International recognition of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic

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Ukraine between 2014 and 2022:

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Controlled by the Donetsk People's Republic

Claimed by the Donetsk People's Republic (i.e., Donetsk Oblast)

Controlled by the Luhansk People's Republic

Claimed by the Luhansk People's Republic (i.e., Luhansk Oblast)
Annexed by Russia (i.e., Crimea) Donetsk and Lugansk Peoples Republics in Ukraine.png
Ukraine between 2014 and 2022:
     Controlled by the Donetsk People's Republic
     Claimed by the Donetsk People's Republic (i.e., Donetsk Oblast)
     Controlled by the Luhansk People's Republic
     Claimed by the Luhansk People's Republic (i.e., Luhansk Oblast)
     Annexed by Russia (i.e., Crimea)
Vladimir Putin signs presidential decrees recognizing the DPR and LPR and treaties of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance, 21 February 2022 Putin - DNR, LNR (2022-02-21) 02.jpg
Vladimir Putin signs presidential decrees recognizing the DPR and LPR and treaties of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance, 21 February 2022
Putin decree DNR (2022-02-21).pdf
Putin decree LNR (2022-02-21).pdf
Presidential decrees No. 71 (left) and No. 72 (right), recognizing the independence of the DPR and the LPR.

From April 2014 until September 2022, the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) claimed to be independent states. Their sovereignty was recognised by South Ossetian authorities in 2014, Russia and Abkhazian authorities in February 2022, [1] [2] Syria in June 2022 [3] [4] and North Korea in July 2022. [5]

Contents

Pro-Russian authorities in the two regions in the Donbas, a historical region in easternmost Ukraine, initially declared independence in response to the Maidan Revolution in 2014. They were backed by Russia, which provided them arms and funding, leading to the protracted War in Donbas. The Minsk Accords aimed to reach a solution to the war that would preserve Ukraine's territorial integrity, but resulted only in a ceasefire.

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, just a few days after its recognition of the DPR and LPR, citing Ukraine's non-implementation of the Minsk Accords, amongst other stated reasons. On 30 September 2022, Russia formally annexed the two regions, in addition to two others. As a result, the DPR and LPR dropped their independence claims, now considering themselves to be part of Russia.

The United Nations and most of the international community have consistently condemned the DPR and LPR's initial independence claims, as well as the subsequent annexation. Both are illegal under mainstream interpretations of international law, according to which the territory should belong to Ukraine.

Map of the international diplomatic situation of the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics.
Official recognition of the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics
Support for Russian recognition of the independence of the republics
Support for Ukrainian territorial integrity, but no condemnation of Russian recognition
Condemnation of Russian recognition of independence International Recognition of Donetsk and Lugansk.svg
Map of the international diplomatic situation of the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics.
  Official recognition of the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics
  Support for Russian recognition of the independence of the republics
  Support for Ukrainian territorial integrity, but no condemnation of Russian recognition
  Condemnation of Russian recognition of independence

History

In November 2014, representatives of Novorossiya sent a request of diplomatic recognition to several Latin American states, including Cuba, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. [6] Formal responses to the requests were not issued.

In May 2015, the confederation ceased its activities due to their "incompatibility with the Normandy Format plan of peace settlement", promoting for DPR and LPR becoming autonomous regions within the Ukrainian borders. [7] [8] The Minsk Accords laid out the process for this to be achieved.

On 15 February 2022, citing Ukraine's non-implementation of the Minsk Accords, the Russian State Duma voted to ask President Vladimir Putin to recognize the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics as independent states. The bill was proposed by the Communist Party. [9] [10] [11] [12]

On 21 February 2022, the State Duma of Russia passed a bill to officially recognize the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic in Eastern Ukraine as independent states. The bill was approved by President Vladimir Putin. [13] On the same day, Putin signed decrees recognizing the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic, and also signed agreements on friendship, cooperation, and assistance with the republics. [14]

The moves between the State Duma and Putin have been described as coordinated and in prelude to a Russian invasion.

Aftermath of Russian recognition

A February poll released by the independent Levada Center found that 45% of Russians backed Russia's recognition of the separatist-controlled Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics. [15]

On 24 February 2022, Russia began invading Ukraine, which included sending troops into the DPR and LPR. The need to secure their territorial integrity was used as a legal justification.

