae are never planktotrophic (therefore eliminating explanations 1 and 2), their larvae are always short-lived (3), Gyrodactylidae are most common not only close to melting ice but in cold seas generally (5). Explanation 6 is unlikely, because small organisms are common in cold seas, Gyrodactylidae are among the smallest Monogenea (7), and Monogenea do not possess calcareous skeletons (8). The conclusion is that the most likely explanation for the Monogenea (and by implication for other groups) is that small larvae cannot locate suitable habitats at low temperatures, where physiological including sensory processes are slowed, and/or that low temperatures prevent the production of sufficient numbers of pelagic larvae, which would be necessary to find suitable habitats in the vast oceanic spaces.
Rapoport's rule states that latitudinal ranges of species are generally smaller at low than at high latitudes. Thorson's rule contradicts this rule, because species disperse more widely at low than at high latitudes, supplementing much evidence against the generality of Rapoport's rule and for the fact that tropical species often have wider geographical ranges than high latitude species.
Mysida is an order of small, shrimp-like crustaceans in the malacostracan superorder Peracarida. Their common name opossum shrimps stems from the presence of a brood pouch or "marsupium" in females. The fact that the larvae are reared in this pouch and are not free-swimming characterises the order. The mysid's head bears a pair of stalked eyes and two pairs of antennae. The thorax consists of eight segments each bearing branching limbs, the whole concealed beneath a protective carapace and the abdomen has six segments and usually further small limbs.
Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, while populations and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions. Although originally formulated in terms of species within a genus, it has often been recast in terms of populations within a species. It is also often cast in terms of latitude. It is possible that the rule also applies to some plants, such as Rapicactus.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth. The word "pelagic" is derived from Ancient Greek πέλαγος (pélagos) 'open sea'. The pelagic zone can be thought of in terms of an imaginary cylinder or water column that goes from the surface of the sea almost to the bottom. Conditions in the water column change with distance from the surface (depth): the pressure increases; the temperature and amount of light decreases; the salinity and amount of dissolved oxygen, as well as micronutrients such as iron, magnesium and calcium, all change. Rather like the Earth's atmosphere, but depending on how deep the water is, the water column can be divided vertically into up to five different layers, as illustrated on the right.
Meroplankton are a wide variety of aquatic organisms which have both planktonic and benthic stages in their life cycles. Much of the meroplankton consists of larval stages of larger organism. Meroplankton can be contrasted with holoplankton, which are planktonic organisms that stay in the pelagic zone as plankton throughout their entire life cycle.
Rapoport's rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that latitudinal ranges of plants and animals are generally smaller at lower latitudes than at higher latitudes.
In marine environments, a nursery habitat is a subset of all habitats where juveniles of a species occur, having a greater level of productivity per unit area than other juvenile habitats. Mangroves, salt marshes and seagrass are typical nursery habitats for a range of marine species. Some species will use nonvegetated sites, such as Yellow Eyed Mullet, Blue Sprat and Flounder.
Species richness, or biodiversity, increases from the poles to the tropics for a wide variety of terrestrial and marine organisms, often referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG). The LDG is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology. The LDG has been observed to varying degrees in Earth's past. A parallel trend has been found with elevation, though this is less well-studied
A lake ecosystem includes biotic (living) plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions. Lake ecosystems are a prime example of lentic ecosystems. Lentic refers to stationary or relatively still water, from the Latin lentus, which means sluggish. Lentic waters range from ponds to lakes to wetlands, and much of this article applies to lentic ecosystems in general. Lentic ecosystems can be compared with lotic ecosystems, which involve flowing terrestrial waters such as rivers and streams. Together, these two fields form the more general study area of freshwater or aquatic ecology.
The hypothesis of effective evolutionary time attempts to explain gradients, in particular latitudinal gradients, in species diversity. It was originally named "time hypothesis".
Marine larval ecology is the study of the factors influencing dispersing larvae, which many marine invertebrates and fishes have. Marine animals with a larva typically release many larvae into the water column, where the larvae develop before metamorphosing into adults.
Gunnar Axel Wright Thorson was a Danish marine zoologist and ecologist, who studied at the University of Copenhagen under the professors C.G. Johannes Petersen, August Krogh, Theodor Mortensen, Ragnar Spärck and Carl Wesenberg-Lund. In 1957, Thorson was appointed professor of marine biology at the University of Copenhagen.
In zoology, deep-sea gigantism is the tendency for species of invertebrates and other deep-sea dwelling animals to be larger than their shallower-water relatives. Proposed explanations for this type of gigantism include colder temperature, food scarcity, reduced predation pressure and increased dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep sea. The inaccessibility of abyssal habitats has hindered the study of this topic.
Klaus Rohde is a German biologist at the University of New England (UNE), Australia, known particularly for his work on marine parasitology, evolutionary ecology/zoogeography, and phylogeny/ultrastructure of lower invertebrates.
Parborlasia corrugatus is a proboscis worm in the family Cerebratulidae. This species of proboscis or ribbon worm can grow to 2 metres in length, and lives in marine environments down to 3,590 metres (11,780 ft). This scavenger and predator is widely distributed in cold southern oceans.
The reef starfish is a species of starfish found in the shallow waters of the rocky intertidal of New Zealand. Typically, the animal is endemic to the west coast shores of the North and South Islands, where wave action is increased. They do not usually inhabit ecosystems that have reduced wave action and calm conditions as they prefer a higher-energy environment. These marine invertebrates range in color from pink to purple, but can also be orange. They typically have eleven arms, but sometimes they may have either ten or twelve. As full-grown adults, they are 8 to 10 cm in diameter.
Odontaster validus is a species of sea star in the family Odontasteridae. Its range includes the Southern Ocean and the seas around the mainland and islands of Antarctica.
Adamussium is a monotypic genus of bivalve molluscs in the large family of scallops, the Pectinidae. The Antarctic scallop is the only species in the genus though its exact relationship to other members of the family is unclear. It is found in the ice-cold seas surrounding Antarctica, sometimes at great depths.
The wildlife of Antarctica are extremophiles, having to adapt to the dryness, low temperatures, and high exposure common in Antarctica. The extreme weather of the interior contrasts to the relatively mild conditions on the Antarctic Peninsula and the subantarctic islands, which have warmer temperatures and more liquid water. Much of the ocean around the mainland is covered by sea ice. The oceans themselves are a more stable environment for life, both in the water column and on the seabed.
A biological rule or biological law is a generalized law, principle, or rule of thumb formulated to describe patterns observed in living organisms. Biological rules and laws are often developed as succinct, broadly applicable ways to explain complex phenomena or salient observations about the ecology and biogeographical distributions of plant and animal species around the world, though they have been proposed for or extended to all types of organisms. Many of these regularities of ecology and biogeography are named after the biologists who first described them.
Benthic-pelagic coupling are processes that connect the benthic zone and the pelagic zone through the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients. These processes play a prominent role in both freshwater and marine ecosystems and are influenced by a number of chemical, biological, and physical forces that are crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs.