Timeline of United States inventions (after 1991)

Last updated

Dean Kamen (b. 1951) demonstrating his iBOT invention to President Bill Clinton in the Oval Office. Clinton-kamen.jpg
Dean Kamen (b. 1951) demonstrating his iBOT invention to President Bill Clinton in the Oval Office.

A timeline of United States inventions (after 1991) encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the Contemporary era to the present day, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Patent protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

Contents

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.

In 1641, the first patent in North America was issued to Samuel Winslow by the General Court of Massachusetts for a new method of making salt. [1] [2] [3] On April 10, 1790, President George Washington signed the Patent Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 109) into law which proclaimed that patents were to be authorized for "any useful art, manufacture, engine, machine, or device, or any improvement therein not before known or used." [4] On July 31, 1790, Samuel Hopkins of Pittsford, Vermont became the first person in the United States to file and to be granted a patent for an improved method of "Making Pot and Pearl Ashes." [5] The Patent Act of 1836 (Ch. 357, 5 Stat. 117) further clarified United States patent law to the extent of establishing a patent office where patent applications are filed, processed, and granted, contingent upon the language and scope of the claimant's invention, for a patent term of 14 years with an extension of up to an additional 7 years. [4] However, the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 (URAA) changed the patent term in the United States to a total of 20 years, effective for patent applications filed on or after June 8, 1995, thus bringing United States patent law further into conformity with international patent law. [6] The modern-day provisions of the law applied to inventions are laid out in Title 35 of the United States Code (Ch. 950, sec. 1, 66 Stat. 792).

From 1836 to 2011, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a total of 7,861,317 patents [7] relating to several well-known inventions appearing throughout the timeline below.

Contemporary era (1992–Present)

Post–Cold War and the mid-to-late 1990s (1992–1999)

1992 Spinner (wheel)

1994 CMOS image sensor

Early prototype of a CMOS image sensor Active pixel sensor prototype.jpg
Early prototype of a CMOS image sensor

A CMOS image sensor (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is an image sensor consisting of an integrated circuit containing an array of pixel sensors, each pixel containing a photodetector and an active amplifier. Starting at the same point, they have to convert light into electrons by using the CMOS process. CMOS image sensors can be found in digital SLR cameras, embedded web-cams, video cameras, automotive safety systems, swallowable-pill cameras, toys and video games, and wireless video-security networks. The renowned American physicist and engineer Eric Fossum invented the CMOS image sensor while working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. [9] [ need quotation to verify ] On January 28, 1994, Fossum filed U.S. patent #5,471,515, which was issued on November 28, 1995. [10]

1994 DNA computing

DNA computing uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. DNA computing, or, more generally, molecular computing, is a fast-developing interdisciplinary area.[ citation needed ] Research and development in this area concerns theory, experiments and applications of DNA computing. DNA computing is fundamentally similar to parallel computing in that it takes advantage of the many different molecules of DNA to try many different possibilities at once. Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California initially pioneered this field in 1994. Adleman demonstrated a proof-of-concept use of DNA as a form of computation which solved the seven-point Hamiltonian path problem. [11]

1994 Segway PT The Segway PT is a two-wheeled, self-balancing, zero-emission, electric vehicle used for "personal transport". Segways have had success in niche markets such as transportation for police departments, military bases, warehouses, corporate campuses or industrial sites, as well as in tourism. The earliest patent resembling the modern Segway PT, U.S. patent #6,357,544, was filed on May 27, 1994 and issued to Dean Kamen on December 30, 1997. [12] Kamen introduced his invention to the public in 2001. [13]

1994 Quantum cascade laser

A quantum cascade laser is a sliver of semiconductor material about the size of a tick. Inside, electrons are constrained within layers of gallium and aluminum compounds, called quantum wells are[ clarification needed ] nanometers thick, much smaller than the thickness of a hair. Electrons jump from one energy level to another, rather than moving smoothly between levels and tunnel from one layer to the next going "through" rather than "over" energy barriers separating the wells. When the electrons jump, they emit photons of light. The quantum cascade laser was co-invented by Alfred Y. Cho, Claire F. Gmachl, Federico Capasso, Deborah Sivco, Albert Hutchinson, and Alessandro Tredicucci at Bell Laboratories in 1994. [14] On April 4, 1994, the Bell Labs team filed U.S. patent #5,457,709 that was issued on October 10, 1995. [15]

1995 Bose–Einstein condensate

1995 Screenless hammer mill

1995 Scroll wheel

1995 JavaScript

1996 Adobe Flash

1996 Bait car

1997 Virtual reality therapy

1998 HVLS fan

1999 Torino scale

1999 Phase-change incubator

1999 iBOT

1999 Camera phone

2000s decade

2001 iPod

2002 SERF

2003 Fermionic condensate

2005 YouTube

2006 Blu-ray Disc

2007 Nanowire battery

2007 iPhone

2007 Amazon Kindle

2008 Bionic contact lens

2009 3-D camera

2010s decade

2010 iPad

The January 27, 2010, launch of the iPad by Apple, Inc. marked the first large-scale commercial release of a tablet computer.