State Duma deputy Mikhail Matveyev, who voted in favour of DPR and LPR recognition, denounced the invasion, stating:

"I voted for peace, not for war. I wanted Russia to become a shield so that Donbas would not be bombed, not for Kyiv to be bombed." [16]

After limited success during a seven-month military campaign, Vladimir Putin recognised the Russian-occupied Kherson and Zaporizhzhia oblasts as independent states, and signed treaties of accession into the Russian Federation with the military-civil administrations of those two regions, as well as the DPR and LPR. This was despite not having full control of the four new regions, continuing to fight for it with the Ukrainians.[ citation needed ]

Countries and entities that recognized the DPR and LPR as independent states

UN member states

State Date of recognition Diplomatic relations establishedNotes
1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 21 February 2022 [17] 21 February 2022 [17] In his address recognising the DPR and LPR, Putin also supported their claims to the Donbas region of Ukraine. [18]
2Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 29 June 2022 [19] In February 2022, Foreign Minister Faisal Mekdad stated "Syria supports President Vladimir Putin's decision to recognise the republics of Luhansk and Donetsk" at an event in Moscow. [20] Syria's state news agency SANA later reported that Syria was "ready to build relations with republics of Luhansk and Donetsk". [21] [22] [23]

As a response to the recognition, Ukraine severed all of its diplomatic relations with Syria, and Syria did the same towards Ukraine on 20 July 2022. [24] Prior to relations being severed, the embassies of the two countries were closed in 2016 and 2018 respectively during the Syrian civil war.

3Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 13 July 2022 [5] On 13 July 2022, the Korean Central News Agency reported that Foreign Minister of North Korea Choe Son-hui sent letters to counterparts in the republics of Donetsk and Luhansk, recognising the independence of the republics and expressed the will to develop the state-to-state relations. [25]

As a result of the recognition, Ukraine has severed its diplomatic relations with North Korea. [26]

Non-UN states

State Date of recognition Diplomatic relations establishedNotes
1Flag of Donetsk People's Republic.svg  Donetsk People's Republic
Flag of Lugansk People's Republic.svg  Luhansk People's Republic
11 May 201411 May 2014Both the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics simultaneously declared independence and were previously united under the Novorossiya confederation from 2014 to 2015.
2Flag of South Ossetia.svg  South Ossetia 18 June 2014 (LPR) [27]
27 June 2014 (DPR) [28]
28 January 2015 (LPR) [29]
12 May 2015 (DPR) [30]
On 27 June 2014, South Ossetia's Security Council decided to recognize the Donetsk People's Republic. South Ossetia's president told the media: "I believe the recognition of the Donetsk republic is the right step, South Ossetia's people support and hail the decision to recognize Donetsk and Luhansk." [28]
3Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg  Abkhazia 25 February 20229 March 2022 (DPR) [31]
10 March 2022 (LPR) [32]
On 22 February 2022, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs published a statement welcoming the recognition of independence of the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics by Russian President Vladimir Putin. [33]
On 25 February 2022 President Aslan Bzhania announced the recognition of the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic. [2]

Positions by other countries

Countries and entities that supported recognizing the DPR and LPR as independent states

UN member states

State Notes
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Despite calls for recognition of the two republics, the Belarusian Foreign Ministry had rejected recognition but it has supported Russia's decision. The statement reads: "In such a situation, we respectfully understand the decision of the Russian side to recognize the independence of the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics. The Republic of Belarus has always actively and consistently advocated a peaceful settlement of the conflict in south-eastern Ukraine. We still consider diplomatic methods to be a priority and are ready to contribute to this process in every possible way." [34]
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic President Faustin-Archange Touadéra stated on RIA Novosti news “I believe that this decision will undoubtedly save lives and prevent a lot of violence. According to our analysis, this decision aims to save people's lives. This decision is supported by many because it aims to avoid violence and the loss of human lives.” [35]
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua President Daniel Ortega stated "I'm sure that if a referendum is held there, as was done in Crimea, people will vote for their regions to be included in Russia. This is a Russian population and it's not subject to the dictates of NATO, the EU and the U.S." [36]
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan The Deputy Head of the Sovereign Council Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo stated: "Russia has the right to act in the interests of its citizens and protect its people. It has the right under the constitution and under the law. The whole world must realize that it has the right to defend its people." [37]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela President Nicolás Maduro "reaffirmed all his support" for Russian President Putin "in defense of peace in Russia", stating "the territory of Luhansk and Donetsk assumed the functions of people's republics to defend themselves from a massacre that the fascist sectors that had seized power in Ukraine began to execute hunting men, hunting women, assaulting families, bombing, with heavy weapons and a conflict began". [38]

Countries and entities that did not support recognizing the DPR and LPR as independent states

