List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names

Last updated

This list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names is intended to help those unfamiliar with classical languages to understand and remember the scientific names of organisms. The binomial nomenclature used for animals and plants is largely derived from Latin and Greek words, as are some of the names used for higher taxa, such as orders and above. At the time when biologist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) published the books that are now accepted as the starting point of binomial nomenclature, Latin was used in Western Europe as the common language of science, and scientific names were in Latin or Greek: Linnaeus continued this practice.

Contents

Although Latin is now largely unused except by classical scholars, or for certain purposes in botany, medicine and the Roman Catholic Church, it can still be found in scientific names. It is helpful to be able to understand the source of scientific names. Although the Latin names do not always correspond to the current English common names, they are often related, and if their meanings are understood, they are easier to recall. The binomial name often reflects limited knowledge or hearsay about a species at the time it was named. For instance Pan troglodytes, the chimpanzee, and Troglodytes troglodytes, the wren, are not necessarily cave-dwellers.

Sometimes a genus name or specific descriptor is simply the Latin or Greek name for the animal (e.g. Canis is Latin for dog). These words may not be included in the table below if they only occur for one or two taxa. Instead, the words listed below are the common adjectives and other modifiers that repeatedly occur in the scientific names of many organisms (in more than one genus).

Adjectives vary according to gender, and in most cases only the lemma form (nominative singular masculine form) is listed here. 1st-and-2nd-declension adjectives end in -us (masculine), -a (feminine) and -um (neuter), whereas 3rd-declension adjectives ending in -is (masculine and feminine) change to -e (neuter). For example, verus is listed without the variants for Aloe vera or Galium verum.

The second part of a binomial is often a person's name in the genitive case, ending -i (masculine) or -ae (feminine), such as Kaempfer's tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus kaempferi. The name may be converted into a Latinised form first, giving -ii and -iae instead.

Words that are very similar to their English forms have been omitted.

Some of the Greek transliterations given are Ancient Greek, and others are Modern Greek.

In the tables, L = Latin, G = Greek, and LG = similar in both languages.

A

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExampleSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
acaulis G, Lstemless silver thistle, Carlina acaulis;

dwarf date palm, Phoenix acaulis

acaulis acaule
acutus Lsharpened, pointed American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus;

angled sunbeam (butterfly), Curetis acuta; northern pintail, Anas acuta

acutus acuta acutum
aculeatus Lprickly short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus;

three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; butcher's-broom, Ruscus aculeatus

aculeatus aculeata aculeatum
adustus Lsinged, burnt side-striped jackal, Canis adustus;
dark onyx cowry, Erronea adusta
adustus adusta adustum
africanus LAfrican reed cormorant, Microcarbo africanus;
southern African frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus africana;

African clubhook-squid, Notonykia africanae;
pyjama shark, Poroderma africanum;

lemon basil, Ocimum × africanum

africanus africana , africanae africanum
agrestis Lof the field, wild field vole, Microtus agrestis;

green field-speedwell, Veronica agrestis

agrestis agreste
alatus L āla winged pitcher plant, Nepenthes alata;

sharpwing monkeyflower, Mimulus alatus; winged elm, Ulmus alata;

winged everlasting, Ammobium alatum; winged loosestrife, Lythrum alatum;

winged seahorse, Hippocampus alatus; winged-stem passion flower, Passiflora alata

alatus alata alatum
albicepsLwhite-headed blow fly, Chrysomya albiceps;

moth, Syngamia albiceps; wood groundling, Parachronistis albiceps;

Mexican golden red rump tarantula, Brachypelma albiceps

albiceps
albidensLwhite-toothed white-toothed brush mouse, Coccymys albidens;
see also leucodon
albidens
albopictus Lpainted white Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus;
Moneilema albopictum
albopictus albopicta albopictum
albus Lwhite white ibis, Eudocimus albus;
white oak, Quercus alba;
mistletoe, Viscum album
albus alba album
alpinus Lalpine; of the Alps alpine aster, Aster alpinus;
alpine bearberry, Arctostaphylos alpina;
alpine feverfew, Parthenium alpinum
alpinus alpina alpinum
ambiguus Luncertain beautiful woolly sunflower, Eriophyllum ambiguum;
doubtful cone, Conus ambiguus;
questionable Stropharia, Stropharia ambigua;

tick bush, Kunzea ambigua

ambiguus ambigua ambiguum
amblys G ἀμβλύς (amblús)blunt, dull marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus amblys All pages with titles beginning with Ambly
americanus LAmerican American black bear, Ursus americanus;

American hazel nut, Corylus americana; American mastodon, Mammut americanum

americanus americana americanum
amphi- G ἀμφί (amphí)of all kinds, on all sides amphibian; Amphipoda All pages with titles beginning with Amphi
ampulla Lbottle, flask northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus ampullatus ampullata ampullatum All pages with titles beginning with Ampulla
amurensis Lfrom the Amur River Amur grape, Vitis amurensis amurensis amurense
angolensis Lfrom Angola African teak, Pterocarpus angolensis angolensis angolense
angustiflorusLnarrow-flowered Eastwood's bellflower, Campanula angustiflora;

narrowflower lupine, Lupinus angustiflorus

angustiflorus angustiflora angustiflorum
angustifoliusLnarrow-leaved narrowleaf cottongrass, Eriophorum angustifolium;

narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia; narrowleaf sunflower, Helianthus angustifolius

angustifolius angustifolia angustifolium
angustus Lnarrow narrow-banded widow, Dingana angusta;
narrowleaf pansy monkeyflower, Mimulus angustatus;
slimleaf bean, Phaseolus angustissimus;
Prairie acacia, Acaciella angustissima;

sea snail, Vexillum angustissimum

angustus angusta angustum angustatus angustissimus angustissima angustissimum
antarcticus Lof the southern hemisphere chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarcticus ;

gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus;
brown skua, Stercorarius antarcticus

antarcticus antarctica antarcticum
anthosG ἄνθος (ánthos)floweranthozoans, Anthozoa;

golden wattle, Acacia pycnantha;

All pages with titles beginning with Antho
anthropo- G ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos)man, human being Paranthropus All pages with titles beginning with Anthropo
apis Lbee western honey bee, Apis mellifera;

white sage, Salvia apiana

apianus apiana apianum All pages with titles beginning with Api
aquaticus Lfound near water eastern mole, Scalopus aquaticus;
wild rice, Zizania aquatica;

water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica;
parrot's-feather, Myriophyllum aquaticum,

aquaticus aquatica aquaticum
arborescens Ltree-like or shrub-like Artemisia arborescens ;

Aloe arborescens ; Hydrangea arborescens

arborescens
archaeo- G ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos)ancient Archaeopteryx All pages with titles beginning with Archaeo All pages with titles beginning with Archeo
arctosG ἄρκτος (árktos)bear grizzly bear, Ursus arctos horribilis;

common bearberry, Arctostaphylos

arctos All pages with titles beginning with Arcto
arena L sand sand iris, Iris arenaria;
sand rock-cress, Arabidopsis arenosa;
sand seatrout, Cynoscion arenarius;
sand-dusted cone, Conus arenatus
arenarius arenaria arenarium arenatus arenata arenosa
arenicolusLsand-dwelling dunes sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus arenicolus;
sand goldenrod, Solidago arenicola;
sanddwelling dewberry, Rubus arenicola;
sandy stargazer, Gillellus arenicola
arenicolus arenicola
argentatus Lsilvery European herring gull, Larus argentatus argentatus argentata argentatum
argenteus Lsilvery silver buffaloberry, Shepherdia argentea;
silver tree, Leucadendron argenteum;

silvery lupine, Lupinus argenteus; white mulberry, Pipturus argenteus

argenteus argentea argenteum
argentum L silver sea snail, Calliostoma argentum argentum
aromatica G ἄρωμα (árōma)aromaticclove nutmeg, Ravensara aromatica ;
Croton aromaticus ;
clove, Syzygium aromaticum
aromaticus aromatica aromaticum
arthro- G ἄρθρον (árthron)joint Arthropoda All pages with titles beginning with Arthro
arvensis Lin the field skylark, Alauda arvensis;
field horsetail, Equisetum arvense
arvensis arvense
asiatica LAsian white-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica;
Caspian plover, Charadrius asiaticus, Persian buttercup, Ranunculus asiaticus
asiatica asiaticus
astro- , astero-G ἄστρον (ástron)starstarfish (class), Asteroidea All pages with titles beginning with Astero All pages with titles beginning with Astro
ater Ldull black common chuckwalla, Sauromalus ater;
Eurasian coot, Fulica atra;
black swan, Cygnus atratus;
black yarrow, Achillea atrata;
creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus
see also niger
ater atra atrum atratus atrata atratum
atropurpureus Ldeep purple, blackish-purple Acer palmatum 'Atropurpureum'; Berberis thunbergii f. atropurpurea;
purple-flowered cotoneaster, Cotoneaster atropurpureus
atropurpureus atropurpurea atropurpureum
aurantius , aurantiacus L orange-colored bitter orange, Citrus aurantium aurantius aurantia aurantium ; aurantiacus aurantiaca aurantiacum
aureus Lgolden golden jackal, Canis aureus;
Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria)
see also chrysos
aureus aurea aureum
australis Lsouthern southern right whale, Eubalaena australis australis australe

