Legality of bestiality by country or territory

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Legality of bestiality by country or territory concerns the laws governing humans performing sex acts with non-human animals. Laws against humans performing sex acts on animals, where they exist, are concerned with the actual act, which it commonly refers to as bestiality , rather than the sexual attraction to animals. For this reason, prohibitions of zoophilic pornography are more varied; they may be unlawful if an actual sex act with an animal is involved, but the status is not clear-cut if there is a mere representation, such as a painting or cartoon. In that case, normal obscenity laws will normally apply. All zoophilic imagery is widely regarded as pornography.

Contents

Objectives

Laws on bestiality tend to be shaped by animal welfare concerns, moral views, and cultural beliefs. In many cultures, humans are seen as fundamentally different from other animals and having sex with animals is seen as defilement. [1]

One of the primary critiques of bestiality is that it is harmful to animals and necessarily abusive, because animals are unable to give or withhold consent. [2]

Background

International differences

Some jurisdictions list laws very clearly, such as England and Wales, which specifically prohibits penetration of a human being by the penis of an animal, and penetration of an animal by a human's penis. [3]

By contrast, many countries and US states are less precise about the scope of law in that they outlaw sex with animals, without defining what constitutes "sex".

Even if bestiality is not explicitly prohibited, there are often many other laws which can be used to effectively prosecute cases. For example, most countries have animal cruelty laws, and a prosecutor will argue that all zoophilia activity is animal abuse. [4] In some U.S. states, a person who engages in bestiality can be charged with animal cruelty. [5]

Prohibitions without specific bestiality statutes

Some countries have a range of laws on their books. Sometimes sodomy laws or "crime against nature" laws are used to prosecute people who have sex with animals.

In the case of Kenneth Pinyan, who died from injuries sustained from receiving anal sex from a horse, local law enforcement found that there were no laws that allowed them to prosecute his friend, who had filmed the event and also allowed himself to be sodomized by the horse. The friend was prosecuted for trespassing. That case prompted the Washington State legislature to draw up legislation outlawing sex with animals. [6]

In a 2005 Florida case, a man who had sex with his dog was charged with disorderly conduct, since the state had no anti-bestiality laws on the books at the time. [7] On 1 October 2011, the state of Florida State Law 828.126, F.S went into effect, banning sex with animals. [8]

Laws against sex with animals

Aggrawal has discussed extensively on laws against bestiality. [9] It is permitted in a few countries although ordinary animal treatment laws apply.

There are also commonly laws against forcing another person to engage in sexual activity with other animals, especially minors (usually considered equivalent to rape), and laws related to exposing others (either non-consensually or minors) to the sight of a sexual act. In some jurisdictions, laws against zoophilia conduct also include provisions for seizure of animals where convicted.

Zoophilic pornography

The legality of pornography has three components: legality of production, legality of sale and transportation, and legality of ownership. In general, animal pornography is legal to produce where both zoophilic activity and the creation of pornography in general are legal. Laws concerning sale, transmission and ownership vary more widely.

Erotic art, such as animal pornography in cartoons and the like, which does not require the recording of an actual sexual act, are not usually considered sex with animals by the law, and so their status depends upon more general laws such as legal limits upon obscenity or pornography alone, and the thin line between erotic art and pornography.

National laws

Laws affecting zoophilic activities vary across different countries and other sub-national jurisdictions. In general, these laws regulate performing or receiving sexual activity from non-human animals, or the sale, distribution, and ownership of zoophilic pornography.


Africa

Northern Africa

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria ❌ Illegal since 8 June 1966

Penalty: Maximum of three years in prison and a fine 10,000 Algerian dinars [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of the Canary Islands.svg Canary Islands
(Autonomous community of Spain)
❌ Illegal since 30 March 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry [11] [12]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag Ceuta.svg Ceuta
(Autonomous city of Spain)
❌ Illegal since 30 March 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry [11] [12]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Libya.svg Libya ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Madeira.svg Madeira
(Autonomous region of Portugal)
❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Melilla.svg Melilla
(Autonomous city of Spain)
❌ Illegal since 30 March 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry [11] [12]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of South Sudan.svg South Sudan ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Western Africa