UN member states

State Notes
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania The Albanian Minister of Europe and Foreign Affairs Olta Xhaçka posted a statement on Twitter: "Albania condemns Russia's recognition of the independence of the regions of Donetsk & Luhansk. A clear violation of international law, of the Minsk agreement as well as a violation of Ukraine's territorial integrity and sovereignty. Albania stands united with partners and allies in support of Ukraine". [39]
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship echoed UN's Secretary General Gutérres' call for respect of territorial sovereignty and called for a peaceful resolution to the conflict. Argentina also called to respect the charter of the United Nations and international law. [40]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia The Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs condemned the Russian recognition of Donetsk and Luhansk as independent states, saying it "flagrantly undermines Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity and has no validity under international law." The minister also condemned President Putin's announcement that Russia "is deploying so-called “peacekeepers” to eastern Ukraine; stating that "These personnel are not peacekeepers". [41]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria The Austrian Foreign Minister Alexander Schallenberg states that the recognition of the self-proclaimed Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics by the Russian Federation represents "a grave violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine which we categorically condemn." [42]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium The Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sophie Wilmès tweeted: "Belgium condemns the recognition of the separatist territories in #Ukraine. It is a violation of international law, the Minsk agreements and the territorial integrity of Ukraine. We will work closely with our EU and NATO partners for a strong and united reaction." [43]
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosniak member of the Presidency Šefik Džaferović condemned Russia's moves to recognize the independence of Donetsk and Luhansk. "Bosnia and Herzegovina respects and supports the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine. I condemn the decision of the Russian Federation to recognize the two Ukrainian regions as states, which is a flagrant violation of international law," Džaferović said. Serb member of the Presidency Milorad Dodik said it was his personal opinion. He said that the Republika Srpska entity will seek neutrality at the national level regarding the issue of Ukraine, Radio Free Europe reported. [44] The Presidency Chairman Željko Komšić strongly condemned "Russia's attack on the territory of Ukraine". [45]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria For years, relations between Bulgaria and Russia were moderate. However, on the day of Putin's announcement, Prime Minister Kiril Petkov condemned Putin's recognition of Donetsk and Luhansk as independent entities. He stated, "We continue to maintain Ukraine's territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders. International law must be respected. We, the European Union, will respond united in our defense." In that same statement, the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry released the statement that "the recognition of the Luhansk and Donetsk separatist republics is a gross violation of international law and undermines European security. Such an escalation requires a unified and decisive response." [46]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau condemned Putin's actions calling it "blatant violation of Ukraine's sovereignty". Trudeau went on to suggest economic sanctions would be applied. [47] [48]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Wang Wenbin, spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, said in response to a reporter's question: "China's position on the Ukraine issue is consistent. The legitimate security concerns of any country should be respected, and the purposes and principles of the UN Charter should be jointly safeguarded." [49] [50]
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica Costa Rican government stated that it supported the UN Secretary General's statement stating that the recognition of Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic are violating Ukrainian territorial integrity. Costa Rica has also called for a de-escalation of the situation in Eastern Europe and the situation must be resolved by dialogue. [51]
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia The Croatian Prime Minister Andrej Plenković tweeted: "We condemn Russia's recognition of the self-proclaimed regions of Donetsk and Luhansk, which is a violation of international law and the territorial integrity of #Ukraine. Together with (European Union) partners, we express our solidarity with @ZelenskyyUa and (Ukraine) people." [52]
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus "In light of developments in Ukraine, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cyprus reiterates its support to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders." [53]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Numerous Czech officials have denounced President Putin's decision to recognize the independence of the breakaway Ukrainian republics of Donetsk and Luhansk as a "breach of the Minsk Agreements and international law". The Czech Foreign Ministry said the step was a flagrant violation of the sovereignty and integrity of Ukraine. Prime Minister Petr Fiala stated that the Czech Republic stands firmly behind a free and independent Ukraine and knows from its own historic experience that such steps never lead to peace. [54]
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Prime Minister of Denmark Mette Frederiksen posted statement on Twitter: "Russia's decision to recognize the so-called DNR and LNR regions of Ukraine as independent is a blatant violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and international law. Denmark condemns the decision, which will not go unanswered. We stand side by side with Ukraine" [55]
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia "Foreign Minister Eva-Maria Liimets: our support for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity is unwavering". [56]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland The Office of the Finnish President Sauli Niinistö: "Finland condemns Russia's unilateral acts that violate Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity. The recognition of the separatist regions in Eastern Ukraine is a serious breach of the Minsk agreements. Finland responds to Russia's acts as part of the European Union." [57]
