Royal Mill

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Royal Mill

Ancoats- Royal Mill 4506.JPG

Royal Mill
Greater Manchester UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within Greater Manchester
Cotton
Alternative names New Old Mill
Spinning (ring mill)
Architectural style Edwardian Baroque
Structural system Reinforced concrete floors, transverse steel beams on cast iron columns
Owner Fine Cotton Spinners and Doublers Association Ltd
Coordinates 53°28′59″N2°13′40″W / 53.4831°N 2.2278°W / 53.4831; -2.2278 Coordinates: 53°28′59″N2°13′40″W / 53.4831°N 2.2278°W / 53.4831; -2.2278
Construction
Built 1910
Completed 1912
Floor count 5 planned 6 built
Design team
Architect H.S.Porter of Accrington
References
Miller & Wild 2007, p. 55

Royal Mill, which is located on the corner of Redhill Street and Henry Street, Ancoats, in Manchester, England, is an early-twentieth-century cotton mill, one of the last of "an internationally important group of cotton-spinning mills" [1] sited in East Manchester. Royal Mill was constructed in 1912 on part of the site of the earlier McConnel & Kennedy mills, established in 1798. [1] It was originally called New Old Mill and was renamed following a royal visit by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1942. A plaque commemorates the occasion. The Ancoats mills collectively comprise "the best and most-complete surviving examples of early large-scale factories concentrated in one area". [1]

Ancoats inner city area of Manchester, in North West England

Ancoats is an area of Manchester in North West England, next to the Northern Quarter, the northern part of Manchester city centre.

Manchester City and metropolitan borough in England

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's third-most populous metropolitan area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

Contents

Location

Redhill Street in Manchester was home to two large spinning companies, A&G Murray Ltd and McConnells. Historically this area of Manchester had used the waters of the Shooters Brook to power the waterwheels on Salvins Factory [2] and the New Islington Mill. [3] The Rochdale Canal runs alongside the street and the mill. Originally used for transport, the canal had provided water to Murrays and McConnells for the condensors of their steam engines.

Murrays Mills grade II listed architectural structure in Manchester, United kingdom

Murrays' Mills is a complex of former cotton mills on land between Jersey Street and the Rochdale Canal in the district of Ancoats, Manchester, England. The mills were built for brothers Adam and George Murray.

Rochdale Canal

The Rochdale Canal is a navigable broad canal in Northern England, between Manchester and Sowerby Bridge, part of the connected system of the canals of Great Britain. Its name refers to the town of Rochdale, in Greater Manchester, through which it passes.

Stationary steam engine

Stationary steam engines are fixed steam engines used for pumping or driving mills and factories, and for power generation. They are distinct from locomotive engines used on railways, traction engines for heavy steam haulage on roads, steam cars, agricultural engines used for ploughing or threshing, marine engines, and the steam turbines used as the mechanism of power generation for most nuclear power plants.

Plaque commemorating a visit to Royal Mill in 1942 Ancoats- Royal Mill 4507.JPG
Plaque commemorating a visit to Royal Mill in 1942

History

McConnells had joined Fine Spinners and Doublers Association Ltd in 1898. In 1910 it was investing again, and rebuilt two mills and was experimenting with electricity.

The building

The New Old Mill like the Paragon Mill was built in the Edwardian Baroque style by H. S. Porter using Accrington brick and terracotta. It had cast iron columns supporting by transverse steel beams and reinforced concrete floors. Initially both were built as 5-storey, though eventually 6-storey, 9 bay mills. The machines were electrically group driven. The electricity supply was provided by the corporation and a new substation was built in 1915. [4]

Accrington brick

Accrington bricks, or Noris are a type of iron-hard engineering brick, produced in Altham near Accrington, Lancashire, England from 1887 to 2008 and again from 2015. They were famed for their strength, and were used for the foundations of the Blackpool Tower and the Empire State Building.

Terracotta clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic

Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. Terracotta is the term normally used for sculpture made in earthenware, and also for various utilitarian uses including vessels, water and waste water pipes, roofing tiles, bricks, and surface embellishment in building construction. The term is also used to refer to the natural brownish orange color of most terracotta, which varies considerably.