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Benin.svg Benin ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg Burkina Faso ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Cape Verde.svg Cabo Verde ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg Ivory Coast ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of The Gambia.svg Gambia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Ghana.svg Ghana ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Guinea.svg Guinea ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg Guinea-Bissau ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Liberia.svg Liberia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Mali.svg Mali ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Mauritania.svg Mauritania ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Niger.svg Niger ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Senegal.svg Senegal ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg Sierra Leone ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Togo.svg Togo ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Central Africa

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years' imprisonment [13]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg Central African Republic ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Chad.svg Chad ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg Democratic Republic of the Congo Yes check.svg Legal [14] [ dead link ][ dubious ]❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg Equatorial Guinea ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Gabon.svg Gabon ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Republic of the Congo ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg São Tomé and Príncipe ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Southeast Africa

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Burundi.svg Burundi ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Minimum of one year's imprisonment, maximum of three years' imprisonment, fine of fifty thousand to one hundred thousand francs, or both [15]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment or the common law offense [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Rwanda.svg Rwanda ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of two years' imprisonment [16]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzania ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal

Horn of Africa

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Djibouti.svg Djibouti ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Eritrea.svg Eritrea ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of six months in prison and a fine 20,000 Nakfas [17]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Imprisonment [18]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Somaliland.svg Somaliland ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal

Indian Ocean States

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of the Commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg British Indian Ocean Territory
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Comoros.svg Comoros ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(Overseas territory of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Madagascar.svg Madagascar Yes check.svg Legal [14] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years' imprisonment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of France.svg Mayotte
(Overseas department of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of France.svg Réunion
(Overseas department of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Seychelles.svg Seychelles ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Southern Africa

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Angola.svg Angola Yes check.svg Legal [14] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Botswana.svg Botswana ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of seven years' imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Eswatini.svg Eswatini ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Lesotho.svg Lesotho ❌ Illegal [20] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Malawi.svg Malawi ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment, with or without corporal punishment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique Yes check.svg Legal [14] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Determined by judge [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Determined by judge [21]

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years in prison and R200,000 fine [22]

❓ Unknown
Flag of Zambia.svg Zambia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwe ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Up to one year in prison [23]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Americas

North America

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Bermuda.svg Bermuda
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Up to 10 years in prison [24]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Greenland.svg Greenland
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre et Miquelon
(Overseas collectivity of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Mexico
Country, federal district, or stateBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico N/AN/AN/A
Flag of Aguascalientes.svg Aguascalientes ❌ Illegal since 2009 [25]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Baja California.svg Baja California ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Baja California Sur.svg Baja California Sur ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Campeche.svg Campeche ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Chiapas.svg Chiapas ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Chihuahua.svg Chihuahua ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Coahuila.svg Coahuila ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Colima.svg Colima ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Durango.png Durango ❌ Illegal since 2013 [26]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Guanajuato Flag.svg Guanajuato ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Guerrero.svg Guerrero ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Hidalgo.svg Hidalgo ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Jalisco.svg Jalisco ❌ Illegal since 2012 [27]

Penalty: ❓ unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Michoacan.svg Michoacán ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Morelos.svg Morelos ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the State of Mexico.svg Mexico ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Mexico City.svg Mexico City ❌ Illegal [28]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Nayarit.svg Nayarit ❌ Illegal since 2006 [29]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Nuevo Leon.svg Nuevo León ❌ Illegal since 2016 [30]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Oaxaca.svg Oaxaca ❌ Illegal since 2015

Penalty: Maximum of one year in prison and a fine of 800 days of salary [31]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Puebla.svg Puebla ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Queretaro.svg Querétaro ❌ Illegal since 2009 [32]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Quintana Roo.svg Quintana Roo ❌ Illegal since 2013 [33]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of San Luis Potosi.svg San Luis Potosí ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Sinaloa.svg Sinaloa ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Sonora.svg Sonora ❌ Illegal [34]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Tabasco.svg Tabasco ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Tamaulipas.svg Tamaulipas ❌ Illegal since 2010 [35]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Tlaxcala.svg Tlaxcala ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Veracruz.svg Veracruz ❌ Illegal since 2010 [36]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Yucatan.svg Yucatán ❌ Illegal since 2011 [37]

'Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Zacatecas.svg Zacatecas ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
United States

