|Security class||Adult Male/Category A|
|Population||1238(as of April 2013)|
|Managed by||HM Prison Services|
|Website||Manchester at justice.gov.uk|
HM Prison Manchester is a high-security men's prison in Manchester, England, operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. It is still commonly referred to as Strangeways, which was its former official name derived from the area in which it is located, until it was rebuilt following a major riot in 1990.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. With a population of 545,500 (2017) it is the sixth largest city in the United Kingdom. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.
Her Majesty's Prison Service is a part of Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service, which is the part of Her Majesty's Government charged with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales.
It is a local prison, holding prisoners remanded into custody from courts in the Manchester area and Category A prisoners (those whose escape would be highly dangerous).
Remand is the process of detaining a person who has been arrested and charged with an offense until their trial. A person who is held on remand may be held as a prisoner in prison. Varying terminology is used, but "remand" is generally used in common law jurisdictions and in Europe, preventative detention. Detention before charge is referred to as custody and continued detention after conviction is referred to as imprisonment.
Strangeways was designed by Alfred Waterhouse and opened in 1868 alongside the demolished Manchester Assize Courts. The prison is known for its prominent ventilation tower and imposing design, structured by the principles of the separate system.
Alfred Waterhouse was an English architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture. He is perhaps best known for his design for Manchester Town Hall and the Natural History Museum in London, although he also built a wide variety of other buildings throughout the country. Financially speaking, Waterhouse was probably the most successful of all Victorian architects. Though expert within Neo-Gothic, Renaissance revival and Romanesque revival styles, Waterhouse never limited himself to a single architectural style.
The Manchester Assize Courts were law courts on Great Ducie Street in the Strangeways district of Manchester, England. It was 279 ft (85 m) tall and from 1864 to 1877 the tallest building in Manchester. Widely admired, it has been referred to as one of Britain's 'lost buildings'.
The separate system is a form of prison management based on the principle of keeping prisoners in solitary confinement. When first introduced in the early 19th century, the objective of such a prison or "penitentiary" was that of penance by the prisoners through silent reflection upon their crimes and behavior, as much as that of prison security. More commonly however, the term "separate system" is used to refer to a specific type of prison architecture built to support such a system.
Construction of the Grade II listed prison was completed in 1869, and it was opened on 25 June 1868, to replace the New Bailey Prison in Salford, which closed in 1868. The prison, designed by Alfred Waterhouse in 1862 with input from Joshua Jebb, 234 feet (71 m) ventilation tower (often mistaken for a watchtower) has become a local landmark. The prison's walls, which are rumoured to be 16 feet thick, are said to be impenetrable from either inside or out.cost £170,000, and had a capacity of 1,000 inmates. Its
A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.
The City of Salford is a city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England, extending west from Salford to include the towns of Eccles, Worsley, Swinton, Walkden, Little Hulton, and Irlam. The city has a population of 245,600, and is administered from the Salford Civic Centre in Swinton.
Sir Joshua Jebb, was a Royal Engineer and the British Surveyor-General of convict prisons.
The prison has an element of the separate system with its plan in the form of a star or a snowflake, with two blocks housing ten wings that emanate from a central core where the ventilation tower is situated.The prison consists of two radial blocks branching from the central core with a total of ten wings (A, B, C, D, E, F in one block, and G, H, I, K in the second).
The jail was built on the grounds of Strangeways Park and Gardens, from which it was named. Strangeways was recorded in 1322 as Strangwas from the Anglo-Saxon Strang and gewæsc meaning "[a place by] a stream with a strong current".
The prison was open to male and female prisoners until 1963 when the facility became male-only, and in 1980 it began to accept remand prisoners. As of 2005 the prison held more than 1,200 inmates.
Originally, the prison contained an execution shed in B wing and after World War I a special execution room and cell for the condemned criminal was built. Strangeways was one of the few prisons to have permanent gallows.The first execution at Strangeways was that of twenty-year-old murderer Michael Johnson, who was hanged by William Calcraft on 29 March 1869.
Twenty-nine hangings took place over the next twenty years and 71 took place in the 20th century, bringing the total number to 100. During the second half of the century, the number of executions decreased, with no hangings between 1954 and 28 November 1962, when James Smith was executed. John Robson Walby (alias Gwynne Owen Evans), one of the last two people to be hanged in England, was executed here on 13 August 1964. Out of the 100 hangings, four were double hangings, while the rest were done individually. The "quickest hanging" of James Inglis, in seven seconds, carried out by Albert Pierrepoint, took place here.