Flag of France.svg  France Hours after recognition, the French President Emmanuel Macron who proposed a summit between Biden and Putin in the light of the 2021–2022 Russo-Ukrainian crisis, condemned the recognition and demands sanctions. [58] [59]
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili posted statement on Twitter: "Georgia strongly condemns Russia's « recognition » of Ukraines's Donetsk and Lugansk regions, repeating the scenario that led to the occupation of 20% of our territory. Georgia stands by you Pdt Zelensky and in support of Ukraine's territorial integrity and peace." [60]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany German Chancellor Olaf Scholz condemned the recognition of the two regions, which it would be a "one-sided breach" of the Minsk agreement, which tamed the hostilities in the Donbas region. [61]
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece The Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs has stated: "Russia's recognition of the illegal and unilateral declaration of "independence" of Ukraine's separatist regions of Donetsk and Luhansk constitutes a blatant violation of fundamental principles of International Law, Ukraine's territorial integrity, and the Minsk agreements." [62]
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala The Government of Guatemala on Tuesday expressed its condemnation of the "unilateral recognition" by Russia "of the separatist republics" of Donetsk and Lugansk in Ukraine, announced last Monday by President Vladimir Putin. [63]
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras Honduran foreign ministry has urged involved parties in the crisis to find the way out through dialogue. Honduran Foreign Ministry also underlines the importance of Ukraine in peaceful coexistence in Europe and call other powers not to intervene in Ukraine and defend international system based on international law which respect sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine. [64]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary The Prime Minister of Hungary Viktor Orbán assured of Hungary's continued support for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity. He added that Hungary will support the European Union's joint efforts to settle the conflict. [65]
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland The Prime Minister of Iceland Katrín Jakobsdóttir stated on Twitter: "The escalation by Russia in Ukraine is devastating and I am concerned for innocent civilians in the region. This is an unacceptable violation of international law. Escalation and armed conflict is not the solution to current challenges. The door for diplomacy must remain open." [66]
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Indonesian President Joko Widodo said that he agreed with the UN Secretary General and asked to cease tension in Ukraine as soon as possible, urge both sides to restraint and will never allow the war to happen. Foreign ministry spokesperson Teuku Faizasyah stated that Indonesia firmly follow the UN charter and international law about territorial integrity of a nation and condemn every move that clearly violates territorial integrity and sovereignty of a nation. [67] [68]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs Simon Coveney: "Ireland's support for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders and its right to choose its own foreign and security policy path is unwavering. The decision by the Russian Federation to proceed with the recognition of the non-government controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine as independent entities contravenes international law, is a blatant violation of Ukraine's territorial integrity, and marks a clear and unilateral breach of the Minsk agreements. Ireland supports a clear and strong EU response, including additional sanctions measures." [69]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Yair Lapid shares the concern of the international community regarding the steps taken in eastern Ukraine and the serious escalation in the situation. Israel hopes for a diplomatic solution which will lead to calm, and is willing to help if asked. Israel supports the territorial integrity and the sovereignty of Ukraine. [70]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Italian Foreign Minister Luigi Di Maio through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation condemned the decision of the Russian authorities to recognize the so-called separatist republics of Luhansk and Donetsk as in violation to the Minsk agreement. [71] Since 2016, the DPR and the LPR have unofficial representation offices in Italy (Turin, Verona and Messina), that are not recognized by Italian authorities. [72]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida condemned Russian recognition of Donetsk and Luhansk independence calling it violation of Ukrainian sovereignty. Foreign Minister Yoshimasa Hayashi said Japan will work with international community, including G7 to impose tough measure against Russia. [73]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Pending a meeting of the Kazakh security council, the foreign affairs minister stated, "I must assure you: there is no question of Kazakhstan's recognition of the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics. We proceed from the foundations of international law and the basic principles of the UN Charter." [74] [75] On 17 June 2022, during a public discussion at the 25th St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev stated that Kazakhstan would not recognise what he called "quasi-state territories" in Donetsk and Luhansk. [76]
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Kenyan UN representative Martin Kimani stated that Kenya and many African nations had been "birthed" with the end of colonialism and had not been able to set their own borders in a statement condemning Russia's recognition. But instead of pursuing states based on “ethnic, racial or religious homogeneity”, which carried the risk of decades of "bloody wars", the countries "agreed that we would settle for the borders we inherited. Rather than form nations that looked ever backwards into history with a dangerous nostalgia, we chose to look forward to a greatness none of our many nations and peoples had ever known," he said. [77] [78]
Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg  Kyrgyzstan The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kyrgyzstan stated that Kyrgyzstan is a firm supporter of compliance with the universally recognized norms and principles of international law laid down in the UN Charter and other documents, including the territorial integrity of states and the peaceful resolution of conflicts. At the same time, the importance of observing the principle of indivisibility of security was emphasized. [79]
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia The Government of Latvia has condemned the recognition in the following statement: "While utterly condemning Russia's actions, Latvia urges the international community to take the strongest possible measures to stop Russia's aggression and offer assistance to Ukraine. ... We, the President, the Speaker of the Saeima, the Prime Minister, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, on behalf of the people of Latvia, stand in solidarity with the Ukrainian people and offer our unwavering support for Ukraine's freedom, sovereignty and territorial integrity". [80]
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein The Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated on Twitter: "Liechtenstein is deeply concerned about the recognition of certain parts of the Ukrainian regions Luhansk and Donezk by the Government of Russia, in flagrant violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine, the Minsk agreements endorsed by the United Nations Security Council, as well as the Charter of the United Nations and the rules governing the conduct of international relations. Liechtenstein expresses its solidarity with the people and Government of Ukraine and calls for a peaceful settlement of all issues through diplomatic means and in accordance with international law." [81]
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania strongly condemns Russia's decision to recognize two areas in Ukraine's Luhansk and Donetsk regions, which are held by Russian-backed separatists, as independent. "This decision constitutes a gross violation of the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and international law, the Helsinki Final Act, and the Charter of Paris". [82]
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg The Prime Minister of Luxembourg Xavier Bettel has posted a statement on Twitter: "I condemn the recent violation of the Minsk agreements by Russia. We will work closely with our EU partners for a united response." [83]
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta The Republic of Malta condemns the decision of the Russian Federation to formally recognise the independence of the non-government controlled areas of Donetsk and Luhansk. This decision is a violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine, is inconsistent with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and in breach of the Minsk agreements and undermines the possibility of a diplomatic solution. [84]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Permanent Mission of Mexico to the United Nations reiterates its respect for the territorial integrity of Ukraine and the search for a solution through diplomatic channels. [85]
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova President of Moldova Maia Sandu posted statement on Twitter: "We strongly condemn recognition by (Russia) of the separatist areas of Donetsk & Luhansk oblasts of (Ukraine). This is clearly against intl law. (Moldova) remains firmly committed to supporting the sovereignty & territorial integrity of (Ukraine) within its internationally recognized borders." [86]
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Montenegro posted a statement on Twitter: "Russia's decision to recognize self-proclaimed "People's Republics" of Donetsk & Luhansk is a violation of Ukraine's sovereignty & territorial integrity, #Minsk agreements & the international law. #Montenegro stands united with the (European Union) and its #NATO allies in support of #Ukraine" [87]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Wopke Hoekstra has stated on Twitter: "The recognition of the separatist territories in #Ukraine is a blatant violation of international law, the territorial integrity of Ukraine, and Minsk agreements. The Netherlands strongly condemns this act and will respond firmly in close coordination with our EU & NATO partners." [88]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand The Minister of Foreign Affairs Nanaia Mahuta stated on Twitter: "Aotearoa New Zealand strongly supports Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity. Russia's actions today violate international law and cut across diplomatic efforts to find a peaceful resolution" [89]
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia The Foreign Affairs Minister of The Republic of North Macedonia Bujar Osmani has stated on Twitter: "We strongly condemn the recognition by (Russia) of the (Ukraine) areas #Donetsk & #Lugansk as independent. Such acts represent a severe violation of international law. (North Macedonia) reiterates its unequivocal support for sovereignty & territorial integrity of #Ukraine @DmytroKuleba" [90]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway The Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs Anniken Huitfeldt has stated that "Norway condemn the Russian declaration of recognizing the self-proclaimed people's republics in Donetsk and Luhansk as independent states", saying that the decision is "another violation of Ukrainian sovereignty". She further stated that "Norway supports Ukraine's independence and territorial integrity in accordance with internationally recognized borders". [91]
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru The Peruvian government stated the following: "Peru today expressed its deep concern over the evolution of events inside the Donetsk and Lugansk regions, as well as on the eastern border of Ukraine and Russia, and call for a peaceful and sustainable solution through diplomatic channels". The Permanent Representative of Peru to the UN, Ambassador Manuel Rodriguez Cuadros added: "The recognition of the independence of the separatist territories and the deployment of military forces in these territories are incompatible with the principles of the UN and constitute a violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine". [92]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland The Polish Foreign Ministry firmly condemned the Russian declaration of two self-proclaimed republics situated on the territory of Ukraine – the so-called "Donetsk People's Republic" and "Luhansk People's Republic" and stated Russia has violated the Minsk Agreement. Polish government expressed its solidarity with Ukraine and urge Russia to cease its illegal actions that breached international laws. [93]
