|Etymology||Charles, the fifth Duke of Richmond|
|State||New South Wales|
|Region||NSW North Coast (IBRA), Northern Rivers|
|Local government areas||Kyogle, Richmond Valley, Ballina|
|• location||west of Mount Lindesay,|
|• elevation||236 m (774 ft)|
|Mouth||Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean|
|near Ballina / South Ballina|
|0 m (0 ft)|
|Length||394 km (245 mi)|
|Basin size||6,862 km2 (2,649 sq mi)|
|• left||Findon Creek, Gradys Creek, Lynchs Creek, Fawcetts Creek, Wilsons River, Emigrant Creek|
|• right||Back Creek, Roseberry Creek, Horse Station Creek, Eden Creek, Bungawalbin Creek, Shannon Brook|
|National parks|| Border Ranges NP,|
Richmond Range NP
The Richmond River is a river situated in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia.
The river rises at the northern end of the Richmond Range, near its junction with the McPherson Range, on the Queensland/ New South Wales border, west of Mount Lindesay, and flows generally south east and north east, joined by twelve tributaries, including the Wilsons River, before reaching its mouth at its confluence with the Coral Sea of the South Pacific Ocean near Ballina; descending 256 metres (840 ft) over its 237 kilometres (147 mi) course.
On its journey it passes through the towns of Kyogle, Casino, Coraki and Woodburn. Summerland Way is situated adjacent to much of the middle reaches of the course of Richmond River. At Ballina, the Pacific Highway crosses the river.
The catchment area of the river is estimated at 6,862 square kilometres (2,649 sq mi), which makes it the sixth largest catchment in New South Wales; and its floodplain has an area of over 1,000 square kilometres (390 sq mi).
The traditional custodians of the land surrounding the Richmond River are the Aboriginal people of the Githabul,whose territory reached north to the current city of Toowoomba and included the current towns of Tenterfield and Warwick. One of the annual rituals of the Githabul people was the movement from the mountain ranges to the coast during the winter months, when the mullet were plentiful.
Omitted by Captain James Cook when he sailed up the east coast of the Australian mainland in 1770, it wasn't until Captain Henry John Rous identified the mouth of the river in 1828 that it was discovered by Europeans. Rous entered the river and sailed about 20 miles (32 km) up river. He subsequently named the river Richmond after the fifth Duke of Richmond. Later that year the explorer Allan Cunningham reached the river by land.
The river was a major port from the 1840s until well into the 20th century. Soon after the first white settlers arrived they discovered the abundant supply of Australian Red Cedar in the Richmond Valley and immediately began logging. The river was vital in the transportation of this resource.
At the time of its discovery in 1828 and until the late 1890s the river had a treacherous mouth of shifting sand bars, and many ships and lives were lost on it. Understandably, a decision was made to construct two breakwaters to channel the river's flow and these were completed in the early 1900s. The construction of the breakwaters also led to the formation of Shaw's Bay (after sand built up behind what is now called Lighthouse or Main Beach).
In 1846, a conflict between white settlers and local Aborigines in the river valley (the Richmond River massacre) caused the deaths of around 100 of the latter.[ citation needed ]
With the decline of shipping as a transport mode, owing to better roads and rail, and the closing of the North Coast Steam Navigation Company (the major shipping firm of the area) in 1954, the river became less important as a port.
For boats, the river is navigable for a short way up its length, possibly as far as Casino. Wilsons River, which flows through the city of Lismore and is a major tributary of the Richmond, is navigable at least as far as Boatharbour, approximately 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) upstream from Lismore.
The Richmond River is heavily used for irrigation along its length. Several weirs have been constructed in order to mitigate the effects of flooding, most notably at Casino.
The freshwater reaches of the Richmond River once supported the endemic Richmond River Cod, similar to Murray Cod and possibly a subspecies of Eastern Freshwater Cod. Unfortunately this unique native fish became extinct between the 1930s and 1950s due to habitat degradation and gross overfishing, including with dynamite during the building of the local railway line. The endangered Oxleyan Pygmy Perch has been recorded from the river.