The bodies of executed criminals were buried in unmarked graves within the prison walls, as was the custom. During prison rebuilding work in 1991, the remains of 63 executed prisoners (of which 45 were identifiable) were exhumed from unmarked graves in the prison cemeteryand cremated at Blackley Crematorium in Manchester. The cremated remains were re-interred in two graves (plot C2710 and C2711) at the adjacent cemetery.
The following people were hanged at Manchester Prison between 1869 and 1964:
|Date hanged||Name||Reason given|
|29 March 1869||Michael Johnson||murder of Patrick Nurney|
|26 December 1870||Patrick Durr||murder of his wife, Catherine|
|30 December 1872||Michael Kennedy||murder of his wife, Ann|
|21 December 1876||William Flanagan alias Robinson||murder of Margaret Dockerty|
|27 March 1877||John M'Kenna||murder of his wife, Annie|
|4 February 1878||George Pigott||murder of Florence Galloway|
|19 November 1878||James McGowan||murder of his wife|
|20 May 1879||William Cooper||murder of Ellen Mather|
|17 February 1880||William Cassidy||murder of his wife, Rosemary Ann|
|28 November 1881||John Aspinall Simpson||murder of Ann Ratcliffe|
|13 February 1882||Robert Templeton||murder of Betty Scott|
|12 February 1883||Abraham Thomas||murder of Christiana Leigh|
|26 November 1883||Thomas Riley||murder of Elizabeth Alston|
|24 November 1884||Kay Howarth||murder of Richard Dugdale|
|24 November 1884||Harry Hammond Swindells||murder of James Wild|
|9 August 1886||Mary Ann Britland||murders of daughter Elizabeth, husband Thomas and Mary Dixon|
|15 February 1887||Thomas Leatherbarrow||murder of Katherine Quinn|
|30 May 1887||Walter Wood||murder of his wife, Emma|
|15 May 1888||John Alfred Gell||murder of Mary Miller|
|7 August 1888||John Jackson (Charles Firth)||murder of Ralph D Webb|
|24 December 1889||William Dukes||murder of George Gordon|
|19 May 1891||Alfred William Turner||murder of Mary Ellen Moran|
|20 December 1892||Joseph Mellor||murder of his wife, Mary Jane|
|28 November 1893||Emanuel Hamar||murder of Catherine Tyrer|
|31 July 1894||William Crossley||murder of Mary Ann Allen|
|27 November 1894||James Wilshaw Whitehead||murder of his wife|
|4 August 1896||Joseph Hurst||murder of his daughter, Maud Goddard|
|22 February 1898||George William Howe||murder of Joseph Keirby Pickup|
|6 December 1899||Michael Dowdle||murder of his wife, Ellen|
|4 December 1900||Joseph Holden||murder of his grandson, John Dawes|
|3 December 1901||Patrick M'Kenna||murder of his wife, Anna|
|2 December 1902||Henry Mack||murder of Esther Elizabeth Bedford or Thompson|
|12 May 1903||William George Hudson||murder of Harry Short|
|2 December 1903||Charles Whittaker||murder of Eliza Range|
|27 February 1906||John Griffiths||murder of Catherine Garrity|
|12 May 1908||John Ramsbottom||murder of James McCraw|
|28 July 1908||Fred Ballington||murder of his wife, Ellen|
|3 August 1909||Mark Shawcross||murder of Emily Ramsbottom|
|22 February 1910||Joseph Wren||murder of John Collins|
|12 December 1911||Walter Martyn||murder of Edith Griffiths|
|12 December 1911||John Edward Tarkenter||murder of his wife, Rosetta|
|23 July 1912||Arthur Birkett||murder of Alice Beetham|
|13 August 1913||James Ryder||murder of his wife, Ann|
|17 December 1913||Ernest Edwin Kelly||murder of Daniel Wright Bardsley|
|8 March 1916||Fred Holmes||murder of Sarah Woodall|
|29 March 1916||Reginald Haslam||murder of Isabella Holmes Conway|
|19 December 1916||James Howarth Hargreaves||murder of Caroline McGhee|
|21 March 1917||Thomas Clinton||murder of Henry Lynch.|
|17 December 1918||William Rooney||murder of his sister in law, Mary Rooney|
|6 January 1920||Hyman Perdovitch||murder of Solomon Franks|