2012 3D bioprinting

Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting is the utilization of 3D printing–like techniques to combine cells, growth factors, and/or biomaterials to fabricate biomedical parts, often with the aim of imitating natural tissue characteristics. In 2012, otolaryngologist Glenn Green led a team that bioengineered one of the first synthetic tracheas to stabilize the breathing of a struggling baby.

2013 Smart doorbell

Jamie Siminoff introduced the Ring video doorbell in 2013, providing an internet-connected doorbell that notifies the homeowner on his or her device when a visitor arrives at the door. [35] These devices also combined motion-sensing video monitoring with door alert capabilities for the first time. [35] The global smart doorbell market was valued at $2.667 billion in 2021 and is projected to reach $14.441 billion by 2031. [36]

A reusable Falcon 9 rocket lifts off. SpaceX Demo-2 Launch (NHQ202005300044) (cropped).jpg
A reusable Falcon 9 rocket lifts off.

2015 Reusable launch vehicle

See also

Footnotes

  1. "History of Patent Law". IP Legal Services. August 29, 2021.
  2. James W. Cortada, "Rise of the knowledge worker, Volume 8 of Resources for the knowledge-based economy", Knowledge Reader Series, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998, p. 141, ISBN   0-7506-7058-4, ISBN   978-0-7506-7058-6.
  3. "Manufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the Secretary of the interior", Publisher: Government Printing Office, Washington, 1865, p. cxcix: "Salt-making was commenced at Salein in 1636, and in 1641 Samuel Winslow was allowed, for 10 years, the exclusive right of making salt in Massachusetts by a new method."
  4. 1 2 "Chapter 4: An Overview of Patents". Digital Law Online.
  5. "First U.S. Patent Issued Today in 1790". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  6. "2701 Patent Term [R-2]". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  7. "Table of Issue Years and Patent Numbers, for Selected Document Types Issued Since 1836". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  8. "Automotive wheel enhancers". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  9. "Active Pixel Sensor with Intra-Pixel Charge Transfer". National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on August 4, 2011.
  10. "Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  11. "Molecular Computation Of Solutions To Combinatorial Problems" (PDF). Science Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2005.
  12. Human Transporter, United States Patent and Trademark Office
  13. "About Segway – Who We Are". Segway. Archived from the original on September 1, 2011.
  14. "The Team". Bell Laboratories. Archived from the original on December 13, 2011.
  15. "Unipolar semiconductor laser". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  16. "Bose-Einstein Condensation, A New Form of Matter". University of Washington.
  17. "Screenless hammermill". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on May 3, 2003.
  18. "Computing History Displays: Fifth Floor – The Computer Mouse". University of Auckland.
  19. "System and method of adjusting display characteristics of a displayable data". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  20. "The History of JavaScript". The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.
  21. "The History of Flash". Adobe. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014.
  22. "Virtual Reality Battles PTSD 9 2011". CNN. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  23. "HVLS History". MacroAir Technologies, Inc. Archived from the original on September 2, 2011.
  24. "About the Torino Scale". GNO, Inc.
  25. "Student's low-cost solution aids high-tech problem in Africa". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. November 24, 1999.
  26. Life on wheels: the A to Z guide to living fully with mobility issues. Demos Medical Publishing. August 27, 2008. ISBN   9781935281108.
  27. "System and method for stair climbing in a cluster-wheel vehicle". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  28. Allred, J.; Lyman, R.; Kornack, T.; Romalis, M. (2002). "High-Sensitivity Atomic Magnetometer Unaffected by Spin-Exchange Relaxation". Physical Review Letters . 89 (13): 130801. Bibcode:2002PhRvL..89m0801A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.130801. PMID   12225013.
  29. "NIST/University of Colorado Scientists Create New Form of Matter: A Fermionic Condensate". University of Colorado. Archived from the original on December 7, 2006.
  30. "Sulfur in hollow nanofibers overcomes challenges of lithium-ion battery design". Stanford University. October 4, 2011.
  31. "Silicon nanowire battery holds 10 times the charge of existing ones". Digital Journal.
  32. "Vision of the Future Seen in Bionic Contact Lens". NBC News. January 21, 2008.
  33. "Babak Parviz: An Engineer With a Bionic Eye". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on August 29, 2010.
  34. "Time's Best Inventions of 2008". Time Inc. October 29, 2008. Archived from the original on November 2, 2008.
  35. 1 2 "19 Inventions That Have Changed the World in the Last Decade". Reader's Digest. April 5, 2023.
  36. "Smart Doorbell Market Research, 2031". Allied Market Research. 2022.
  37. "The First Reusable Rocket Is Here". The Atlantic. November 24, 2015.
  38. "SpaceX on Twitter". Twitter. Archived from the original on September 20, 2020. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  39. April 2019, Mike Wall 12 (April 12, 2019). "SpaceX Recovered Falcon Heavy Nose Cone, Plans to Re-fly it This Year (Photos)". Space.com. Archived from the original on February 9, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