B

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
baccatus Lberry-bearing common yew, Taxus baccata; Conus baccatus , a sea snail baccatus - baccata - baccatum
barbatus L barba bearded bearded catasetum, Catasetum barbatum; bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus; black-chinned siskin, Spinus barbata; Bornean bearded pig, Sus barbatus; golden-beard penstemon, Penstemon barbatus barbatus barbata barbatum
bicolor Ltwo-colored bicolor angelfish, Centropyge bicolor; bicolor cleanerfish, Labroides bicolor; bicolored moth, Manulea bicolor bicolor
bicoloratus Ltwo-colored bicolored angle, Macaria bicolorata; Kenya two-headed snake, Micrelaps bicoloratus; orchid, Bulbophyllum bicoloratum bicoloratus bicolorata bicoloratum
bicornis L bicorne black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis bicornis
biosG βίος (bíos)life amphibian ; biota , all living things bios
blandus Lpleasant, smooth, alluring Greek windflower, Anemone blanda; Mallos blandus, a spider blandus - blanda - blandum
borealis Lnorthern northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis borealis - boreale
brachionG βραχίων (brakhíōn)arm Przewalski's gerbil, Brachiones przewalskii; Brachiopoda (phylum); Brachiosaurus All pages with titles beginning with Brachio
brasiliensisL Brazilian Brazilian brown bat Eptesicus brasiliensis All pages with titles containing Brasiliensis
brachy-G βραχύς (brakhús)short Brazilian gold frog, Brachycephalus didactylus All pages with titles beginning with Brachy
brachyphyllusGshort-leaved extinct plant genus, Brachyphyllum;
flower, Colchicum brachyphyllum;
leaf-nosed bats, Brachyphylla;
shortleaf baccharis, Baccharis brachyphylla;
see also brevifolius
brachyphyllus brachyphylla brachyphyllum
brady-G βραδύς (bradús)slow pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus All pages with titles beginning with Brady
branchiaG βράγχιον (bránkhion)gills Lamellibranchia (class, syn. Bivalva); Branchiopoda (class, brine shrimps) All pages with titles beginning with Branchi
brasiliensisLfrom Brazil Brazilian marsh rat, Holochilus brasiliensis; Brazilian stick mantis, Brunneria brasiliensis; rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis brasiliensis brasiliense
brevi-L brevis short silvery-cheeked hornbill, Ceratogymna brevis brevis - breve - All pages with titles beginning with Brevi
brevicaudatus Lshort-tailed bearded leaf chameleon, Rieppeleon brevicaudatus; sea snail, Lophiotoma brevicaudata; short-tailed ceratosoma, Ceratosoma brevicaudatum brevicaudatus brevicaudata brevicaudatum
brevicollis Lshort-necked short-necked oil beetle, Meloe brevicollis brevicollis brevicolle
brevifolius Lshort-leaved Joshua tree, Yucca brevifolia;
short-leaved dudleya, Dudleya blochmaniae subsp. brevifolia;
shortleaf sneezeweed, Helenium brevifolium;
zig-zag bog-rush, Schoenus brevifolius;
see also brachyphyllus
brevifolius brevifolia brevifolium
brevirostris Lshort beak pignosed arrowtooth eel, Dysomma brevirostre;
shortnose ponyfish, Leiognathus brevirostris
brevirostris brevirostre
bulbusG βολβός bulb bulbous buttercup, Ranunculus bulbosus;
onion cone, Conus bulbus
bulbus bulbosus bulbosa

C

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
caecus Lblind blind mole, Talpa caeca; northern eyed hawkmoth, Smerinthus caecus caecus - caeca - caecum
caeruleus Lblue Eurasian blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; blue passion flower, Passiflora caerulea caeruleus - caerulea - caeruleum
californicus L California California blue dorid, Felimare californiensis californicus - californica - californiensis
callosus Lcalloused large vesper mouse, Calomys callosus; tree fern, Cyathea callosa ; orchid, Paphiopedilum callosum callosus - callosa - callosum
canadensis Lfrom Canada bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis canadensis - canadense
candidus Lbrightly white, shining whiteMadonna lily, Lilium candidum candidus - candida - candidum
canescens Lturning grey- or white-haired Geraea canescens (desert sunflower); Atriplex canescens canescens
canis Ldog coyote, Canis latrans; Dipylidium caninum (a tapeworm) canis - caninus - canina - caninum
canus Lgray (haired), pale gray grey-headed woodpecker, Picus canus; woolly groundsel, Senecio canus canus - cana - canum
caprae Lof a goat Staphylococcus caprae caprae - capri
cauda Ltail long-tailed tit, Aegithalos caudatus; thintail skate, Dipturus leptocaudus; northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda
caulosG καυλός (kaulós)stem, stalk stemless gentian, Gentiana acaulis acaulis - acaule
cephalo- G κεφαλή (kephalḗ)head Mediterranean gull, Larus melanocephalus; blue-spotted grouper, Cephalopholis argus All pages with titles beginning with Cephal
-ceps L caput head pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps; biceps (two-headed muscle)
cerosL cornū G κέρας (kéras)horn narwal, Monodon monoceros; rhinoceros (nose horn)
cestL cestus G κεστός (kestós)girdle, belt, stitched Cestoda All pages with titles beginning with Cest
chaetes G χαίτη (khaítē)flowing hair, or mane wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou
chilensis Lfrom Chile paradise tanager, Tangara chilensis chilensis - chilense
chinensis Lfrom China China rose, Rosa chinensis;
Chinese onion, Allium chinense;
Chinese sumac, Rhus chinensis;
see also Sinense, below
chinensis chinense
chloro- G χλωρός (khlōrós)pale green common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus All pages with titles beginning with Chloro
chordatus Lspined chordates; Stylephorus chordatus, Tinospora cordifolia chordatus chordata chordatum
chroma G χρῶμα (khrôma)color clown loach, Chromobotia macracanthus All pages with titles beginning with Chrom
chrysosG χρυσός (khrusós)gold Chrysochloridae (golden moles);
golden pheasant, Chrysolophus pictus;
maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus
see also aureus
All pages with titles beginning with Chryso
chrysophyllusGgold-leaved golden chinquapin, Chrysolepis chrysophylla;
golden-leaved Jerusalem sage, Phlomis chrysophylla;
satinleaf, Chrysophyllum oliviforme
chrysophyllus chrysophylla chrysophyllum
cilium L eyelash Ashland thistle, Cirsium ciliolatum;
bristleworm, Polydora ciliata;
eyelash gecko, Correlophus ciliatus;
queen angelfish, Holacanthus ciliaris;
Australian red cedar, Toona ciliata;
sickle-leaved cymodocea, Thalassodendron ciliatum
ciliaris ciliare ciliatus ciliata ciliatum ciliolatum
cinereusLash, ash-colored masked shrew, Sorex cinereus;
Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea;
gray thrasher, Toxostoma cinereum;
common gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus
cinereus cinerea cinereum
cirrhusG κιρρός (kirrhós)orange fringe-lipped bat, Trachops cirrhosus;
mrigal carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus;
silverspotted sculpin, Blepsias cirrhosus
cirrhosus cirrhosa cirrhosum
citriL citrus the citrus blossom moth, Prays citri citri
cnemeG κνήμη (knḗmē)shin, leg white-legged damselfly, Platycnemis pennipes
-cola L colō dweller Eurasian woodcock, Scolopax rusticola;
northern chequered skipper, Carterocephalus silvicola;
paddyfield warbler, Acrocephalus agricola;
rock thrushes, Monticola sp.
concolor Lhaving uniform color throughout cougar, Puma concolor; white fir, Abies concolor
conno-G κόννος (kónnos)beard wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou All pages with titles beginning with Conno
corax L corvus G κόραξ (kórax)crow, raven common raven, Corvus corax corax
cordatus Lheart-shaped cordate (leaf shape);
small-leaved lime, Tilia cordata;
sea potato, Echinocardium cordatum
cordatus cordata cordatum
cordifolius Lheart-shaped leaves heartleaf aster, Symphyotrichum cordifolium;
heart-leaved moonseed, Tinospora cordifolia;
Tucson bur ragweed, Ambrosia cordifolia
cordifolius cordifolia cordifolium
cornu L cornū horn garden snail, Cornu aspersum;
great ramshorn, Planorbarius corneus
All pages with titles beginning with Cornu
coronatus Lcrowned crowned lemur, Eulemur coronatus;
crowned turban shell, Lunella coronata
coronatus coronata coronatum
costatus Lribbed ribbed slipper shell, Maoricrypta costata; striped Raphael catfish, Platydoras costatus costatus costata costatum
crassus Lthick, fat creeping blueberry, Vaccinium crassifolium;
inflated spiny crab, Rochinia crassa;
mouthless crab, Cardisoma crassum
crassus crassa crassum
cristatus Lcrested aardwolf, Proteles cristatus;
blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata;
crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum
cristatus cristata cristatum
crocosG κρόκος (krókos)yellow bicoloured white-toothed shrew, Crocidura leucodon;
saffron, Crocus sativus;
spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta
All pages with titles beginning with croc
crypto-G κρυπτός (kruptós)hidden Cryptococcus ; Cryptosporidium All pages with titles beginning with Crypto
curvirostrisLcurved beak boxer snipe eel, Nemichthys curvirostris;
curve-billed thrasher, Toxostoma curvirostre
curvirostris curvirostre
cyano- G κυανός (kuanós)blue-green azure-winged magpie, Cyanopica cyanus;
big blue octopus, Octopus cyanea;
blue orchid, Aganisia cyanea
All pages with titles beginning with Cyano cyaneus cyanea cyaneum