|6 January 1920||David Caplan||murder of his wife, Freda|
|13 April 1920||Frederick Rothwell Holt||murder of Katherine Elsie Breaks|
|22 June 1920||William Thomas Aldred||murder of Ida Prescott|
|31 December 1920||Charles Colclough||murder of George Henry Shenton|
|5 April 1921||Frederick Quarmby||murder of Christina A Smith|
|24 May 1921||Thomas Wilson||murder of Olive Duff|
|30 May 1922||Hiram Thompson||murder of his wife, Ellen|
|3 January 1923||George Frederick Edisbury||murder of Winifred Drinkwater|
|28 March 1923||George Perry||murder of Emma Perry|
|8 April 1924||Francis Wilson Booker||murder of Percy Sharpe|
|13 August 1924||John Charles Horner||murder of Norman Widderson Pinchin|
|26 May 1925||Patrick Power||murder of Sarah Ann Sykes|
|11 August 1925||James Makin||murder of Sarah Elizabeth Clutton|
|15 December 1925||Sam Johnson||murder of Beatrice Philomina Martin|
|16 March 1926||William Thorpe||murder of Frances Clarke|
|24 June 1926||Louie Calvert||murder of Lilly Waterhouse|
|3 January 1928||Fred Fielding||murder of Eleanor Pilkington|
|28 June 1928||Walter Brooks||murder of Beatrice Brooks and Alfred Moore|
|6 December 1928||Chung Yi Miao||murder of Wai Sheung Yi Miao|
|4 April 1929||George Cartledge||murder of his wife, Ellen|
|16 April 1931||Francis Land||murder of Sarah Ellen Johnson|
|15 December 1931||Solomon Stein||murder of Annie Riley|
|3 February 1932||George Alfred Rice||murder of Constance Inman|
|18 May 1932||Charles James Cowle||murder of Naomi Annie Farnworth|
|19 December 1933||William Burtoft||murder of Frances Levin|
|30 May 1935||John Harris Bridge||murder of Amelia Nuttall|
|12 May 1936||Buck Ruxton||murder of his wife, Isabelle and Mary Jane Rogerson|
|4 February 1937||Max Mayer Haslam||murder of Ruth Clarke|
|12 August 1937||Horace William Brunt||murder of Kate Elizabeth Collier|
|20 April 1938||Charles James Caldwell||murder of his wife, Elisa Augustine|
|11 February 1941||Clifford Holmes||murder of his wife, Irene|
|4 September 1941||John Smith||murder of Margaret Helen Knight|
|26 July 1944||James Galbraith||murder of James William Percey|
|9 April 1946||Harold Berry||murder of Bernard Phillips|
|24 April 1946||Martin Patrick Coffey||murder of Harold Dutton|
|27 February 1947||Walter Graham Rowland||murder of Olive Balchin|
|12 January 1949||Margaret Allen||murder of Nancy Ellen Chadwick|
|28 November 1950||James Henry Corbitt||murder of Eliza Wood|
|19 December 1950||Nicholas Persoulious Crosby||murder of Ruth Massey|
|26 January 1951||Nenad Kovacevic||murder of Radomir Djorovic|
|8 May 1951||James Inglis||murder of Aice Morgan|
|12 June 1951||John Dand||murder of Walter Wyld|
|3 July 1951||Jack Wright||murder of Mona Mather|
|15 January 1952||Alfred Bradley||murder of George Camp|
|26 February 1952||Herbert Roy Harris||murder of his wife, Eileen|
|18 September 1953||Louisa May Merrifield||murder of Sarah Ann Rickets|
|17 December 1953||Stanislaw Juras||murder of Erena Wagner|
|8 January 1954||Czeslaw Kowalewski||murder of Doris Douglas|
|28 November 1962||James Smith||murder of Sarah Isabella Cross|
|13 August 1964||Gwynne Owen Evans||murder of John Allen West|
Between 1 April and 25 April 1990, 147 staff and 47 prisoners were injured in a series of riots by prison inmates. There was one fatality among the prisoners, and one prison officer died from heart failure.Much of the old prison was damaged or destroyed in the rioting. Several inmates were charged with various offences, and Paul Taylor and Alan Lord faced a five-month trial as ringleaders.
The riots resulted in the Woolf Inquiry, and the prison was rebuilt and renamed Her Majesty's Prison, Manchester. Repair and modernisation cost more than £80 million after the riot, and rebuilding was completed in 1994.