Cast iron iron or a ferrous alloy which has been liquefied then poured into a mould to solidify

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing.

Listing

The mill has been a Grade II* listed building since 11 November 1988. [5] Royal Mill, and its companion Paragon Mill, are "six-storey and nine bay buildings designed to house electrically-powered mules, the first generation of those purpose built for electricity." [6]

After decades of neglect and decay, a restoration scheme costing £65 million was announced by ING Real Estate in 2003, which would see the building converted for use as flats, offices and shops. The work received an award from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors in 2007, and began to be occupied in 2008. Some of the original features have been retained, including the exposed brickwork and items of mill machinery. [7]

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors organization

The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) is a professional body promoting and enforcing the highest international standards in the valuation, management and development of land, real estate, construction and infrastructure.

See also

Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester Wikimedia list article

There are 236 Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, England. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance; Grade II* structures are those considered to be "particularly significant buildings of more than local interest". In England, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Manchester is a city in Northwest England. The M4 postcode area is to the northeast of the city centre, and includes part of the Northern Quarter, part of New Islington, and the area of Ancoats. This postcode area contains 65 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, eight are listed at Grade II*, the middle of the three grades, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade.

Notes

Related Research Articles

Fine Spinners and Doublers was a major cotton spinning business based in Manchester, England. At its peak it was a constituent of the FT 30 index of leading companies on the London Stock Exchange.

Beehive Mill

Beehive Mill is a Grade II* listed former cotton mill in the district of Ancoats, Manchester, England. It is located at on a site surrounded by Radium Street, Jersey Street, Bengal Street and Naval Street.

Bridgewater House, Manchester warehouse in Manchester, England

Bridgewater House, Manchester is a packing and shipping warehouse at 58–60 Whitworth Street, Manchester, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.

Brunswick Mill, Ancoats grade II listed mill in Manchester, United kingdom

Brunswick Mill, Ancoats is a former cotton spinning mill in Ancoats, Manchester, England. The mill was built around 1840, part of a group of mills built along the Ashton Canal, and at that time it was one of the country's largest mills. It was built round a quadrangle, a seven-storey block facing the canal. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished in 1967.

Dale Street Warehouse

Dale Street Warehouse is an early nineteenth century warehouse in the Piccadilly Basin area of Manchester city centre. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 10 November 1972. "It is of considerable interest as the earliest surviving canal warehouse in the city" according to Clare Hartwell. The building is dated 1806 with initials "WC" on the datestone indicating that it was designed by William Crosley, an engineer who worked with William Jessop on the inner-Manchester canal system. Constructed of watershot millstone grit blocks, the four-storey building has timber floors, supported throughout by cast-iron columns, a feature which now makes it unique amongst Manchester warehouses. The base of the building incorporates four boatholes which allowed boats to unload their cargoes inside of the warehouse. The warehouse also incorporates a "subterranean wheel-pit containing a 16-foot water-wheel used to drive hoists both in this building and in a former warehouse to the south via a line-shaft tunnel which mostly survives beneath the car-park." For many years the building was a shop and was described in 2000 as "sadly neglected"; the warehouse has now been converted to office space and a café and renamed Carver's Warehouse.

McConnel & Kennedy Mills

McConnel & Kennedy Mills are a group of cotton mills on Redhill Street in Ancoats, Manchester, England. With the adjoining Murrays' Mills, they form a nationally important group.

Tootal, Broadhurst and Lee Building, Manchester

The Tootal, Broadhurst and Lee Building at No. 56 Oxford Street, in Manchester, England, is a late Victorian warehouse and office block built in a neo-Baroque style for Tootal Broadhurst Lee, a firm of textile manufacturers. It was designed by J. Gibbons Sankey and constructed between 1896 and 1898. It has been designated a Grade II* listed building.

1830 warehouse, Liverpool Road railway station 19th-century warehouse in Manchester, England

The 1830 warehouse, Liverpool Road, Manchester, is a 19th-century warehouse that forms part of the Liverpool Road railway station complex. It was built in five months between April and September 1830, "almost certainly [to the designs of] the Liverpool architect Thomas Haigh". The heritage listing report attributes the work to George Stephenson and his son, Robert. It has been listed Grade I on the National Heritage List for England since May 1973.

