Barton Arcade, St. Ann Square
|Town or city||Manchester|
|Structural system||Cast iron and glass.|
|Design and construction|
|Engineer||Corbett, Raby & Sawyer|
Barton Arcade is a Victorian shopping arcade in Manchester, England, located between Deansgate and St Ann's Square.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, and the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War; a Pax Britannica of international free trade was maintained by the country's naval and industrial supremacy. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion, particularly in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. The city itself is the sixth-largest in the United Kingdom with a population of 545,500 as of 2017, but it lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 2.55 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The arcade was listed as a Grade II* listed building on the 25 January 1972. The listing includes the "block of shops (Barton's Building) and offices enclosing the arcades." It was constructed by Corbett, Raby and Sawyer in 1871.Hartwell describes the Barton's Building facade as "utterly ignorant.. the ground floor pilasters must be seen to be believed." The arcade, however, is "a gorgeous glass and iron shopping arcade with glass domes..., the best example of this type of cast-iron and glass arcade anywhere in the country." The entrance to the arcade on St Ann's Square incorporates a large, cast iron and glass wall. The two entrances on Deansgate are hidden behind the Barton Building. The building is of "four storeys with an attic, a long nine-bay facade to Deansgate, divided in half horizontally by a balustraded balcony". The structure is composed of cast iron and glass. The iron work was supplied by the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow. The building was one of the first to be built on the newly widened Deansgate. The arcade was restored in the 1980s. The original shop fronts and decorative floor no longer exist.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing.
Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative uses in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) from sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives.
The Saracen Foundry was the better-known name for the Possilpark, Glasgow–based foundry company W MacFarlane & Co. Ltd, founded and owned by Walter MacFarlane. MacFarlane's was the most important manufacturer of ornamental ironwork in Scotland.
In 1957 the Barton Arcade was sold privately for a sum "in the region of £200,000" for 12 shops and three floors of offices and showrooms. It was bought by an insurance company and Town and City Properties Ltd. The total net floor area was 55,000 sq ft and in 1957 the rent roll was about £17,000 a year. It is named after its original developer.
The Free Trade Hall on Peter Street, Manchester, England, was a public hall, constructed in 1853–56 on St Peter’s Fields, the site of the Peterloo Massacre. It is now a Radisson hotel.
India Buildings is a commercial building with its principal entrance in Water Street, Liverpool, Merseyside, England. Mainly an office building, it also contains an internal shopping arcade and the entrance to an underground station. It was built between 1924 and 1932, damaged by a bomb in 1941, and later restored to its original condition under the supervision of one of its original architects. The building, its design influenced by the Italian Renaissance and incorporating features of the American Beaux-Arts style, occupies an entire block in the city.
The Portico Library, The Portico or Portico Library and Gallery on Mosley Street, Manchester, is an independent subscription library designed in the Greek Revival style by Thomas Harrison of Chester and built between 1802 and 1806. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a Grade II* listed building, having been designated on 25 February 1952, and has been described as "the most refined little building in Manchester".
Sunlight House is a Grade II listed building in the art deco style on Quay Street in Manchester, England.. Completed in 1932 for Joseph Sunlight, at 14 storeys it was the tallest building in Manchester, and the top floors of turrets and multiple dormer windows and mansard roofs create a distinctive skyline.
No. 1 Deansgate is the name and location of a medium-rise apartment building in central Manchester, England. It is the tallest all-steel residential building in the United Kingdom, and one of the most expensive addresses in Manchester. The building was completed in 2002, and is situated at the north end of Deansgate close to Manchester Cathedral.
Deansgate is a main road through Manchester city centre, England. It runs roughly north–south in a near straight route through the western part of the city centre and is the longest road in the city centre at over one mile long.
The architecture of Manchester demonstrates a rich variety of architectural styles. The city is a product of the Industrial Revolution and is known as the first modern, industrial city. Manchester is noted for its warehouses, railway viaducts, cotton mills and canals - remnants of its past when the city produced and traded goods. Manchester has minimal Georgian or medieval architecture to speak of and consequently has a vast array of 19th and early 20th-century architecture styles; examples include Palazzo, Neo-Gothic, Venetian Gothic, Edwardian baroque, Art Nouveau, Art Deco and the Neo-Classical.
The former Manchester Law Library is a Grade II* listed building in the Venetian Gothic style at 14 Kennedy Street, Manchester. "The building is noteworthy by virtue of having been built for the purposes of a law library and, London and the old universities aside, it is believed to have performed this function for a period longer than any other provincial law library".
Dale Street Warehouse is an early nineteenth century warehouse in the Piccadilly Basin area of Manchester city centre. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 10 November 1972. "It is of considerable interest as the earliest surviving canal warehouse in the city" according to Clare Hartwell. The building is dated 1806 with initials "WC" on the datestone indicating that it was designed by William Crosley, an engineer who worked with William Jessop on the inner-Manchester canal system. Constructed of watershot millstone grit blocks, the four-storey building has timber floors, supported throughout by cast-iron columns, a feature which now makes it unique amongst Manchester warehouses. The base of the building incorporates four boatholes which allowed boats to unload their cargoes inside of the warehouse. The warehouse also incorporates a "subterranean wheel-pit containing a 16-foot water-wheel used to drive hoists both in this building and in a former warehouse to the south via a line-shaft tunnel which mostly survives beneath the car-park." For many years the building was a shop and was described in 2000 as "sadly neglected"; the warehouse has now been converted to office space and a café and renamed Carver's Warehouse.