Sex with animals and zoophilic pornography is not illegal under federal law. Some state laws ban sex with animals and in some cases, zoophilic porn. These laws vary. However, The Supreme Court of the United States held in United States v. Stevens, 559 U.S. 460 (2010) that "animal abuse" was not categorically unprotected speech under the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. [38]

States [39] BestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama Illegal [40] Illegal [41] Unknown
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska Illegal [42] IllegalUnknown
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona Illegal [43] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas IllegalIllegal [44] Unknown
Flag of California.svg California Illegal [45] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado Illegal [46] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut Illegal [47] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware Illegal [48] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia UnknownUnknownUnknown
Flag of Florida.svg Florida Illegal [49] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia Illegal [50] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii LegalUnknownUnknown
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho Illegal [51] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois Illegal [52] IllegalUnknown
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana Illegal [53] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa Illegal [54] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas Illegal [55] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Illegal [56] IllegalUnknown
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana Illegal [57] IllegalIllegal
Flag of Maine.svg Maine Illegal [58] IllegalUnknown
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland Illegal [59] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts Illegal [60] IllegalUnknown
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Illegal [61] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota Illegal [62] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi Illegal [63] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri Illegal [64] IllegalUnknown
Flag of Montana.svg Montana Illegal [65] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska Illegal [66] [67] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada Illegal [68] IllegalIllegal
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire Illegal [69] [70] IllegalIllegal
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey Illegal [71] UnknownUnknown
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico Legal[ dubious ]UnknownUnknown
Flag of New York.svg New York Illegal [72] UnknownUnknown
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina Illegal [73] UnknownUnknown
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota Illegal [74] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio Illegal [75] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma Illegal [76] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon Illegal [77] UnknownIllegal
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania Illegal [78] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island Illegal [79] UnknownUnknown
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina Illegal [80] UnknownUnknown
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota Illegal [81] IllegalUnknown
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee Illegal [82] IllegalIllegal
Flag of Texas.svg Texas Illegal [83] IllegalIllegal
Flag of Utah.svg Utah Illegal [84] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont Illegal [85] IllegalIllegal
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia Illegal [86] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Washington.svg Washington Illegal [87] IllegalUnknown
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia Legal[ dubious ]UnknownUnknown
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin Illegal [88] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming Legal[ dubious ]UnknownUnknown
TerritoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa Legal [89] [ dubious ]UnknownUnknown
Flag of Guam.svg Guam Legal[ dubious ]UnknownUnknown
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg Northern Mariana Islands Legal[ dubious ]UnknownUnknown
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico IllegalUnknownUnknown
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg US Virgin Islands IllegalIllegalIllegal

Central America

In the early 2000s, sex with animals was legal in all Central American countries except Belize. From 2011 to 2017, all Central American countries banned it.

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Belize.svg Belize ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of France.svg Clipperton Island
(Overseas minor territory of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica ❌ Illegal since 2015 [90] [91]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador ❌ Illegal since 2016 [92] [93]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala ❌ Illegal since 2017 [94] [95]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❌ Illegal since 2017 [94] [95]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown
Flag of Honduras (darker variant).svg Honduras ❌ Illegal since 2015 [96]

Penalty: Seizure of animals, and 10 minimum salaries to 25 minimum salaries

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua ❌ Illegal since 2011 [97]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Panama.svg Panama ❌ Illegal since 2012 [98]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Caribbean

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Anguilla.svg Anguilla
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua and Barbuda ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Aruba.svg Aruba
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg British Virgin Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Caribbean Netherlands
(Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba; Special municipalities of the Netherlands)
Yes check.svg Legal.❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes check.svg Legal.❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Curacao.svg Curaçao
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Dominica.svg Dominica ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of France.svg Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the United States.svg Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
(Extraterritorial jurisdiction of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal for civilians

❌ Illegal for armed service members since 16 September 2016


Penalty: Maximum of dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years. [99] [100] [101]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Haiti.svg Haiti Unclear/Unknown. "Mistreatment of animals" is illegal in Haiti since 1835, but bestiality was not specifically named in the criminal code. A 2020 legal reform published by President of Haiti Jovenel Moïse specifies it is a crime "to force anyone to have sex with a beast". It makes no mention of voluntary sex with a beast. [102] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica Yes check.svg Legal for foreigners from other countries.❌ Illegal for registered Rastafari.