D

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExampleSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
dactyl-, dactylo- G δάκτυλος (dáktulos)finger or toe black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Pterodactylus All pages with titles beginning with Dactyl
deca- , deka-G δέκα (déka) ten alfonsino, Beryx decadactylus All pages with titles beginning with Deca
decem Lten Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
delphisG δελφύς (delphús)womb Didelphis virginiana
derma G δέρμα (dérma)skin yellow staining mushroom, Agaricus xanthodermus All pages with titles beginning with Derm
di- G δι- (di-)two Christmas orchid, Dipodium punctatumToo common a letter combination for any useful search
diffusus L diffundere diffuse diffuse spineflower, Chorizanthe diffusa;
fly, Paralimnophila diffusior;
rush, Juncus diffusissimus;
spreading groundsmoke, Gayophytum diffusum;
spreading lupine, Lupinus diffusus;
spreading phlox, Phlox diffusa
diffusus diffusa diffusum diffusior diffusissimus
digitatus Lhaving fingers finger rush Juncus digitatus;
baobab, Adansonia digitata;
dead man's fingers, Alcyonium digitatum
digitatus - digitata - digitatum
dilatatus Ldilated, extended dallisgrass, Paspalum dilatatum;
Maianthemum dilatatum
dilatatus - dilatata - dilatatum
dioica L dioicous common nettle, Urtica dioica dioica
dino- , deino-G δεινός (deinós)terrible dinosaur, Deinotherium All pages with titles beginning with Dino
diplo- G διπλός (diplós)double two-eyed orange spider, Diploglena capensis All pages with titles beginning with Diplo
disc , disk G δίσκος (dískos)disc common fungus moth, Metalectra discalis All pages with titles beginning with Disc - discalis - discale
dodeca- G δώδεκα (dṓdeka) twelve Henderson's shootingstar, Dodecatheon hendersonii All pages with titles beginning with Dodeca
dolicho- G δολιχός (dolikhós)elongated, long knight anole, Anolis dolichocephalus All pages with titles beginning with Dolicho
domesticus Lof the house or domestic domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica;
house sparrow, Passer domesticus
domesticus - domestica - domesticum
dorsum Lback back-striped weasel, Mustela strigidorsa All pages with titles beginning with Dors
dubius Ldoubtfulsee also nomina dubia dubius dubia
dulcis Lsweet almond, Prunus dulcis dulcis dulce

E

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExampleSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
eburneusL eburneus ivory-colored ivory gull, Pagophila eburnea eburneus - eburnea - eburneum
echinatus Lprickly, spiny Edisto crayfish, Procambarus echinatus; shortleaf pine, Pinus echinata echinatus - echinata - echinatum
echino-L echīnus G ἐχῖνος (ekhînos)hedgehog, sea-urchin great globe thistle, Echinops sphaerocephalus; diadema urchin, Echinothrix diadema; San Pedro cactus, Echinopsis pachanoi All pages with titles beginning with Echino
edulis Ledible common cockle, Cerastoderma edule; king bolete, Boletus edulis; oyster, Ostrea edulis; passion fruit, Passiflora edulis edulis - edule
elatior Ltaller true oxlip, Primula elatior elatior
electro- G ἤλεκτρον (ḗlektron)amber, amber-colored or

electric (modern usage)

broad-billed motmot, Electron platyrhynchum;
electric eel, Electrophorus electricus
No simple way to distinguish biological from other uses
elegans Lelegant crimson rosella, Platycercus elegans ;
Granastyochus elegantissimus ;
Iris iberica subsp. elegantissima ; false aralia, Plerandra elegantissima;
Caecum elegantissimum
elegans - elegantissimus - elegantissima - elegantissimum
emarginatus Lhaving no edges Phongolo suckermouth, Chiloglanis emarginatus;
Gibraltar sea lavender, Limonium emarginatum;
acerola, Malpighia emarginata; bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata
emarginatus - emarginata - emarginatum
enanti-G ἐναντίος (enantíos)opposite, against Enantiornithes All pages with titles beginning with Enantio
ennea- G ἐννέα (ennéa)nine banded sunfish Enneacanthus obesus; scurvy-grass sorrel, Oxalis enneaphylla All pages with titles beginning with Ennea
ensatusLsword-like California giant salamander, Dicamptodon ensatus ensatus - ensata - ensatum
ensis , ensi-Lsword, lancejackknife clam, Ensis minor ; swordleaf rush, Juncus ensifolius All pages with titles beginning with Ensi - ensiformis
-ensis Lof, from (a place) Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat); Lucy, Australopithecus afarensis
erectus Lupright Homo erectus ("upright man"); upright chickweed, Moenchia erecta erectus - erecta - erectum
erio-G ἔριον (érion)wool, woolly common cottongrass, Eriophorum angustifolium All pages with titles beginning with Erio
erosus Lindented, jagged, serrated jícama, Pachyrhizus erosus; serrated hinge-back tortoise, Kinixys erosa erosus - erosa - erosum
erythro- G ἐρυθρός (eruthrós)red [1] spotted redshank, Tringa erythropus; dog's-tooth violet, Erythronium dens-canis All pages with titles beginning with Erythro
esculentus Ledible edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus; Gyromitra esculenta esculentus esculenta esculentum
europaeus LEuropean European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus; European owl moth, Brahmaea europaea europaeus europaea europaeum
excelsus Lexalted African teak, Milicia excelsa; excelsior cone, Conus excelsus excelsus excelsa excelsum