Asia House at No. 82 Princess Street, Manchester, England, is an early 20th century packing and shipping warehouse built between 1906 and 1909 in an Edwardian Baroque style. It is a Grade II* listed building as at 3 October 1974. Nikolaus Pevsner's The Buildings of England describes the warehouse, and its companion, No. 86, Manchester House, as "quite splendid ... good examples of the warehouse type designed for multiple occupation by shipping merchants". It attributes its design to I.R.E. Birkett, architect of the Grade II listed companion building, Manchester House, which is similar in design. English Heritage attributes it to Harry S. Fairhurst. Asia House has an "exceptionally rich" entrance hall and stairwell, "lined with veined marble and green and cream faience, with designs of trees and Art Nouveau stained glass".
Royal Mill, which is located on the corner of Redhill Street and Henry Street, Ancoats, in Manchester, England, is an early-twentieth-century cotton mill, one of the last of "an internationally important group of cotton-spinning mills" sited in East Manchester. Royal Mill was constructed in 1912 on part of the site of the earlier McConnel & Kennedy mills, established in 1798. It was originally called New Old Mill and was renamed following a royal visit by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1942. A plaque commemorates the occasion. The Ancoats mills collectively comprise "the best and most-complete surviving examples of early large-scale factories concentrated in one area".
The Reform Club in Spring Gardens, Manchester, England, is a former gentlemen's club of the Victorian era. Constructed in 1870–1871 in the Venetian Gothic style by Edward Salomons in collaboration with Irish architect John Philpot Jones, the club is "his best city centre building" and is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974. The contract for construction was awarded to "Mr Nield, builder, Manchester for £20,000". Built as a club house for Manchester's Liberal Party elite, the building was opened by Earl Granville, Gladstone's Foreign Secretary, on October 19, 1871. The building is constructed of sandstone ashlar with polychrome dressings and hipped slate roofs and is three-storey with elaborate corner turrets and oriel windows and balconies. The main entrance is "richly adorned with carving including winged beasts". The interior contains a "fine staircase, a (two-storey) grand dining room and an enormous billiard room, running the whole length of the building, in the roof". The "hall and staircase (have) linenfold panelling."
25 St. Ann Street in Manchester, England, is a Victorian bank with attached manager's house constructed in 1848 for Heywood's Bank by John Edgar Gregan. The bank is "one of the finest palazzo-inspired buildings in the city." . It is a Grade II* listed building as of 25 February 1952.
The Burnley Mechanics is a theatre and former Mechanics' Institute in the market town of Burnley, Lancashire, England. It was built 1854–55 and converted to a theatre in 1979. Historic England has designated the theatre a Grade II* listed building.
Manchester Town Hall Extension was built between 1934 and 1938 to provide additional accommodation for local government services. It was built between St Peter's Square and Lloyd Street in Manchester city centre, England. English Heritage designated it a grade II* listed building on 3 October 1974. Its eclectic style was designed to be a link between the ornate Gothic Revival Manchester Town Hall and the Classical architecture of the Central Library.
Charters Towers Stock Exchange Arcade is a heritage-listed shopping arcade at 76 Mosman Street, Charters Towers, Charters Towers Region, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Sydney architect Mark Cooper Day and built in 1888 by Sandbrook Brothers of Sydney. It was originally known as the Royal Arcade. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Victoria Square House, is an office building on the south side of Victoria Square in Birmingham, England. It was formerly Birmingham's Head Post Office, designed in the French Renaissance style by architect for the Office of Works Sir Henry Tanner for the General Post Office.
Anzac Square Building is a heritage-listed office building at 255A Ann Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by John Smith Murdoch and built from 1931 to 1959 by A H Mason. It is also known as Queensland Government Offices, State Government Offices, Adina Apartments Hotel, and Murdoch Apartments & Hotel. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
In England, corn exchanges are distinct buildings which were originally created as a venue for corn merchants to meet and arrange pricing with farmers for the sale of wheat, barley and other corn crops. With the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846, a large number of corn exchanges were built, particularly in the corn-growing areas of Eastern England. However, with the fall in price of English corn as a result of cheap imports, corn exchanges virtually ceased to be built after the 1870s. Increasingly they were put to other uses, particularly as meeting and concert halls. Many found a new lease of life in the early 20th century as cinemas, Following the Second World War, many could not be maintained and they were demolished. In the 1970s their architectural importance came to be appreciated, and most of the surviving examples are listed buildings. Most of the surviving corn exchanges have now been restored, and many have become arts centres, theatres or concert halls.
Nickels Arcade is a commercial building located at 326-330 South State Street in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. The building is notable as perhaps the only remaining example in Michigan of a free-standing commercial arcade building that was popularized by the Cleveland Arcade.
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