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal The Prime Minister of Portugal António Costa posted a statement on Twitter: "Russian recognition of the two breakaway Ukraine regions clearly violates the Minsk accords and jeopardizes Ukraine's territorial integrity. We strongly condemn this action and express our full solidarity with Ukraine." [94]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania President of Romania Klaus Iohannis, Prime Minister of Romania Nicolae Ciucă and other relevant Romanian political figures such as Ludovic Orban and Kelemen Hunor condemned Russia's decision to recognize the two separatist republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. Furthermore, Iohannis described the event as a serious violation of international law. [95]
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Serbian president Aleksandar Vučić stated in an interview that Putin's decision to recognize the breakaway republics put Serbia "in a difficult position". [96] The Serbian government supports Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, but opposes sanctions against Russia. [97]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore The MFA Spokesperson said: "Singapore is gravely concerned at the escalation of tensions at the Ukraine-Russia border and the Russian decision to recognise two breakaway Ukrainian regions. The sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine must be respected. All parties concerned should continue to pursue dialogue, including diplomatic means, towards a peaceful settlement of the dispute, in accordance with international law, and avoid action that will further raise tensions in the region." [98]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia The Slovak Foreign Ministry firmly does not recognize the self-proclaimed independence of the separatist entities. Slovak principled foreign policy position supports the political sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine and universal validity and respect for the principles of international law. [99]
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia The Slovenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated: "Slovenia strongly condemns the decision by President Putin to recognise Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine as independent entities. These hostile measures are a flagrant violation of international law and obligations contained in the Minsk agreements, and will not remain without consequences". [100]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea The South Korean President Moon Jae-in has urged Russia to respect Ukrainian sovereignty territorial integrity, pledged to work with international community for de-escalation of the situation in the region. Moon also instructed officials to prepare thoroughly to protect South Korean nationals in Ukraine. [101]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain The Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation José Manuel Albares posted a statement on Twitter: "The Russian recognition of the separatist territories in eastern Ukraine is a flagrant violation of Ukraine's territorial integrity, the Minsk agreements and international legality. We will respond in close coordination with our partners and allies." [102]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden The Swedish Foreign Minister Ann Linde posted a statement on Twitter: "Strongly condemn Russia's recognition of the non-government controlled areas of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine as independent entities. A blatant violation of international law and of the Minsk agreements." [103]
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg   Switzerland The Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs tweeted: "Russia's recognition of certain areas of the Ukrainian Luhantsk and Donetsk regions as independent states is a flagrant violation of international law, the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine and the Minsk agreements. Switzerland calls on Russia to uphold its international obligations and to reserve its action." [104]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Turkish Foreign Ministry has called Russian recognition of Donetsk and Luhansk are unacceptable and stated it as clear violation of not only the Minsk Agreement but also Ukrainian political unity. Turkey stated it will work with Ukraine preserving its political unity and territorial integrity. [105]
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemns the Russian Federation's decision to recognise the "independence" of the quasi-entities it had created in the temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine, the so-called "Luhansk People's Republic" and "Donetsk People's Republic". [106]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom British Foreign Minister Liz Truss condemned the Russian move shortly after the declaration of recognition of Donetsk and Luhansk and has urged Russia to end its pattern of destabilising behaviour against Ukraine. Truss also stated that the British government will announce a new sanctions against Russia shortly for its destabilising activities in the region. Prime Minister Boris Johnson called Putin's move as "ill omen" and "flagrant breach of sovereignty", Johnson later called the COBR meeting to discuss the situation in Ukraine [107] [108] [109]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States On the same day of Putin's announcement, the President of the United States Joe Biden signed Executive Order 13660, swiftly imposing sanctions that target the two Russia-backed breakaway republics in eastern Ukraine. The order, from a statement by White House secretary Jen Psaki, bars "new investment, trade and financing by U.S. persons to, from, or in" the so-called Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic, located in Ukraine's eastern Donbas region, and provides authority to impose sanctions on "any person determined to operate in those areas of Ukraine". [110]
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Uruguayan Foreign Ministry is following with great concern the increase in tensions on the border between Ukraine and Russia, which have escalated rapidly after the recognition of two separatist regions in Ukraine by Russia and the displacement of military troops, in violation of the principles of the Charter of the United Nations. [111]
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan On 17 March 2022, foreign minister of Uzbekistan Abdulaziz Kamilov said that Uzbekistan doesn't recognise the breakaway regions and he also announced that the two separatist regions, including Crimea, are part of Ukraine. [112]