F

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
fallax Lfalse false swift, Borbo fallax; green marvel, Acronicta fallax fallax
falx L sickle sickle milkvetch, Astragalus falcatus; sickle-leaved hare's-ear, Bupleurum falcatum; sicklethorn, Asparagus falcatus; wild pear, Persoonia falcata falcatus falcata falcatum falciformis falx
familiaris Ldomestic, common, familiar dog, Canis lupus familiaris
felis L cat black-footed cat, Felis nigripes; cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis
felinus Lcat-like, feline cat gecko, Aeluroscalabotes felinus; marine otter, Lontra felina felinus felina felinum
-fer L-bearing western honey bee, Apis mellifera; coconut, Cocos nucifera
ferus Lwild wild horse, Equus ferus; wild Bactrian camel, Camelus ferus ferus fera ferum
ferrugo Lrust ferruginous swift, Borbo ferruginea;
reddish-brown corky spine fungus, Hydnellum ferrugineum;
rusty bloodwood, Corymbia ferruginea;
rusty parrotfish, Scarus ferrugineus;
rusty pitohui, Pseudorectes ferrugineus
ferrugineus ferruginea ferrugineum
fidelis Lfaithful faithful sea slug, Goniobranchus fidelis; faithful leafcutting bee, Megachile fidelis; Pacific sideband, Monadenia fidelis fidelis
filum L thread desert fan palm, Washingtonia filifera; thread fern, Blechnum filiforme; thread-leaved sundew, Drosera filiformis filifer filifera filiformis filiforme
flavus Lgolden yellow, light yellow yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia flava; yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis flavus flava flavum
floridus Lflowery blue palo verde, Parkinsonia florida; floral banded wobbegong, Orectolobus floridus floridus floridum
flor-L flos flower southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; great white trillium, Trillium grandiflorum All pages with titles beginning with flori
fodiens L fodere digging burying beetle, Nicrophorus defodiens; burying beetle, Nicrophorus infodiens; Eurasian water shrew, Neomys fodiens; lowland burrowing tree frog, Smilisca fodiens
folium L leaf American beech, Fagus grandifolia; broad-leaved sermountain, Laserpitium latifolium; Chinese elm, Ulmus parvifolia; Joshua tree, Yucca brevifolia; upright snottygobble, Persoonia longifolia
fragilis L frangere breakable brittle bladder-fern, Cystopteris fragilis; brittle willow, Salix fragilis; candy cap, Lactarius fragilis; Dientamoeba fragilis; dead man's fingers, Codium fragile; fragile wart frog, Limnonectes fragilis fragilis
fuligo L soot jet black ant, Lasius fuliginosus; ruby tiger, Phragmatobia fuliginosa; sooty hairstreak, Satyrium fuliginosum; sooty milkcap, Lactarius fuliginosus fuliginosus fuliginosa fuliginosum
fulvus Ldeep yellow, tawny Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva; sulphur leather coral, Rhytisma fulvum; tawny grisette, Amanita fulva; yellow ground squirrel, Spermophilus fulvus fulvus fulva fulvum
furcatus Lforked forked viburnum, Viburnum furcatum; forked wormwood, Artemisia furcata; swallow-tailed gull, Creagrus furcatus furcatus furcata furcatum
fuscus Ldark, dark brown dusky hopping mouse, Notomys fuscus; dusky pitcher-plant, Nepenthes fusca; rusty peat moss, Sphagnum fuscum; sooty tern, Sterna fuscata fuscus fusca fuscum

G

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
gala, galumG γάλα (gála) milk soap plants, Chlorogalum
gaster, gastro- , gastr-L gaster G γαστήρ (gastḗr)belly common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster; Gastropoda
geo- G γαῖα , γῆ () Earth Conus geographus , geography cone; Geotrichum
giganteusL giganteus giant Chorus giganteus (a sea snail); Aldabra giant tortoise, Aldabrachelys gigantea giganteus gigantea giganteum
glaberL glaber smooth; hairless [2] naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; smooth sumac, Rhus glabra; Omphiscola glabra (a snail) glaber glabra glabrum
glandulosus Lhaving kernels Tasmanian laurel, Anopterus glandulosus, Basilan Island caecilian, Ichthyophis glandulosus;
honey mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa, warty jumping-slug, Hemphillia glandulosa;
skunk currant, Ribes glandulosum,
glandulosus glandulosa glandulosum
glaucusL glaucus G γλαυκός (glaukós)blue-green, blue-gray, gleaming silvery blue butterfly, Lepidochrysops glauca; Glaucidae , nudibranch family glaucus glauca glaucum
glutinosusL glutinosus sticky common alder, Alnus glutinosa;
viscid black earth tongue, Glutinoglossum glutinosum ;
northern slimy salamander, Plethodon glutinosus
glutinosus glutinosa glutinosum
glyco- , glycy-, glyc-G γλυκύς (glukús) sweet liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra; soybean, Glycine max
gracilis , gracileLslender, graceful western spotted skunk, Spilogale gracilis; slough darter, Etheostoma gracile; Gracilisuchus gracilis gracile
gracilipesL grăcĭlĭpes [3] slender-footed slender frog, Austrochaperina gracilipes; slender-legged bushfrog, Gracixalus gracilipes; slenderstalk monkeyflower, Mimulus gracilipes; slimfoot century plant, Agave gracilipes gracilipes
graniticusLgranite granite claw flower, Calothamnus graniticus;
granite poverty bush, Eremophila granitica;
granite serpentweed, Tonestus graniticus
graniticus granitica graniticum
graveolens L gravis strong-smelling common rue, Ruta graveolens; lippia, Lippia graveolens graveolens
gyrino-, gyrinusG γυρῖνος (gurînos) tadpole spring salamander, Gyrinophilus porphyriticus; e.g. Crassigyrinus , Proterogyrinus

H

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
haema-, hema-G αἷμα (haîma) blood Haemosporida; Bacteria sp., Haemophilus influenzae
hali-, halio-G ἅλς (háls)of the sea, salt Steller's sea eagle, Haliaeetus pelagicus; grey seal, Halichoerus grypus; black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii
haplo- G ἁπλόος (haplóos)simple, single mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa; Mongolosaurus haplodon
hedra- G ἕδρα (hédra)seat, facet Chinese ephedra, Ephedra sinica
helio- G ἥλιος (hḗlios) sun sunflower, Helianthus annuus; sun spurge, Euphorbia helioscopia
hemisphaericaGhalf-sphere sand laurel oak, Quercus hemisphaerica, sulphur rose, Rosa hemisphaerica Hemisphaerica
hetero-Gdiversely or different melancholy thistle, Cirsium heterophyllum, Leucanthemum heterophyllum , Smith's cress, Lepidium heterophyllum heterophyllum
hexa- G ἕξ (héx) six water primrose, Ludwigia hexapetala
hibridus L hybrid butterbur, Petasites hybridus, brown spider monkey, Ateles hybridus; kelp goose, Chloephaga hybrida; alsike clover, Trifolium hybridum; hibridus - hybridus - hibrida - hybrida - hibridum - hybridum
hippo- G ἵππος (híppos) horse seahorse, Hippocampus; lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros
hirsutus Lhairy hairy bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta;
hairy fruit-eating bat, Artibeus hirsutus;
hairy St John's-wort, Hypericum hirsutum
hirsutus - hirsuta hirsutum
homo Lhuman, man modern human, Homo sapiens; Neanderthal, Homo neanderthalensis
hortensis L hortus from the garden broad-leaved anemone, Anemone hortensis;
garden orache, Atriplex hortensis;
Mexican longwing, Heliconius hortense;
Orphean warbler, Sylvia hortensis
hortensis hortense
hydro- G ὕδωρ , ὑδρο- (húdōr, hudro-) water Chinese water deer, Hydropotes inermis; capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
hyper- G ὑπέρ (hupér)over, above St John's wort, Hypericum perforatum
hypo- , hyp-G ὑπό (hupó)under, beneath zebra pleco catfish, Hypancistrus zebra; common cat's-ear, Hypochaeris radicata

I–K

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
imbricatus Ltiled Mountain owl's-clover, Orthocarpus imbricatus imbricatus imbricata imbricatum
indicus LIndian Malaysian tapir, Tapirus indicus indicus indica indicum
inaequalis Lunequal variable ladybird, Coelophora inaequalis inaequalis inaequale
inedulis Linedible fungus, Caloboletus inedulis inedulis inedule
ingratus LoffensiveSee Ingrata ingrata ingratus ingratum
innotatus Lunmarked unmarked dagger moth, Acronicta innotata innotata
irregularis Lunusual or irregular variable burrowing asp, Atractaspis irregularis; viper's bugloss, Hadena irregularis irregularis irregulare
japonicus L Japanese food wrapper plant, Mallotus japonicus; Japanese pagoda tree, Styphnolobium japonicum; Japanese spiraea, Spiraea japonica; see also nipponensis japonicus japonica japonicum
kentuckiensis Lfrom Kentucky Kentucky lady's slipper, Cypripedium kentuckiense; Kentucky lichen moth, Cisthene kentuckiensis kentuckiensis kentuckiense