Piccadilly Mill, also known as Bank Top Mill or Drinkwater's Mill, owned by Peter Drinkwater, was the first cotton mill in Manchester, England, to be directly powered by a steam engine, and the 10th such mill in the world. Construction of the four-storey mill on Auburn Street started in 1789 and its 8 hp Boulton and Watt engine was installed and working by 1 May 1790. Initially the engine drove only the preparatory equipment and spinning was done manually. The mill-wright was Thomas Lowe, who had worked for William Fairbairn and helped with the planning two of Arkwright's earliest factories.

Kearsley Mill Bolton, Greater Manchester, M26

Kearsley Mill is a 240,000 sq ft, late period cotton mill located in the small village of Prestolee in Kearsley, Greater Manchester. A near complete example of Edwardian mill architecture, the building now functions as headquarters for a number of businesses and is still used in the continued manufacturing and distribution of textiles by Richard Haworth Ltd Est (1876), part of the Ruia Group. The mill is a Grade II listed building.

Great Ancoats Street

Great Ancoats Street is a street in the inner suburb of Ancoats, Manchester, England. Much of Great Ancoats Street was originally named Ancoats Lane and was the location of Ancoats Hall. The street passed through a thriving manufacturing area during the 19th century. It was in close proximity to the Ashton and Rochdale canals. A number of cotton mills built in the early and mid-Victorian period are nearby, some of which have been converted into residential or office buildings, such as Albion Mills. The Pin Mill Works at the junction with Fairfield Street was a late 18th-century pin works, that became a cotton mill run by J & J Thompson and works for dyeing and calico-printing. Brownsfield Mill, a Grade II* listed building, was built in 1825.

Ancoats Hall

Ancoats Hall in Ancoats, Manchester, England, was a post-medieval country house built in 1609 by Oswald Mosley, a member of the family who were Lords of the Manor of Manchester. The old timber-framed hall, built in the early 17th century, was described by John Aiken in his 1795 book Description of the country from 30 to 40 miles around Manchester. The old hall was demolished in the 1820s and replaced by a brick building in the early neo-Gothic style. The new hall, at the eastern end of Great Ancoats Street between Every Street and Palmerston Street, was demolished in the 1960s.

Oldham is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England, and it is unparished. The town and the surrounding countryside contain 101 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, four are listed at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade.

Chadderton is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England and it is unparished. It contains 19 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, one is listed at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade. The area was rural until the coming of the Industrial Revolution, silk weaving arrived in the 18th century, and in the 19th and 20th centuries large cotton mills were built. The Rochdale Canal runs through the town, and two structures associated with it are listed, a bridge and a lock. The oldest listed buildings are farmhouses and a country house. The later buildings reflect the growing wealth of the town, and include cotton mills, churches, civic buildings, and a war memorial.

Royton is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England and it is unparished. It contains five listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, one is listed at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade. The area was rural until the coming of the Industrial Revolution when the town grew due to the cotton industry. Th listed buildings consist of a house, a farm building, two churches and a cotton mill.

Heywood is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England, and it is unparished. The town and the surrounding countryside contain 17 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, two are listed at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade. Until the coming of the Industrial Revolution the area was rural, and during the 19th century cotton mills were built. The earliest listed buildings are a house and a farmhouse with farm buildings. The later listed buildings include cotton mills, churches and associated structures, a railway warehouse, a library, a house designed by Edgar Wood, and two war memorials.

Manchester is a city in Northwest England. The M15 postcode area is to the southwest of the centre of the city and includes the areas of Hulme, and parts of Moss Side and Chorlton-on-Medlock. The postcode area contains 33 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, two are listed at Grade II*, the middle grade of the three grades, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, p. 380.
  2. Miller & Wild 2007, p. 35.
  3. Miller & Wild 2007, p. 42.
  4. Miller & Wild 2007, p. 55.
  5. Historic England. "Royal Mill Manchester (456965)". Images of England . Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  6. Hartwell 2001, p. 280.
  7. "About Royal Mills, History". Royal Mills. pp. 2003, 2007, 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2011.

Bibliography