Non-UN states

State Notes
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo Kosovo's Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed solidarity with Ukraine against Russian aggression, stating that Putin has waged war against democracy. Kosovo also urged the free world to respond to Putin and his proxies with resolve. [113]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan (Republic of China) The ROC's Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed "deep regret and condemnation" towards Russia after it ordered troops into the two separatist pro-Moscow regions in eastern Ukraine. The ROC's presidential and Executive Yuan spokeswoman Kolas Yotaka said it was "encouraging" that UN ambassadors were rejecting Russia's claims to Ukrainian territory, saying she looked forward to the day "the world will equally reject" the PRC's claims over Taiwan. [114]
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg  Transnistria When the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Transnistria Vitaly Ignatyev  [ ru ] was asked in a 2022 interview if Transnistria would take measures to organize cooperation with the DPR and the LPR, or if mutual recognition between Transnistria and the two entities would take place, he replied that "we are not working in this direction". [115]

International and regional organizations

OrganizationNotes
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union The European Union's top officials condemned the recognition of the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics by Russia, calling it a "blatant violation of international law." In a joint statement, European Council President Charles Michel and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen condemned “in the strongest possible terms the decision by the Russian President to proceed with the recognition of the non-government controlled areas of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine as independent entities.” The next day, the EU sanctioned 351 members of the State Duma for supporting the independence of the two regions. [116] [117]
Flag of NATO.svg  NATO NATO's Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg condemned Russia's decision to extend recognition to the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk, stating: "This further undermines Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, erodes efforts towards a resolution of the conflict, and violates the Minsk agreements, to which Russia is a party." The alliance supported the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognised borders, with its allies urging Russia to "choose the path of diplomacy, and to immediately reverse its massive military build-up in and around Ukraine, and withdraw its forces from Ukraine in accordance with its international obligations and commitments." [118]
OSCE flag.svg OSCE The OSCE does not recognize the DLNR, and refers to them as "illegally armed groups in Donbas", and to their occupied territories as "certain areas of Donetsk and Luhansk regions" or "CADLR".

An OSCE report on war crimes implies that they are not "independent States" nor "simply co-belligerents of Russia", refers to their status as "self-proclaimed 'republics'", Russia's "proxies", and "under overall control of Russia", and states that therefore Russia is responsible for their conduct in the commission of crimes against international humanitarian law. [119]

Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations UN Secretary General António Guterres condemned Russia's decision to recognize the "independence" of two Ukraine's breakaway regions, calling it a violation of the territorial and sovereign integrity of Ukraine and a "death blow" to the Minsk agreements. Guterres also slammed Russia's decision to send "peacekeeping forces" to the region, saying: "When troops of one country enter the territory of another country without its consent, they are not impartial peacekeepers. They are not peacekeepers at all." [120]

See also

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Donetsk People's Republic</span> Disputed Russian republic in eastern Ukraine

    The Donetsk People's Republic is an internationally unrecognized republic of Russia, comprising the occupied parts of eastern Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast, with its capital in Donetsk. The DPR was created by Russian-backed paramilitaries in 2014, and it initially operated as a breakaway state until it was annexed by Russia in 2022.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Russian separatist forces in Ukraine</span> Pro-Russian paramilitary groups in eastern Ukraine

    Russian separatist forces in Ukraine, primarily the People's Militias of the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR), were pro-Russian paramilitaries in the Donbas region of eastern Ukraine. They were under the overall control of the Russian Federation, and were also referred to as Russian proxy forces. They were active during the war in Donbas (2014–2022), the first stage of the Russo-Ukrainian War. They then supported the Russian Armed Forces against the Ukrainian Armed Forces during the 2022 Russian invasion. In September 2022, Russia annexed the DPR and LPR, and began integrating the paramilitaries into its armed forces. They are designated as terrorist groups by the government of Ukraine.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Denis Pushilin</span> Ukrainian separatist leader

    Denis Vladimirovich Pushilin is a Russian politician who is serving as the Head of the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) since 2018. He holds the position in acting capacity ever since the Russian annexation of the DPR in 2022.

    Referendums on the status of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts, parts of Ukraine that together make up the Donbas region, were claimed to have taken place on 11 May 2014 in many towns under the control of the Russian-controlled Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics. These referendums intended to legitimise the establishment of the so-called "republics", in the context of the Russian invasion of Crimea and rising pro-Russian unrest in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution. In addition, a counter-referendum on accession to Dnipropetrovsk Oblast was held in some Ukrainian-controlled parts of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">War in Donbas</span> 2014–2022 war between Ukraine and Russia

    The war in Donbas, or Donbas war, was a phase of the Russo-Ukrainian War in the Donbas region of Ukraine. The war began 12 April 2014, when a fifty-man commando unit headed by Russian citizen Igor Girkin seized Sloviansk in Donetsk oblast. The Ukrainian military launched an operation against them. It continued until it was subsumed by the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Luhansk People's Republic</span> Disputed Russian republic in eastern Ukraine