L

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
lact- L lac milk, sap, milky whiteChinese peony, Paeonia lactiflora ; milk-caps, Lactifluus; Lactophrys ; Aspalathus lactea
laevis Lsmooth red-eyed assassin bug, Platymeris laevicollis; smooth bedstraw, Cruciata laevipes All pages with titles containing Laevis
lagusG λαγώς (lagṓs)hare European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus; viscachas, Lagidium spp.
lancea L lance sculptured seamoth, Pegasus lancifer; swamp lousewort, Pedicularis lanceolata
lateralis Lside black-flanked rock-wallaby, Petrogale lateralis
latus Lflank; broad horse-eye jack, Caranx latus; wideleaf waterparsnip, Sium latifolium; wych elm, Ulmus glabra 'Latifolia Aurea'
lepis, lepido- G λεπίς (lepís)scale, rind, husk, flake large-scale mullet, Liza macrolepis; Lepidoptera
lepto-, lepti-G λεπτός (leptós)lightLeptictidium auderiense, Leptospira kirschneri
lepus Lhare black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus
leuco- , leuc-G λευκός (leukós)white white-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus
leucocephalusGwhite-headed bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus;
white-crowned pigeon, Patagioenas leucocephala;
white-headed marsh tyrant, Arundinicola leucocephala;
white-headed stilt, Himantopus leucocephalus;
also see albiceps
leucocephalus leucocephala leucocephalum
leucodonGwhite-toothed bicolored shrew, Crocidura leucodon;
lesser mole-rat, Spalax leucodon;
white-toothed cowry, Cypraea leucodon;
white-toothed woodrat, Neotoma leucodon;
also see albidens
leucodon
leucurus Gwhite-tailed white-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucura;
white-tailed robin, Cinclidium leucurum;
white-tailed stonechat, Saxicola leucurus
leucurus leucura leucurum
limosus L muddy limosa harlequin frog, Atelopus limosus;
mud amnicola, Amnicola limosus
limosus limosa limosum
lineatus Llined or striped thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus; Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
lobosL lobus G λοβός (lobós)lobethree-lobe buttercup, Ranunculus trilobus
longi-L longus long frog shark, Somniosus longus, galingale, Cyperus longus;
Turmeric, Curcuma longa;
Long pepper, Piper longum,
longus longa longum All pages with titles beginning with longi
longicaudatus Llong-tailed long-tailed pygmy rice rat, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus; longtail catfish; Olyra longicaudata; longtail tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus longicaudatus longicaudata longicaudatum
longicollis Llong-necked eastern long-necked turtle, Chelodina longicollis longicollis longicolle
longifolius Llong-leaved long-leaf persoonia, Persoonia longifolia;
long-leaf wild buckwheat, Eriogonum longifolium; long-leaved butterwort, Pinguicula longifolia; longleaf bush lupine, Lupinus longifolius; longleaf sunflower, Helianthus longifolius
longifolius longifolia longifolium
longirostris Llong beak longbeak buttercup, Ranunculus longirostris; longsnout blacksmelt, Dolicholagus longirostris longirostris longirostre
luctuosus Lsorrowful, mournful forget-me-not bug, Sehirus luctuosus; white-shouldered tanager, Tachyphonus luctuosus; four-spotted moth, Tyta luctuosa luctuosus luctuosa luctuosum
luteus Lyellow, saffron-colored yellow mariposa lily, Calochortus luteus; yellow vetch, Vicia lutea; red-billed leiothrix, Leiothrix lutea luteus lutea luteum

M

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
macro- G μακρός (makrós)long, large big-headed mole rat, Tachyoryctes macrocephalus; rock onion, Allium macrum; sea snail, Turbonilla macra macra macrum
macroura Glong-tailed hooded skunk, Mephitis macroura macroura
maculatus Lspotted tiger quoll, Dasyurus maculatus; spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularius maculatus - maculata - maculatum
madagascariensis Lfrom Madagascar Madagascar day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis madagascariensis; Malagasy ground boa, Acrantophis madagascariensis; Malagasy tree boa, Sanzinia madagascariensis; Madagascar fruit-bat argasid, Ornithodoros madagascariensis madagascariensis
magnus Lgreat, large streaked spiderhunter, Arachnothera magna magnus magna magnum
major Lgreater great tit, Parus major
malabaricus Lfrom Malabar chestnut-tailed starling, Sturnia malabaricus
marginatus Lborderedgold edge Japanese euonymus, Euonymus japonicus 'Aureomarginatus' ; marginated tortoise, Testudo marginata marginatus - marginata - marginatum
maritima Lof the sea sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima;
samphire, Crithmum maritimum, sea holly, Eryngium maritimum;
polar bear, Ursus maritimus, sea rush, Juncus maritimus,
maritima maritimum maritimus
mauro-G μαυρός (maurós)dark, black dark shrew, Crocidura maurisca
maximus Llargest royal tern, Sterna maxima
mega- G μέγας (mégas)large, great megalodon shark, Carcharodon megalodon
megacephalusGbig-headed Andriyashev large-headed sculpin, Andriashevicottus megacephalus; big-head rush, Juncus megacephalus; big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala; big-headed tiger beetle, Megacephala megacephala; coastal plain hawkweed, Hieracium megacephalum; large-headed rice rat, Hylaeamys megacephalus megacephalus megacephala megacephalum
mel L honey black sage, Salvia mellifera; Nephelium melliferum; western honey bee, Apis mellifera
melano- G μελανός (melanós) black black-browed albatross, Thalassarche melanophris melanus melana
melanocephalus Gblack-headed black-headed fleabane, Erigeron melanocephalus; black-headed snake, Tantilla melanocephala; ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum melanocephalus melanocephala melanocephalum
melanophyllusGblack-leaved Melanophylla ; Melanophyllum melanophyllus melanophylla melanophyllum
melanopsGblack-eyed, black-faced black-eyed blue, Glaucopsyche melanops; black-fronted dotterel, Elseyornis melanops; gray spiny mouse, Scolomys melanops melanops
mephitis Lbad odor striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis; yellow-pigmented bacteria, Luteimonas mephitis
micro- G μικρός (mikrós)small littleleaf pussytoes, Antennaria microphylla
microphyllusGsmall-leaved baby sage, Salvia microphylla; boxleaf azara, Azara microphylla; littleleaf box, Buxus microphylla; littleleaf mock-orange, Philadelphus microphyllus; small-leaf climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum microphyllus microphylla microphyllum
minimus Lsmallest least flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
minor Lsmaller great frigatebird, Fregata minor
minuta Lsmall dwarf waterclover, Marsilea minuta, little cuckoo, Coccycua minuta;
little gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus, harvest mouse, Micromys minutus;
little willowherb, Epilobium minutum,
minuta - minutus - minutum
monile Lnecklace Conus monilifer
mono- G μόνος (mónos)single Swinhoe's storm-petrel, Oceanodroma monorhis; Monotreme
monoica L monoicous the sandpaper saucer-berry, Cordia monoica monoica
monospermus LHaving a single sperm cell one-seed juniper Juniperus monosperma monospermus - monosperma - monospermum
monspeliensisLfrom Montpellier Montpellier cistus, Cistus monspeliensis monspeliensis - monspessulanus - monspessulana - monspessulanum
montanus L mons of the mountains mountain bottlebrush, Melaleuca montana; mountain mahogany, Cercocarpus montanus; mountain thistle, Acanthus montanus; tree sparrow, Passer montanus montanus
morpho- G μορφή (morphḗ) shape Menelaus blue morpho, Morpho menelaus
mus, mysL mūs G μῦς (mûs) mouse house mouse, Mus musculus; as rodent, e.g. Phoberomys , Telicomys
mulgere G to milk European nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus Caprimulgus
muralis Lgrowing on the wall annual wall-rocket Diplotaxis muralis, Psammophiliella muralis

N

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
nanosG νᾶνος (nânos) L nanus dwarf brown-capped woodpecker, Dendrocopos nanus;
dwarf birch, Betula nana;
dwarf shrew, Sorex nanus
nanus
niger , nigr-L black black skimmer, Rhrychops niger;
black pine, Pinus nigra;
black softshell turtle, Nilssonia nigricans;
black-footed albatross, Phoebastria nigripes;
black-spined Atlantic tree-rat, Phyllomys nigrispinus
See also: ater
nigra - nigras - nigrus - nigrum - nigrescens
nipponensisLfrom Japan freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense; Japanese bobtail squid, Sepiolina nipponensis
See also: japonicus
nipponensis nipponense
nitidus L nitere shining Baja cape kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula nitida;
Mauritius blue pigeon, Alectroenas nitidissima;
shining pea clam, Pisidium nitidum;
shining tree iguana, Liolaemus nitidus
nitidus nitida nitidum
nix L snow snow buckwheat, Eriogonum niveum;
snow bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis;
snow petrel, Pagodroma nivea;
snow sheep Ovis nivicola;
snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus;
snowy primrose, Primula nivalis;
snowy sunflower, Helianthus niveus;
nivalis niveus nivea niveum nivosus
nonus Lninth honey fungus, Armillaria nabsnona
nothosG νόθος (nóthos) L nothus false, wrong bluefin notho killifish, Nothobranchius rachovii;
New Zealand red beech, Nothofagus fusca
notonG νῶτον (nôton)back black-backed antshrike, Thamnophilus melanonotus
notosG νότος (nótos) southern fawn hopping mouse, Notomys cervinus
novaehollandiae Lfrom New Holland (Australia) emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae
novaeseelandiae Lfrom New Zealand southern boobook, Ninox novaeseelandiae
noveboracensis Lfrom New York (Novum Eboracum ) margined carrion beetle, Oiceoptoma noveboracense;
New York fern, Thelypteris noveboracensis;
northern waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis
noveboracensis noveboracense
novem L nine nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus;
nine-spotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata
nucifera Lbearing nuts butter-nut of Guiana, Caryocar nuciferum;
coconut, Cocos nucifera
All pages with titles containing nucifera
nutans Lnodding nodding madia, Harmonia nutans;
nodding spurge, Euphorbia nutans
nutans