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment and hard labor [10]

❓ Unknown
Flag of France.svg Martinique
(Overseas department of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Montserrat.svg Montserrat
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)
❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 6 months in prison and a $25,000 fine [103] [104]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg Saint Barthélemy
(Overseas collectivity of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Saint Kitts and Nevis ❌ Illegal/Unenforced/

Penalty: Maximum of four years' imprisonment, with or without hard labor for buggery
Maximum of four years' imprisonment for attempted buggery [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Saint Lucia ❌ Illegal/Unenforced/

Penalty: Liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for 10 years and, if the Court thinks it fit, the Court may order that the convicted person be admitted to a psychiatric hospital for treatment

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of France.svg Saint Martin
(Overseas collectivity of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg Saint Vincent and the Grenadines ❌ Illegal/Unenforced/.

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg Sint Maarten
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes check.svg Legal❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg United States Virgin Islands
(Insular area of the United States)
❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years' imprisonment [105]

❌ Illegal/Uneforced/ [105]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❌ Illegal/Unenforced/ [105]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

South America

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina Yes check.svg Legal[ citation needed ]❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Bolivia.svg Bolivia ❌ Illegal since 1 July 2015

Penalty: Maximum of 1 year's imprisonment and a fine of 60 days, or lose work benefits of 6 months [106]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Chile.svg Chile Yes check.svg Legal [107] It can be prosecuted under Law 21020 if the animal is hurt [108] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia ❌ Illegal since 2015

Penalty: Maximum of 63 months' imprisonment or a minimum of 21 months' imprisonment, special inability of 1.75 to 5.25 years for the exercise of profession, trade, trade or tenure related to animals, and a maximum fine of 105 minimum wages or a minimum of 8.75 minimum wages [109] [110]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 8 years in prison [111]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg Falkland Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of France.svg French Guiana
(Overseas department of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Guyana.svg Guyana ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Paraguay.svg Paraguay ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Peru.svg Peru ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Asia

Central Asia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Eurasia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment [112]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment [113]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Minimum of one year's imprisonment, maximum of five years' imprisonment [114]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Northern Cyprus ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Western Asia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Bahrain.svg Bahrain ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Iran.svg Iran ❌ Illegal

Penalty: The first three convictions are determined by a judge and the fourth offense is capital punishment [115]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Israel.svg Israel ❌ No specific laws against bestiality, [116] but prosecuted as animal abuse [117] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon ❌ Illegal since 1 March 1943

Penalty: Maximum of one year's imprisonment [10] [118]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Oman.svg Oman ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Palestine.svg Palestine ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Syria.svg Syria ❌ Illegal since 22 June 1949

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment [10] [119]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal

Southern Asia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh ❌ Illegal since 25 July 1828 (As part of Company rule in India)

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment (Unenforced) [10] [120]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of one year imprisonment [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of India.svg India ❌ Illegal since 25 July 1828 (As part of Company rule in India)

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10] [120]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Maldives.svg Maldives ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of thirty months' imprisonment [10] [121]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan ❌ Illegal since 25 July 1828 (As part of Company rule in India)

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10] [120]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment (Unenforced) [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown

Eastern Asia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong
(Special administrative region of China)
❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 10 years in prison and $50,000 fine [122]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Japan.svg Japan Yes check.svg Legal (Generally no laws on bestiality) [123] UnknownUnknown
Flag of Macau.svg Macau
(Special administrative region of China)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of one year in prison or fines which can total up to 20 million

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Southeast Asia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment [124]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia Yes check.svg Legal❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of East Timor.svg East Timor ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Laos.svg Laos ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of twenty years' imprisonment and shall also be brought to whipping [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines ❓ Unclear/Unknown

There are no laws explicitly banning bestiality in the Philippines, although animal welfare laws which penalize animal abuse, but does not specifically mention sexual acts on animals, apply. [125] [126]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of two years in prison and fine (Unenforced) [127]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand ❌ Illegal since 2014