Further reading

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dean Kamen</span> American businessman

Dean Lawrence Kamen is an American engineer, inventor, and businessman. He is known for his invention of the Segway and iBOT, as well as founding the non-profit organization FIRST with Woodie Flowers. Kamen holds over 1,000 patents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pixel</span> Physical point in a raster image

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, or picture element is the smallest addressable element in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in a dot matrix display device. In most digital display devices, pixels are the smallest element that can be manipulated through software.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Segway</span> Dicycle

A Segway is a two-wheeled, self-balancing personal transporter device invented by Dean Kamen. It is a registered trademark of Segway Inc. It was brought to market in 2001 as the Segway HT, and then subsequently as the Segway PT.HT is an initialism for "human transporter" and PT for "personal transporter."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Digital camera</span> Camera that captures photographs or video in digital format

A digital camera is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory. Most cameras produced today are digital, largely replacing those that capture images on photographic film. Digital cameras are now widely incorporated into mobile devices like smartphones with the same or more capabilities and features of dedicated cameras. High-end, high-definition dedicated cameras are still commonly used by professionals and those who desire to take higher-quality photographs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Video camera</span> Camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition

A video camera is an optical instrument that captures videos, as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film. Video cameras were initially developed for the television industry but have since become widely used for a variety of other purposes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Steven Sasson</span> American electrical engineer and inventor of the portable digital camera

Steven J. Sasson is an American electrical engineer and the inventor of the self-contained (portable) digital camera. He joined Kodak shortly after his graduation from engineering school and retired from Kodak in 2009.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the camera</span> Review of the topic

The history of the camera began even before the introduction of photography. Cameras evolved from the camera obscura through many generations of photographic technology – daguerreotypes, calotypes, dry plates, film – to the modern day with digital cameras and camera phones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Digital photography</span> Photography with a digital camera

Digital photography uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors interfaced to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to produce images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film. The digitized image is stored as a computer file ready for further digital processing, viewing, electronic publishing, or digital printing. It is a form of digital imaging based on gathering visible light.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Image sensor</span> Device that converts images into electronic signals

An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to form an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves into signals, small bursts of current that convey the information. The waves can be light or other electromagnetic radiation. Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, camera phones, optical mouse devices, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others. As technology changes, electronic and digital imaging tends to replace chemical and analog imaging.

OmniVision Technologies Inc. is an American subsidiary of Chinese semiconductor device and mixed-signal integrated circuit design house Will Semiconductor. The company designs and develops digital imaging products for use in mobile phones, laptops, netbooks and webcams, security and surveillance cameras, entertainment, automotive and medical imaging systems. Headquartered in Santa Clara, California, OmniVision Technologies has offices in the US, Western Europe and Asia.

Title 35 of the United States Code is a title of United States Code regarding patent law. The sections of Title 35 govern all aspects of patent law in the United States. There are currently 37 chapters, which include 376 sections, in Title 35.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Image sensor format</span> Shape and size of a digital cameras image sensor

In digital photography, the image sensor format is the shape and size of the image sensor.

Eric R. Fossum is an Emmy award-winning American engineer and professor, best known for co-developing some features of the CMOS image sensor with the help of other scientists from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He is currently a professor at Thayer School of Engineering in Dartmouth College.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Australian inventions</span>

This is a timeline of Australian inventions consisting of products and technology invented in Australia from pre-European-settlement in 1788 to the present. The inventions are listed in chronological order based on the date of their introduction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of United States inventions (before 1890)</span> Timeline of US inventions

The United States provided many inventions in the time from the Colonial Period to the Gilded Age, which were achieved by inventors who were either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution, which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945)</span> Chronological list of advances

A timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945) encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the Progressive Era to the end of World War II, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fujifilm X series</span> Digital cameras produced by Fujifilm

The Fujifilm X series is a line of digital cameras produced by Fujifilm. The series encompasses fixed lens and interchangeable lens mirrorless cameras and premium compact point-and-shoot cameras aimed at consumer, enthusiast and professional photographers. The X series is part of the larger FinePix range of digital cameras from Fujifilm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nikon 1 S1</span> Digital camera model

The Nikon 1 S1 is a Nikon 1 series low-cost high-speed mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera launched by Nikon. Nikon lists the estimated selling price of the Nikon 1 S1 One-Lens Kit in the United States at $499.95. This kit comes with the 1 NIKKOR 11–27.5mm f/3.5-5.6 lens. It features many similarities with the 1 J2, like the same 10.1 megapixel CX-format CMOS sensor and autofocus, but with an upgraded EXPEED 3A processor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sony Xperia XZs</span> Android smartphone by Sony

The Sony Xperia XZs is an Android smartphone manufactured and marketed by Sony. Part of the Xperia X series, the device was announced to the public along with the Xperia XZ Premium at the annual Mobile World Congress last February 2017.