O

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExampleSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
obscurus L dark dark bolo mouse, Necromys obscurus; dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus; obscure morning glory, Ipomoea obscura; rare clubmoss, Lycopodium obscurum obscurus obscura obscurum
obsoletus Lobsolete, degenerate Pantherophis obsoletus ; Great Plains skink, Plestiodon obsoletus obsoletus obsoletum
occidentalis Lwestern eastern arborvitae, Thuja occidentalis; western clover, Trifolium occidentale occidentalis occidentale
oceanG ὠκεανός (ōkeanós) ocean oceanic gecko, Gehyra oceanica;
Mediterranean tapeweed, Posidonia oceanica
oceanicus oceanica
octo-, octa-G ὀκτω- ὀκτα- eight common octopus, Octopus vulgaris
-odon, -odusG ὀδών (odṓn), ὀδούς (odoús) tooth Dimetrodon , Rhizodus
oeso-G οἰσέμεν (oisémen), οἰσ-carry Oesophagostomum
officinalis Lfor the workshop; medicinal ginger, Zingiber officinale;
rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
officinalis officinale
oleraceus Lused as a vegetable cabbage, broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts, and so on, Brassica oleracea ; common sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus oleraceus oleracea oleraceum
oleum , olearis Loil Omphalotus olearius , jack o'lantern mushroom
ophisG ὄφις (óphis)serpent Carphophis vermis , western wormsnake
opsG ὤψ (ṓps)face, eye Triceratops
-opsis G ὄψις (ópsis)resembling Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis
orientalis Leastern Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis orientalis orientale
ortho- G ὀρθός (orthós)straight Orthoptera
oryzaG ὄρυζα (óruza) rice Asian rice, Oryza sativa; rice rats, Oryzomys
ovatus Legg-shapedshagbark hickory, Carya ovata ovatus ovata ovatum

P

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
pachy- G παχύς (pakhús)thick, stout Pachycephalosaurus
pallidus Lpale Dalmatian iris, Iris pallida pallidus pallida pallidum
palustrisL paluster of the marsh mugger crocodile, Crocodylus palustris;
marsh marigold, Caltha palustris
palustris palustre
pan- panto- G πᾶν (pân)all Pancratium (a flower); Pangaea
parviflorus Lsmall-flowered small-flowered mallow, Malva parviflora;
thimbleberry, Rubus parviflorus
parviflorus parviflora parviflorum
parvifolius Lsmall-leaved Chinese elm, Ulmus parvifolia;
littleleaf ceanothus, Ceanothus parvifolius;
small-leaved lomatium, Lomatium parvifolium
parvifolius parvifolia parvifolium
parvus Lsmall dwarf catshark, Asymbolus parvus;
mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus;
small onion, Allium parvum
parvus parvum
pecten Lcomb Venus comb murex, Murex pecten
pedL pēs foot showy lady slipper, Cypripedium reginae
pelagicusL, G πελαγικόςof the open sea pelagic cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicus pelagica pelagicum
penn-L penna feather, wing Darwin's rhea, Rhea pennata;
great auk, Pinguinus impennis
penta- G πέντε (pénte)five five-fingered skink, Chalcides pentadactylus
petro- G πέτρα (pétra), L petra rock, stone Roberts's flat-headed bat, Sauromys petrophilus;
rock daisy, Erigeron petrophilus
phago- G ἔφαγον eatAfrican scat (fish), Scatophagus tetracanthus ;
Ichthyophaga , the ("fish-eating") sea eagle
phenolicusLable to degrade phenol Pseudoalteromonas phenolica phenolicus phenolica phenolicum
philippinensisLfrom the Philippines katmon tree, Dillenia philippinensis;
Philippine cobra, Naja philippinensis
pholisG φολῐ́ς (pholís)horny scale bluespotted grouper, Cephalopholis argus
phyllo- G φύλλον (phúllon)leaf garden lupin, Lupinus polyphyllus
physi-G φύσις (phúsis)nature Symphysia ("naturally joined") (a plant) [4]
phyto- G φυτόν (phutón)plant Astrophytum , Astrophytum myriostigma (a cactus); epiphyte
pictus Lpainted Pimelodus pictus , a catfish;
painted skipper, Hesperilla picta;
painted tunicate, Clavelina picta;
Abutilon pictum , a shrub
pictus picta pictum
platy- G πλατύς (platús)flat and broad flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus; platypus
plumosum Lfeathered big tarweed, Blepharizonia plumosa; buzzer midge, Chironomus plumosus plumosus plumosa plumosum
pod- G πούς (poús)foot, leg, stemred-footed spikesedge, Eleocharis erythropoda ; Arthropoda; Gastropoda
poliocephalus Ggrey-headed ashy-headed goose, Chloephaga poliocephala;
grey-crowned flatbill, Tolmomyias poliocephalus;
grey-headed flying fox, Pteropus poliocephalus;
grey-headed goshawk, Accipiter poliocephalus;
hoary-headed grebe, Poliocephalus poliocephalus;
white-headed langur, Trachypithecus poliocephalus;
yellow-lored tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum poliocephalum
poliocephalus poliocephala poliocephalum
poly- G πολύς (polús)many, much common knotgrass, Polygonum aviculare
pomum Lfruit apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella;
apple murex, Phyllonotus pomum;
codling moth, Cydia pomonella;
emu apple, Kunzea pomifera;
Osage orange, Maclura pomifera
pomum pomifer pomifera pomonella
ponticus G Πόντος (Póntos)Pontic; from Pontus, Turkey Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus;
Pontic adder, Vipera pontica;
Pontic rhododendron, Rhododendron ponticum;
Roman wormwood, Artemisia pontica
ponticus pontica ponticum
praecox Learly early onion, Allium praecox;
neon rainbow, Melanotaenia praecox;
wintersweet, Chimonanthus praecox
praecox
praestans Lexcelling Kamchatka bilberry, Vaccinium praestans;
goliath webcap mushroom, Cortinarius praestans;
(a butterfly), Ypthima praestans ;
(a ground beetle), Lesticus praestans ;
Tulipa praestans
praestans
prātum L meadow Inyo meadow lupine, Lupinus pratensis;
meadow foxtail, Alopecurus pratensis;
meadow sedge, Carex praticola;
meadow waxcap, Cuphophyllus pratensis
pratensis pratense praticola
proto- G πρῶτος (prôtos)first Protozoa
pruriens Litching velvet bean, Mucuna pruriens pruriens
pseudo- L G ψευδής (pseudḗs)false or fake Brazilian false rice rat, Pseudoryzomys simplex;
pastel flower, Pseuderanthemum variabile
psychrophilusG ψυχρός (psukhrós) cold-loving bacterial rod, Flavobacterium psychrophilum;
bacterium, Geobacter psychrophilus;
whip-lash squid, Mastigoteuthis psychrophila
psychrophilus psychrophila psychrophilum
pterus , -pter G πτερόν (pterón)wing, feather white-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus;
Pteranodon (winged toothless);
Pterodactylus (winged finger);
Pteridophyta; Diptera;
Coleoptera
pubescens Ldowny downy oak, Quercus pubescens pubescens
pugilL pugil a boxer fighting conch, Strombus pugilis pugilis
pulchellus Lpretty little [5] beautiful sunbird, Cinnyris pulchella;
green pygmy goose, Nettapus pulchellus
pulchellus pulchella pulchellum
pumilus Ldwarf Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum;
dwarf cuckoo, Coccycua pumila;
dwarf mouse-ear, Cerastium pumilum;
eastern forest bat, Vespadelus pumilus;
shaggy fleabane, Erigeron pumilus;
Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila
pumila pumilus pumilum
punctatus Lspotted, marked with punctures dotted thyme-moss, Rhizomnium punctatum;
thirteen-spotted lady beetle, Hippodamia tredecimpunctata
punctatus punctata punctatum
pungensL pungens pungent blue spruce, Picea pungens;
pungent slippery jack, Suillus pungens
pungens
purpurascens Lsomewhat purple veiled purple hygrophorus, Hygrophorus purpurascens purpurascens
purpureusL purpureus purple purple amole, Chlorogalum purpureum;
purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea;
purple finch, Haemorhous purpureus
purpureus purpurea purpureum
pygo- G πυγή (pugḗ)tail, rump chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarcticus

Q

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExampleSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
quadri- L quattuor four, squareburr grass, Festuca quadriflora (four-flowered);
four-coloured bushshrike, Telophorus quadricolor;
fourspot butterflyfish, Chaetodon quadrimaculatus;
whorled loosestrife, Lysimachia quadrifolia (four-leaved)
All pages with titles beginning with Quadri

R

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
radix L root or radish taproot fleabane, Erigeron radicatus radix radicans radicatus radicis
rāmus Lbranch branched draba, Draba ramosissima;
branched murex, Chicoreus ramosus
ramosus ramosa ramulosus
regalis Lroyal Synalpheus regalis ;
regal moth, Citheronia regalis;
royal lily, Lilium regale
regalis regale
repandusL repandus curved upwards, turned up dragon's tongue, Hemigraphis repanda;
hedgehog mushroom, Hydnum repandum;
Peruvian apple cactus, Cereus repandus
repandus repanda repandum
repens Lcreeping, crawling (rēpēns) creeping buttercup, Ranunculus repens
repensLunexpected (rĕpēns) white clover, Trifolium repens
reptans , rept-Lcreeping, crawling bugle, Ajuga reptans;
creeping cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; Reptilia
reptans
reticulata Lreticulated mandarin orange, Citrus reticulata reticulatus reticulata reticulatum
rhino- G ῥίς (rhís) nose orange leaf-nosed bat, Rhinonicteris aurantia; rhinoceros
rhizaG ῥίζα (rhíza)root bushy seedbox, Ludwigia helminthorrhiza; Rhizobium (nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria)
rhynchosG ῥύγχος (rhúnkhos)beak or snout mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; Rhamphorhynchus
rhytisG ῥῠτίς (rhutís)wrinkled, folded shaggy moss, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus; Rhytidodon (syn. Rutiodon)
rigidus Lrigid, stiffbig galleta, Hilaria rigida rigidus rigida rigidum
rostr- L rōstrum beak, bill, snout common crossbill, Loxia curvirostra
rostralis Lwith a beakbuttoned snout moth, Hypena rostralis rostralis rostrale
rostratus L rōstrātus having a beak beaked sedge, Carex rostrata;
beaked yucca, Yucca rostrata;
Caribbean sharp-nose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata;
longnose surgeonfish, Zebrasoma rostratum
rostratus rostrata rostratum
ruber , rubr-L ruber red red maple, Acer rubrum;
red valerian, Centranthus ruber;
ruby bolete, Hortiboletus rubellus;
summer tanager, Piranga rubra
ruber rubra rubrum rubellus rubrescens
ruder-L rūdus , rūderisrubbish Cannabis ruderalis ;
Porophyllum ruderale ;
ruderal bumblebee, Bombus ruderatus
ruderalis ruderale ruderatus
rudis , rud-Lrough, rude coarse chameleon, Trioceros rudis;
pied kingfisher Ceryle rudis;
rough gecko, Naultinus rudis;
rough mabuya, Eutropis rudis
rudis rude
rufus , ruf-Lred, reddish red wolf, Canis rufus;
rufous rubber cup, Galiella rufa
rufus rufa rufum rufescens

S

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
sanctus LsacredSee sanctus (species) sanctus
sanguis Lblood bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis sanguinis
sapiens Lwiserecent subspecies of humans: Homo sapiens sapiens ("wise wise man")
saponaria Lsoapy [6] [7] soapworts ( Saponaria spp.), soapbark ( Quillaja saponaria ), Ramaria flavosaponaria saponaria
sarawakensis Malaysian from Sarawak Sarawak pygmy swellshark Cephaloscyllium sarawakensis sarawakensis
sativus Lsown, cultivated oat, Avena sativa;
pea, Pisum sativum;
rice, Oryza sativa
sativus sativa sativum
saura , -saur G σαῦρος (saûros)lizard, reptile lancetfish, Alepisaurus; Maiasaura (dinosaur)
sculptus Lsculpted reed-stemmed orchid, Epidendrum sculptum;
sculpted lanternshark, Etmopterus sculptus;
sculpted puffball, Calvatia sculpta
sculptus sculpta sculptum
septem Lseven seven-spot ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata
septentrionalis Lnorthern (cf. borealis) northern spleenwort, Asplenium septentrionale septentrionalis septentrionale
setosus Lbristly or shaggy hairy Atlantic spiny rat, Trinomys setosus;
artic iris Iris setosa,
Diadema setosum
setosus setosa setosum
silvestris , sylvestris Lfrom woodland or forest; wild wildcat, Felis silvestris;
snowdrop anemone, Anemone sylvestris
silvestris , sylvestris silvestre , sylvestre
similis Lsimilar Callinectes similis similis
simplex Lsimplesee List of species named simplex simplex
sinensis Lfrom China tea, Camellia sinensis sinensis sinense
speciosus Lshowy queen's crape-myrtle, Lagerstroemia speciosa;
Japanese lily, Lilium speciosum
speciosus speciosa speciosum
spermaG σπέρμα (spérma)seed African daisies, Osteospermum
sphen-, spheno- G σφήν (sphḗn)wedge tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus
squamatus lwith scales scaly francolin, Pternistis squamatus, scaled woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes squamatus
stomaG στόμα (stóma)mouth, openingstomate, Gnathostomata
striatus Lstriped African striped skink, Trachylepis striata;
striated heron, Butorides striatus;
striped Barbados lily, Hippeastrum striatum
striatus striata striatum
strictus Lstraight, narrow, erect chocolate lily, Dichopogon strictus;
Oxalis stricta ; Babiana stricta ; Nardus stricta ,
bog haircap moss, Polytrichum strictum
strictus stricta strictum
strix , strig-L or Gowl kakapo or owl parrot, Strigops habroptilus;
tawny frogmouth, Podargus strigoides;
tawny owl, Strix aluco
suber Lcork cork oak, Quercus suber
suchos, -suchus G σοῦχος (soûkhos)crocodile (from Egyptian) Eusuchia;
Koolasuchus
sulcatus Lfurrowed furrowed wakerobin, Trillium sulcatum;
grooved helmet-orchid, Nematoceras sulcatum
sulcatus sulcata sulcatum
syriacusL Syrian common milkweed, Asclepias syriacus syriacus syriaca syriacum

T

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
tardus , tardi-Lslow, late great bustard, Otis tarda;
Chisos Mountains oak, Quercus tardifolia
tele- , tel-G τῆλε (têle)far, distant New South Wales waratah, Telopea speciosissima
tenax Lclinging, tenaciousbear grass, Xerophyllum tenax ;
tough bully, Sideroxylon tenax;
tough-leaved iris, Iris tenax
tenax
tenuis Lthin, slender, fine slender rush, Juncus tenuis;
plealeaf knotweed, Polygonum tenue
tenuis tenue
tetra- G τετρα-four four-leaved allseed, Polycarpon tetraphyllum; Tetrapoda
therium, ther-G θηρίον (thēríon), θήρ (thḗr)beast, wild animal giant ground sloth, Megatherium americanum;
stinkpot turtle, Sternotherus odoratus;
gelada, Theropithicus gelada
tinctorius Lfor dyeing woad, Isatis tinctoria tinctorius tinctoria tinctorium
tomentosus Lfurry bristle-tail filefish, Acreichthys tomentosus;
fuzzy mock-orange, Philadelphus tomentosus;
woollyleaf ceanothus, Ceanothus tomentosus
tomentosus tomentosa tomentosum
tri- , tris-L tri- , G τρι- (tri-) three black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla;
three-cornered garlic, Allium triquetrum
tricho- , -thrixG θρίξ (thríx), τριχ- (trikh-)hair cloud ear fungus, Auricularia polytricha
tripartitus Lthree-part threepart violet, Viola tripartita;
threetip sagebrush, Artemisia tripartita
tripartitus tripartita
tristis Lsad, disagreeable, bitter, foul Ever-flowering gladiolus, Gladiolus tristis
American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis
Mupli beetle, Luprops tristis
troglodytes L G τρωγλοδύτης (trōglodútēs)cave-dweller chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes;
wren, Troglodytes troglodytes
tropicalis L tropical Candida tropicalis (yeast);
Rostraureum tropicale (fungus)
tropicalis tropicale