    The Luhansk People's Republic or Lugansk People's Republic is an internationally unrecognised republic of Russia in the occupied parts of eastern Ukraine's Luhansk Oblast, with its capital in Luhansk. The LPR was proclaimed by Russian-backed paramilitaries in 2014, and it initially operated as a breakaway state until it was annexed by Russia in 2022.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Novorossiya (confederation)</span> 2014–2015 proposed confederation in eastern Ukraine

    Novorossiya or New Russia, also referred to as the Union of People's Republics, was a project for a confederation between the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) in Eastern Ukraine, both of which were under the control of pro-Russian separatists.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Minsk agreements</span> Series of agreements to stop the Donbas war

    The Minsk agreements were a series of international agreements which sought to end the Donbas war fought between armed Russian separatist groups and Armed Forces of Ukraine, with Russian regular forces playing a central part. The first, known as the Minsk Protocol, was drafted in 2014 by the Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine, consisting of Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), with mediation by the leaders of France and Germany in the so-called Normandy Format. After extensive talks in Minsk, Belarus, the agreement was signed on 5 September 2014 by representatives of the Trilateral Contact Group and, without recognition of their status, by the then-leaders of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and Luhansk People's Republic (LPR). This agreement followed multiple previous attempts to stop the fighting in the region and aimed to implement an immediate ceasefire.

    The 2014 Donbas general elections were held on 2 November 2014 by the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, which were at that time both members of the now defunct Novorossiya confederation.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Donetsk People's Republic–South Ossetia relations</span> Bilateral relations

    Donetsk People's Republic–South Ossetia relations are the bilateral relations between the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and South Ossetia. The DPR is a disputed republic of Russia whereas South Ossetia is a partially recognized state. From April 2014 to September 2022, the DPR portrayed itself as an independent state, but this is no longer the case after Russia's annexation of the DPR on 30 September 2022.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Leonid Pasechnik</span> Head of the Luhansk Peoples Republic

    Leonid Ivanovich Pasechnik is a Ukrainian-born politician who has served as Head of the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) since 2017. He holds the position in acting capacity ever since the illegal and unrecognized Russian annexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts in 2022. Pasechnik had previously held office as the LPR's Minister of State Security from 2014 to 2018.

    General elections were held on 11 November 2018 by the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics. As a result of a war that started in April 2014, these internationally unrecognised entities control parts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts in eastern Ukraine, which are together called the Donbas region. They previously held elections in 2014. Voters were asked to elect the Head of the Donetsk People's Republic and Head of the Luhansk People's Republic as well as the deputies for two parliaments: the People's Council of the Donetsk People's Republic with 100 seats, and the People's Council of the Luhansk People's Republic with 50 seats.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Russian-occupied territories</span> Lands outside of Russia currently occupied by Russian military forces

    Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia has been involved in territorial disputes with a number of other post-Soviet states. These disputes are primarily an aspect of the post-Soviet conflicts, and have led to some countries losing parts of their sovereign territory to what a large portion of the international community designates as a Russian military occupation. As such, these lands are commonly described as Russian-occupied territories, regardless of what their status is in Russian law. The term is applied to Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    2022 in Russia is the 31st year of the Russian Federation.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Donetsk People's Republic–Russia relations</span> Bilateral relations

    Donetsk People's Republic–Russia relations were bilateral relations between Russia and the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR). The DPR is widely internationally unrecognized, with most of the international community regarding the DPR as a Russian military occupation of a portion of Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast. The DPR was annexed by Russia on 30 September 2022; the DPR authorities willingly acceded to Russia, and the annexation is widely internationally unrecognized. From April 2014 to September 2022, the DPR portrayed itself as an independent state, and it was widely regarded as a puppet state of Russia by the international community.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Luhansk People's Republic–Russia relations</span> Bilateral relations

    Luhansk People's Republic–Russia relations were bilateral relations between Russia and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR). The LPR is widely internationally unrecognized, with most of the international community regarding the LPR as a Russian military occupation of a portion of Ukraine's Luhansk Oblast. The LPR was annexed by Russia on 30 September 2022; the LPR authorities willingly acceded to Russia, and the annexation is widely internationally unrecognized. From April 2014 to September 2022, the LPR portrayed itself as an independent state, and it was widely regarded as a puppet state of Russia by the international community.

    In late September 2022, in the context of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian-installed officials in Ukraine staged so-called referendums on the annexation of occupied territories of Ukraine by Russia. They were widely described as sham referendums by commentators and denounced by various countries. The validity of the results of the referendums has been accepted by North Korea, and no other sovereign state.

    The general mobilization in the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic began on 19 February 2022, 5 days before the start of Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine. Tens of thousands of local residents were forcibly mobilized for the war.

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