Lismore is a city in northeastern New South Wales, Australia and the main population centre in the City of Lismore local government area; it is also a regional centre in the Northern Rivers region of the State. It is situated on a low flood plain on the banks of the Wilsons River near the latter's junction with Leycester Creek, both tributaries of the Richmond River which enters the Pacific Ocean at Ballina, 30 km (19 mi) to the east. The original settlement initially developed as a grazing property, then became a timber and agricultural based town and inland port based around substantial river traffic, which declined and then ceased around the mid-twentieth century. The city is also located on the Bruxner Highway which crosses the Wilsons River at Lismore, and was formerly a stop on the Casino-Murwillumbah railway line. It is the home of one of the three campuses of Southern Cross University.
Northern Rivers is the most north-easterly region of the Australian state of New South Wales, located between 590 kilometres (370 mi) and 820 kilometres (510 mi) north of the state capital, Sydney, and encompasses the catchments and fertile valleys of the Clarence, Richmond, and Tweed rivers. It extends from Tweed Heads in the north to the southern extent of the Clarence river catchment which lies between Grafton, and Coffs Harbour, and includes the main towns of Tweed Heads, Byron Bay, Ballina, Kyogle, Lismore, Casino and Grafton. At its most northern point, the region is 102 kilometres (63 mi) south south–east of the Queensland capital, Brisbane.
Ballina is a town in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia, and the seat of the Ballina Shire local government area. Ballina's urban population at June 2018 was 26,381. The town lies on the Richmond River and serves as a gateway to Byron Bay.
The Bruxner Highway is a 420-kilometre (260 mi) state highway located in New South Wales, Australia. The highway forms an east–west link from the Northern Rivers coast, across the Northern Tablelands in northern New South Wales, close to the border with Queensland.
Peel River, a watercourse that is part of the Namoi catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the North West Slopes and Plains district of New South Wales, Australia.
The Clyde River is an open intermediate tide dominated drowned valley estuary, or perennial river that flows into the Tasman Sea, located in the South Coast region of New South Wales, Australia, on land traditionally occupied by the Walbunja people from the Yuin nation.
Myall River, an open semi-mature brackish freshwater barrier estuary of the Mid-Coast Council system, is located in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia.
Rocky Creek Dam is a minor rock fill clay core embankment dam across the Rocky Creek, located upstream of Lismore in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The dam's main purpose is to supply potable water for the region, including Lismore, Ballina, Byron Bay, Evans Head and Alstonville. The impounded reservoir is called Rocky Lake.
Rous County is one of the 141 Cadastral divisions of New South Wales. It is located at the north-east tip of the state. It is bordered on the north by the border with Queensland and on the south by the Richmond River. It contains Lismore, Byron Bay and Murwillumbah.
Bellinger River, an open and trained mature wave dominated, barrier estuary, is located in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia.
The Nymboida River, a perennial stream of the Clarence River catchment, is located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia.
Wilsons River, a perennial river and part of the Richmond River catchment, is situated in the Northern Rivers district of New South Wales, Australia.
The Leycester Creek, a perennial stream of the Richmond River catchment, is located in Northern Rivers region in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
Rous River, a perennial river of the Tweed River catchment, is located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia.
The Towamba River is an open mature wave dominated barrier estuary or perennial river, located in the South Coast region of New South Wales, Australia.
Esk River, a perennial stream that is part of the Clarence River catchment, is located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia.
The Shannon Brook, a perennial stream of the Richmond River catchment, is located in Northern Rivers region in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
The Eden Creek, a perennial stream of the Richmond River catchment, is located in Northern Rivers region in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
The Bland Creek, a mostly–perennial river that is part of the Lachlan sub-catchment of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the South West Slopes, and Riverina regions of New South Wales, Australia. The Bland Creek is only connected to the Murray Darling basin when both the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee Rivers are in flood.
The Jugiong Creek, a mostly–perennial river that is part of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the South West Slopes region of New South Wales, Australia.