U

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExampleSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
ulmusL elm American elm, Ulmus americana; elmleaf goldenrod, Solidago ulmifolia; Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila; Ulmus
ulosG οὖλος (oûlos)woolly Uloborus ; Ulotrichi ; Ulotrichopus All pages with titles beginning with Ulo
unusL one Monotropa uniflora ; unicolor woolly lemur, Avahi unicolor
uraG οὐρά (ourá)of the tail mourning dove, Zenaida macroura; coral snake, Micrurus corallinus

V

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExamplesSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
variabilis Lvariable grey bunting, Emberiza variabilis variabilis variabile
variegatusLvariegated variegated laughingthrush, Garrulax variegatus; croton, Codiaeum variegatum variegatus variegata variegatum
velox, velocisLswift swift fox, Vulpes velox; Velociraptor velox
ventralisLventral, of the belly Hispaniolan parrot, Amazona ventralis;
southern dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion ventrale
ventralis ventrale
vernicosaLvarnished varnished maxillaria, Maxillaria vernicosa vernicosus vernicosa vernicosum
vernus, vernalisLspring spring gentian, Gentiana verna;
spring pheasant's eye, Adonis vernalis;
spring sneezeweed, Helenium vernale
vernalis vernale
verrucosusLrough-skinned Javan warty pig, Sus verrucosus; reef stonefish, Synanceia verrucosa verrucosus verrucosa verrucosum
versicolorLmany-colored varied honeyeater, Lichenostomus versicolor; Vietnam mouse-deer, Tragulus versicolor versicolor
verticillataL whorled spaghetti bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum; whorled plectranthus, Plectranthus verticillatus verticillatus verticillata verticillatum
verusLtrue, genuine true aloe, Aloe vera; lady's bedstraw, Galium verum verus verum
victoriaeL Victorian Victoria's bar, Cigaritis victoriae victoriae
villosus L [8] hairy, shaggy hairy nightshade, Solanum villosum;
hairy stonecrop, Sedum villosum;
hairy vetch, Vicia villosa;
hairy woodpecker, Picoides villosus;
shaggy hawkweed, Hieracium villosum;
villous deadly carrot, Thapsia villosa
villosus villosa villosum
virginianaL Virginia Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana; Rosa virginiana , the Virginia rose virginiana virginianum
viridis Lgreen frog orchid, Coeloglossum viride;
green alder, Alnus viridis;
green wrasse, Labrus viridis
viridis viride
virosusLpoisonous cowbane, Cicuta virosa; poisonous lettuce, Lactuca virosa virosus - virosa
viticola
( vitis -cola )
L grape vine inhabitant or cultivator Phomopsis viticola ; Plasmopara viticola ; Schizomyia viticola viticola
volansLflying flying dragon, Draco volans; southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans volans
vulgaris Lcommon common octopus, Octopus vulgaris; common privet, Ligustrum vulgare vulgaris vulgare

W–Z

Latin/GreekLanguageEnglishExampleSearch for titles containing the word or using the prefix:
xanthosG ξανθός yellow yellow staining mushroom, Agaricus xanthodermus All pages with titles beginning with Xanth
zosterG ζωστήρ (zōstḗr)belt, girdle white-eyes, Zosterops; Zosterophyllum ; Zosterocarpus abyssicola All pages with titles beginning with Zoster
zygosG ζυγός joined Zygophyllum ; Zygoptera All pages with titles beginning with Zygo

See also

Related Research Articles

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. The inflectional change of verbs is called conjugation.

Genitive case Grammatical case

In grammar, the genitive case, also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun—thus, indicating an attributive relationship of one noun to the other noun. A genitive can also serve purposes indicating other relationships. For example, some verbs may feature arguments in the genitive case; and the genitive case may also have adverbial uses.

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs. This system is used in approximately one quarter of the world's languages. In these languages, most or all nouns inherently carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values present in a given language are called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words."

Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case, number and gender. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are declined, and a given pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. Each noun follows one of the five declensions, but some irregular nouns have exceptions.

The vocative case is used for a noun that identifies a person being addressed or occasionally for the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address by which the identity of the party spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence. For example, in the sentence "I don't know, John," John is a vocative expression that indicates the party being addressed, as opposed to the sentence "I don't know John" in which "John" is the direct object of the verb "know".

Binomial nomenclature System of identifying species of organisms using a two-part name

Binomial nomenclature, also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name, a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin name.

The locative case is a grammatical case which indicates a location. It corresponds vaguely to the English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by". The locative case belongs to the general local cases, together with the lative and separative case.

Latin grammar grammar of the Latin language

Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order. Nouns are inflected for number and case; pronouns and adjectives are inflected for number, case, and gender; and verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, voice, and mood. The inflections are often changes in the ending of a word, but can be more complicated, especially with verbs.

In English, the plural form of words ending in -us, especially those derived from Latin, often replaces -us with -i. There are many exceptions, some because the word does not derive from Latin, and others due to custom. Conversely, some non-Latin words ending in -us and Latin words that did not have their Latin plurals with -i form their English plurals with -i. Some words' plurals end in -i even though they are not Latin, or that is not the Latin plural, e.g., octopi is sometimes used as a plural for octopus. Prescriptivists consider these forms incorrect, but descriptivists may simply describe them as a natural evolution of language.

Spanish nouns Grammatical feature of Spanish

The Spanish language has nouns that express concrete objects, groups and classes of objects, qualities, feelings and other abstractions. All nouns have a conventional grammatical gender. Countable nouns inflect for number. However, the division between uncountable and countable nouns is more ambiguous than in English.

In the Dutch language, the gender of a noun determines the articles, adjective forms and pronouns that are used in reference to that noun. Gender is a complicated topic in Dutch, because depending on the geographical area or each individual speaker, there are either three genders in a regular structure or a two genders in a dichotomous structure. Both are identified and maintained in formal language.

The first declension is a category of declension that consists of mostly feminine nouns in Latin and Ancient Greek with the defining feature of a long ā. In Greek grammar, it is also called the alpha declension, since its forms have the letter α, at least in the plural.

Lithuanian declension is similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. It is one of the most complicated declension systems among modern Indo-European and modern European languages.

Gothic is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. A set of declined forms of the same word pattern is called a declension. There are five grammatical cases in Gothic with a few traces of an old sixth instrumental case.

<i>Officinalis</i>

Officinalis, or officinale, is a Medieval Latin epithet denoting organisms – mainly plants – with uses in medicine and herbalism. It commonly occurs as a specific epithet - the second term of a two-part botanical name. Officinalis is used to modify masculine and feminine nouns, while officinale is used for neuter nouns.

In Ancient Greek, all nouns are classified according to grammatical gender and are used in a number. According to their function in a sentence, their form changes to one of the five cases. The set of forms that a noun will take for each case and number is determined by the declension that it follows.

Old Norse has three categories of verbs and two categories of nouns. Conjugation and declension are carried out by a mix of inflection and two nonconcatenative morphological processes: umlaut, a backness-based alteration to the root vowel; and ablaut, a replacement of the root vowel, in verbs.

Old High German is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. A set of declined forms of the same word pattern is called a declension. There are five grammatical cases in Old High German.

In Russian grammar, the system of declension is elaborate and complex. Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, demonstratives, most numerals and other particles are declined for two grammatical numbers and six grammatical cases (see below); some of these parts of speech in the singular are also declined by three grammatical genders. This gives many spelling combinations for most of the words, which is needed for grammatical agreement within and (often) outside the proposition. Also, there are several paradigms for each declension with numerous irregular forms.

Historical linguistics has made tentative postulations about and multiple varyingly different reconstructions of Proto-Germanic grammar, as inherited from Proto-Indo-European grammar. All reconstructed forms are marked with an asterisk (*).

References

  1. Chuck Griffith. "Dictionary of Botanical Epithets".
  2. "Rhus glabra L." Northern Arizona University. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  3. "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, G, Gracchus, grăcĭlĭpes" . Retrieved 2016-01-17.
  4. Umberto Quattrocchi (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. CRC Press. p. 2610. ISBN   978-0-8493-2673-8.
  5. Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short (1879). "pulchellus". A Latin Dictionary.
  6. Saponaria. Flora of North America.
  7. Griffith, Chuck (2005). "Dictionary of Botanical Epithets". Dictionary of Botanical Epithets. Retrieved 16 July 2018. saponarius saponaria saponarium soapy sapo sapon noun/m soap (from German) arius ari adj adjective suffix for nouns or numbers: connected to or possessed by
  8. "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, villōsus" . Retrieved 2016-01-17.