Penalty: Imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year. A fine of 20,000 baht also applies [128]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Republic of Indonesia
Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Aceh Indonesia Flag.png Aceh ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 100 whips [129]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Bali.svg Bali ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Bangka-Belitung.svg Bangka Belitung Islands ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Banten.png Banten ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Bengkulu.png Bengkulu ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Central Java.svg Central Java ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Central Kalimantan.png Central Kalimantan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Central Sulawesi.png Central Sulawesi ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of East Java.svg East Java ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of East Kalimantan.svg East Kalimantan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of East Nusa Tenggara.svg East Nusa Tenggara ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Gorontalo.png Gorontalo ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Jakarta (vectorised).svg Jakarta ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Jambi.svg Jambi ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Lampung.svg Lampung ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Maluku.png Maluku ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of North Kalimantan.png North Kalimantan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of North Maluku.png North Maluku ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of North Sulawesi.svg North Sulawesi ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of North Sumatra.svg North Sumatra ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Papua.svg Papua ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of Riau.svg Riau ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Riau Islands.png Riau Islands ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Southeast Sulawesi.svg Southeast Sulawesi ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of South Kalimantan.png South Kalimantan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of South Sulawesi.svg South Sulawesi ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of South Sumatra (vectorised).svg South Sumatra ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of West Java (vectorised).svg West Java ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of West Kalimantan.svg West Kalimantan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of West Nusa Tenggara.svg West Nusa Tenggara ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of West Papua (vectorised).svg West Papua ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of West Sulawesi.tif West Sulawesi ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of West Sumatra.png West Sumatra ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Yogyakarta.svg Yogyakarta ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Europe

Central Europe

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Austria.svg Austria ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of a year's imprisonment and a fine of 360 days' rates [130]

Yes check.svg Legal [130]
Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of a 1 year's imprisonment, prohibition to undertake an activity, or to confiscation of a thing or another property value [131]

Yes check.svg Legal [132]
Flag of Germany.svg Germany ❌ Illegal since 2013. [lower-alpha 1] [134] The 2013 law was unsuccessfully challenged in 2015 [135] [136] [137] [138] [139]

Penalty: Maximum of a €25,000 fine [140]

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of a fine or 3 years' imprisonment [141] [142]

Yes check.svg Legal (as long as it is not owned with intention of publicizing, sharing or selling) [141] [142]
Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary Yes check.svg Legal [11] [143] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Liechtenstein ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Poland.svg Poland ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 3 years in prison, donation to animal welfare charity and prohibition of owning an animal for up to 10 years (if done in order to distribute or sell the penalty is increased to a minimum of 6 months and maximum of 8 years in prison) [11] [144]

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum 5 years' to a minimum of 3 months' imprisonment [145]

Yes check.svg Legal (if not possessed with intent to sell or distribute)
Flag of Romania.svg Romania Yes check.svg Legal [11] ❓ Unknown; Law only mentions a ban on "sites with […] zoophilic content", which are to be blocked by ISPs at the request of the National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications [146] Yes check.svg Legal [146]
Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Imprisonment (In the case of repeated or serious infringements, authorities may prohibit the keeping or breeding of animals for trade or professional occupation) [147]

❌ Illegal [148]

Penalty: A fine or a Maximum of 3 years imprisonment

❌ Illegal

Penalty: A fine or a Maximum of 1 year imprisonment

Eastern Europe

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg Abkhazia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus Yes check.svg Legal [149] ❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Moldova.svg Moldova ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Artsakh.svg Artsakh ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Yes check.svg Legal, unless animal is hurt (no explicit law) [150] ❌ Illegal[ citation needed ]

Penalty: Minimum 1 year of imprisonment. Maximum 2 years.

Or a fine.


Yes check.svg Legal
Flag of South Ossetia.svg South Ossetia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Transnistria.svg Transnistria [151] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown

Northern Europe

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark ❌ Illegal since 1 July 2015

Penalty: Fine or a maximum of 4 months in prison [152] [153]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia ❓ Unclear/Unknown

There are no laws explicitly banning bestiality, although animal welfare laws which penalize animal abuse, but does not specifically mention sexual acts on animals, apply. [154]


Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg Faroe Islands
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Finland.svg Finland Yes check.svg Legal since 15 January 1971 [155] [156] ❓ Unknown❌ Illegal

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland Illegal since 1 January 2014 [157] ❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❓ Unknown
Flag of Norway.svg Norway ❌ Illegal since 2008 [158]

Penalty: Fine and/or maximum of 3 years in prison. [159]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden ❌ Illegal since 2014

Penalty: Fine, maximum of 2 years' imprisonment, or both [160]