The prison is a high-security category A prison for adult males and has a maximum capacity of 1269 as of 4 August 2008. Operation of the prison was put out to tender in 1994 and 2001.Accommodation is divided into nine wings in two radial blocks. Cells are a mixture of single and double occupancy, all having in-cell power points and integral sanitation.
The prison has been noted for a high suicide rate following its reopening in 1994. From 1993 to 2003, Strangeways prison had the second highest number of suicides among inmates of any prison in the United Kingdomand 2004, Strangeways had the highest number of suicides in the country.
Education and vocational training is provided by the Manchester College. Courses offered include information technology, ESOL, numeracy, industrial cleaning, bricklaying, painting and decorating, plastering, textiles and laundry. The prison's gym runs courses in physical education and offers recreational sport and fitness programmes.
In 2015 the Daily Telegraph reported that a drone aircraft was being used in an attempt to deliver drugs and smartphones to precise locations within the prison.
In 2017 a report by the Independent Monitoring Board described Manchester Prison as squalid, vermin infested and reminiscent of Dickensian England. The report added that the prison urgently needed modernisation and assaults on staff have risen due to staff shortages.
In 2016 Nicky Reilly, also known as Mohammed Saeed Alim, a Muslim convert was found dead in his cell after hanging himself. Reilly had a chronic history of self harm, he suffered from Asperger's Syndrome and a personality disorder. A jury decided it was “more likely than not” that he did not intend to die and “acted impulsively.” It is unclear if Reilly understood the concept of death or could form the intent to die. Senior coroner, Joanne Kearsley said evidence given at the court raised “significant concerns.” Kearsley said she was not convinced the prison had a clear plan and awareness of his needs and she questioned why he was not under a care programme approach (CPA) where care coordinators are given to individual prisoners. The coroner asked whether a type of review should be considered for prisoners with recognised lifelong mental health problems and chronic risk of self-harm.
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck. The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck", though it formerly also referred to crucifixion and death by impalement in which the body would remain "hanging". Hanging has been a common method of capital punishment since medieval times, and is the primary execution method in numerous countries and regions. The first known account of execution by hanging was in Homer's Odyssey. In this specialised meaning of the common word hang, the past and past participle is hanged instead of hung.
Albert Pierrepoint was an English hangman who executed between 435 and 600 people in a 25-year career that ended in 1956. His father, Henry, and uncle Thomas were official hangmen before him.
Harry Bernard Allen was one of Britain's last official executioners, officiating between 1941 and 1964. He was chief executioner at 41 executions and acted as assistant executioner at 53 others, at various prisons in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands and Cyprus. He acted as assistant executioner for 14 years, mostly to Albert Pierrepoint from 1941 to 1955.
Adelaide Gaol was an Australian prison located in the Park Lands of Adelaide, in the state of South Australia. The gaol was the first permanent one in South Australia and operated from 1841 until 1988. The Gaol is one of the two oldest buildings still standing in South Australia, the other being Government House which was built at the same time. The prison is now a museum, tourist attraction and function centre.
The Maitland Gaol, also known as Maitland Correctional Centre, is a heritage-listed former Australian prison located in East Maitland, New South Wales. Its construction was started in 1844 and prisoners first entered the gaol in 1848. By the time of its closure, on 31 January 1998, it had become the longest continuously-run gaol in Australia. It has since been turned into a museum and is a popular tourist attraction. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
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Syd Dernley was appointed assistant executioner by the Home Office in 1949, and participated in 20 hangings until he was replaced in 1954. Execution by hanging continued in Britain until 1964.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Singapore. The city-state had the second highest per-capita execution rate in the world between 1994 and 1998, estimated by the United Nations to be 13.83 executions annually per one million people during that period. The highest was Turkmenistan with 14.92. However, since the 2010s, execution has become far less common, with some years having no executions at all. No one was executed in 2012 and 2013, and two persons were executed in 2014. Nevertheless, in recent years, executions have started to increase again: in 2018, 13 people were executed, the most since 2003.
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The 1990 Strangeways Prison riot was a 25-day prison riot and rooftop protest at Strangeways Prison in Manchester, England. The riot began on 1 April 1990 when prisoners took control of the prison chapel, and the riot quickly spread throughout most of the prison. The riot and rooftop protest ended on 25 April when the final five prisoners were removed from the rooftop, making it the longest prison riot in British penal history. One prisoner was killed during the riot, and 147 prison officers and 47 prisoners were injured. Much of the prison was damaged or destroyed with the cost of repairs coming to £50 million.
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