Southern Europe

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Albania.svg Albania illegalillegalillegal
Flag of Andorra.svg Andorra ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria ❌ Illegal❌ Illegal❌ Illegal
Flag of Gibraltar.svg Gibraltar
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Greece.svg Greece ❓ Unknown❌ illegal [161] ❌ illegal [161]
Flag of Italy.svg Italy ❌ No specific laws against bestiality, but in 2012 the Supreme Court of Cassation sentenced a man to six months in jail for forcing his dogs to have sex with women. [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

Yes check.svg Legal [130] Yes check.svg Legal [130]
Flag of North Macedonia.svg North Macedonia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Malta.svg Malta ✔️ Legal [162]
✔️ Legal✔️ Legal
Flag of Montenegro.svg Montenegro ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Spain.svg Spain ❌ Illegal since 30 March 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry [163] [11] [12]

Yes check.svg Legal [130] Yes check.svg Legal [130]
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years' imprisonment [164]

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Minimum of one year's imprisonment and a maximum of four years' imprisonment

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Minimum of one year's imprisonment and a maximum of four years' imprisonment

Flag of the Vatican City.svg Vatican City ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Western Europe

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Belgium.svg Belgium ❌ Illegal since 2007

Penalty: Maximum of 6 months in prison and a fine of €1,000 [165]

❓ Unknown❌ Illegal

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

Flag of France.svg France ❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Guernsey.svg Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland ❌ Illegal since 1634 [167]

Penalty: Maximum of life in prison [168] [169]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg Isle of Man
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Jersey.svg Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg ❌ Illegal [11]

Penalty: ❓ Unknown

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Monaco.svg Monaco ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands ❌ Illegal since 2010

Penalty: Maximum of 1 year in prison and €19,500 fine [170]

❌ Illegal since 2010

Penalty: Maximum 6 months' imprisonment or a fine of €7,800 [171]

❌ Illegal since 2010

Penalty: Maximum 6 months' imprisonment or a fine of €7,800 [171]

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom ❌ Illegal since 1558
(As part of Kingdom of England for England and Wales only)

❌ Illegal since 1634
(As part of Kingdom of Ireland for Northern Ireland only) [167]
❌ Illegal
(As part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for Scotland only)


Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison for conviction on indictment
Maximum of 6 months in prison and a fine for summary conviction [3] [172]

❌ Illegal since 26 January 2009

Penalty: Maximum of 12 months' imprisonment in England or 6 months' imprisonment in Northern Ireland, a fine, or both on summary conviction
Maximum of 2 years' imprisonment, a fine, or both on conviction on indictment [173]

❌ Illegal since 26 January 2009

Penalty: Maximum of 12 months' imprisonment in England or 6 months' imprisonment in Northern Ireland, a fine, or both on summary conviction
Maximum of 2 years' imprisonment, a fine, or both on conviction on indictment [173]

Oceania

Australasia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia ❌ Illegal❌ Illegal [174]

Penalty: ❓ Different between states and territories

❌ Importation (including downloading) illegal.
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 7 years in prison ("bestiality")
Maximum of 3 years in prison ("indecency with animal") [175] [176]

❌ Illegal❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of a $2000 fine for an individual ("possession an objectionable publication")
Maximum of 10 years in prison or a $50,000 fine for an individual ("possession of objectionable publications with knowledge") [177] [178] [179]

Commonwealth of Australia
Country, state, or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Ashmore and Cartier Islands ❌ Illegal (has no permanent residents)❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian Antarctic Territory ❌ Illegal (has no permanent residents)❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Australian Capital Territory.svg Australian Capital Territory ❌ Illegal since 2011

Penalty: Maximum ten years' imprisonment [180]

❓ Unknown (if legal, definitely would receive an X18+ rating)❓ Unknown
Flag of Christmas Island.svg Christmas Island ❌ Illegal❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown
Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.svg Cocos (Keeling) Islands ❌ Illegal❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Coral Sea Islands ❌ Illegal (no longer has permanent residents)❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Heard Island and McDonald Islands ❌ Illegal (has no permanent residents)❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Jervis Bay Territory ❌ Illegal❓ Unknown (see Australian Capital Territory)❓ Unknown
Flag of New South Wales.svg New South Wales ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum fourteen years' imprisonment [180]

❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown
Flag of Norfolk Island.svg Norfolk Island ❌ Illegal❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown
Flag of the Northern Territory.svg Northern Territory ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum three years' imprisonment [180]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Queensland.svg Queensland ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum seven years' imprisonment [180]

❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown
Flag of South Australia.svg South Australia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum ten years' imprisonment [180]

❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown
Flag of Tasmania.svg Tasmania ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum 21 years' imprisonment [180]

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum two years' imprisonment and/or fine [181]

❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum one year imprisonment and/or fine [182]

Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg Victoria ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum five years' imprisonment [180]

❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown
Flag of Western Australia.svg Western Australia ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum seven years' imprisonment [180]

❌ Illegal (all DVD pornography illegal)❓ Unknown

Melanesia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Fiji.svg Fiji ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison with corporal punishment [183]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flags of New Caledonia.svg New Caledonia
(Overseas collectivity of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison [10]

❌ Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
❌ Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Solomon Islands ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Micronesia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of Guam.svg Guam
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg Federated States of Micronesia ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Kiribati.svg Kiribati ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg Marshall Islands ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Nauru.svg Nauru ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg Northern Mariana Islands
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Palau.svg Palau ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

Polynesia

Country or territoryBestialitySale and distribution of zoophilic pornographyOwnership of zoophilic pornography
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Rapa Nui, Chile.svg Easter Island
(Overseas territory of Chile)
Yes check.svg Legal [107] ❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg Cook Islands
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of seven years in prison [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of French Polynesia.svg French Polynesia
(Overseas collectivity of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Niue.svg Niue
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg Pitcairn Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Samoa.svg Samoa ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years in prison [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Tokelau.svg Tokelau
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
❓ Unknown❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Tonga.svg Tonga ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years in prison [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Tuvalu.svg Tuvalu ❌ Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison [10]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of the United States.svg United States Minor Outlying Islands
(Unincorporated organized territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal❓ Unknown❓ Unknown
Flag of Wallis and Futuna.svg Wallis and Futuna
(Overseas collectivity of France)
❌ Illegal since 9 March 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine [19]

❓ Unknown❓ Unknown

History

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. Bestiality had previously been legalised in 1969. [133]

Related Research Articles

The age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts. Consequently, an adult who engages in sexual activity with a person younger than the age of consent is unable to legally claim that the sexual activity was consensual, and such sexual activity may be considered child sexual abuse or statutory rape. The person below the minimum age is regarded as the victim, and their sex partner is regarded as the offender, unless both are underage. The purpose of setting an age of consent is to protect an underage person from sexual advances.

The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing cruelty to animals. Based in New York City since its inception in 1866, the organization's mission is "to provide effective means for the prevention of cruelty to animals throughout the United States."

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that sanctions of criminal punishment for those who commit sodomy are unconstitutional. The Court reaffirmed the concept of a "right to privacy" that earlier cases, such as Roe v. Wade, had found the U.S. Constitution provides, even though it is not explicitly enumerated. The Court based its ruling on the notions of personal autonomy to define one's own relationships and of American traditions of non-interference with private sexual decisions between consenting adults.

Cruelty to animals Negligent or abusive action against non-human animal by humans

Cruelty to animals, also called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission (neglect) or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human animal. More narrowly, it can be the causing of harm or suffering for specific achievement, such as killing animals for entertainment; cruelty to animals sometimes encompasses inflicting harm or suffering as an end in itself, defined as zoosadism.

A crush fetish is a fetish and a paraphilia in which sexual arousal is associated with observing objects being crushed or being crushed oneself. The crushed objects vary from inanimate items, to injurious and/or fatal crushing of invertebrates, or vertebrates.

The history of zoophilia and bestiality begins in the prehistoric era, where depictions of humans and animals in a sexual context appear infrequently in European rock art. Bestiality remained a theme in mythology and folklore through the classical period and into the Middle Ages and several ancient authors purported to document it as a regular, accepted practice—albeit usually in "other" cultures.

Dog bite Bite by a dog that is upon a person or other animal

A dog bite is a bite upon a person or other animal by a dog; especially from a rabid dog. More than one successive bite is often called a dog attack, although dog attacks can include knock-downs and scratches. Though many dog bites do not result in injury, they can result in infection, disfigurement, temporary or permanent disability, or death. Another type of dog bite is the "soft bite" displayed by well-trained dogs, by puppies, and in non-aggressive play. Dog bites can occur during dog fighting, as a response to mistreatment, trained dogs acting as guard or military animals, or during a random encounter.

The crime against nature or unnatural act has historically been a legal term in English-speaking states identifying forms of sexual behavior not considered natural or decent and are legally punishable offenses. Sexual practices that have historically been considered to be "crimes against nature" include masturbation, sodomy and bestiality.

The Enumclaw horse sex case was a series of incidents in 2005 involving Kenneth Pinyan, an engineer who worked for Boeing and resided in Gig Harbor, Washington; James Michael Tait, a truck driver; and other unidentified men. Pinyan and Tait filmed and distributed zoophilic pornography of Pinyan receiving anal sex from a stallion under the alias "Mr. Hands". After engaging in this activity on multiple occasions over an unknown span of time, Pinyan received fatal internal injuries in one such incident.

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Deviant sexual intercourse or deviate sexual intercourse is, in some U.S. states, a legal term for "any act of sexual gratification involving the sex organs of one person and the mouth or anus of another, anus to mouth or involving invasion of the anus or vagina of one person by a foreign object manipulated by another person".

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Zoophilia is a paraphilia involving a sexual fixation on non-human animals. Bestiality is cross-species sexual activity between humans and non-human animals. The terms are often used interchangeably, but some researchers make a distinction between the attraction (zoophilia) and the act (bestiality).

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A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes. The precise sexual acts meant by the term sodomy are rarely spelled out in the law, but are typically understood by courts to include any sexual act deemed to be unnatural or immoral. Sodomy typically includes anal sex, oral sex, and bestiality. In practice, sodomy laws have rarely been enforced against heterosexual couples, and have mostly been used to target homosexuals.

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The Crimes Act 1961 is an Act of the Parliament of New Zealand that forms a leading part of the criminal law in New Zealand. It repeals the Crimes Act 1908, itself a successor of the Criminal Code Act 1893. Most crimes in New Zealand are created by the Crimes Act, but some are created elsewhere. All common law offences are abolished by section 9, as are all offences against Acts of the British Parliaments, but section 20 saves the old common law defences where they are not specifically altered.

LGBT rights in Louisiana Overview of LGBT rights in the U.S. state of Louisiana

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in the U.S. state of Louisiana may face some legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in Louisiana, and same-sex marriage has been recognized in the state since June 2015 as a result of the Supreme Court's decision in Obergefell v. Hodges.

LGBT rights in Florida Overview of LGBT rights in the U.S. state of Florida

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the U.S. state of Florida may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Same-sex sexual activity became legal in the state after the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas on June 26, 2003, and same-sex marriage has been legal in the state since January 6, 2015. Discrimination on account of sexual orientation and gender identity in employment, housing and public accommodations is outlawed following the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Bostock v. Clayton County. In addition, several cities and counties, comprising about 55% of Florida's population, have enacted anti-discrimination ordinances. These include Jacksonville, Miami, Tampa, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee and West Palm Beach, among others. Conversion therapy is also banned in a number of cities in the state, mainly in Palm Beach County and the Miami metropolitan area.

LGBT rights in Tasmania

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the Australian state of Tasmania have the same legal rights as non-LGBT residents. Tasmania has a transformative history with respect to the rights of LGBT people. Initially dubbed "Bigots Island" by international media due to intense social and political hostility to LGBT rights up until the late 1990s, the state has subsequently been recognised for LGBT law reforms that have been described by activists such as Rodney Croome as among the most extensive and noteworthy in the world. Tasmania imposed the harshest penalties in the Western world for homosexual activity until 1997, when it was the last Australian jurisdiction to decriminalise homosexuality after a United Nations Human Rights Committee ruling, the passage of federal sexual privacy legislation and a High Court challenge to the state's anti-homosexuality laws. Following decriminalisation, social and political attitudes in the state rapidly shifted in favour of LGBT rights ahead of national trends with strong anti-LGBT discrimination laws passed in 1999, and the first state relationship registration scheme to include same-sex couples introduced in 2003.

Animal rights by country or territory

Rights affecting non-human animals vary greatly by country or jurisdiction — encompassing everything from the legal recognition of non-human animal sentience to the absolute lack of any anti-cruelty laws with no regard for animal welfare.

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