European Underwater and Baromedical Society

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The European Underwater and Baromedical Society (EUBS) is a primary source of information for diving and hyperbaric medicine physiology worldwide. The organization was initially formed as the European Underwater and Biomedical Society in 1971 and was an affiliate of the Undersea Medical Society for several years. Its purpose is promoting the advancement of diving and hyperbaric medicine and the education of those involved in the field; EUBS provides a forum and a journal for exchange of information and promotes research into diving medicine.

Diving medicine Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders caused by underwater diving

Diving medicine, also called undersea and hyperbaric medicine (UHB), is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions caused by humans entering the undersea environment. It includes the effects on the body of pressure on gases, the diagnosis and treatment of conditions caused by marine hazards and how relationships of a diver's fitness to dive affect a diver's safety.

Hyperbaric medicine Medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component

Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component. The treatment comprises hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), the medical use of oxygen at an ambient pressure higher than atmospheric pressure, and therapeutic recompression for decompression illness, intended to reduce the injurious effects of systemic gas bubbles by physically reducing their size and providing improved conditions for elimination of bubbles and excess dissolved gas.

The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) is an organization based in the US which supports research on matters of hyperbaric medicine and physiology, and provides a certificate of added qualification for physicians with an unrestricted license to practice medicine and for limited licensed practitioners, at the completion of the Program for Advanced Training in Hyperbaric Medicine. They support an extensive library and are a primary source of information for diving and hyperbaric medicine physiology worldwide.



The European Underwater and Biomedical Society was founded on 30 September 1971 in a room made available by the Royal Society of Medicine. [1] [2] The group of 20 attendees accepted the corporate by-laws and constitution. [2] Members of the first executive committee were also selected. [3] The first President of EUBS was Dr. Carl Magnus Hesser of Sweden and he served as chairman for the first EUBS symposium in Stockholm in 1973. Dennis Walder of England was the first vice president and Peter Barnard of England was the secretary/treasurer. Two additional positions were filled by John Rawlins of England as the "Past president" and Xavier Fructus of France as the "Former past president". The remaining members of the executive committee included J.H. Corriol of France, Klaus Seemann of Germany, Poul Eric Paulev of Denmark.

Royal Society of Medicine

The Royal Society of Medicine (RSM) is one of the major providers of accredited postgraduate medical education in the United Kingdom. Each year, the RSM organises over 400 academic and public events. Spanning 56 areas of special interest providing a multi-disciplinary forum for discussion and debate. Videos of many key lectures are also available online, increasing access to the Society's education programme. The RSM is home to one of the largest medical libraries in Europe, with an extensive collection of books, journals, electronic journals and online medical databases. As well as providing medical education, the Society aims to promote an exchange of information and ideas on the science, practice and organisation of medicine, both within the health professions and with responsible and informed public opinion. The Society is not a policy-making body and does not issue guidelines or standards of care.

A constitution is the set of regulations which govern the conduct of non-political entities, whether incorporated or not. Such entities include corporations and voluntary associations.

The president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between the president and the chief executive officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the chief operating officer, the title of corporate president as a separate position is also loosely defined; the president is usually the legally recognized highest rank of corporate officer, ranking above the various vice presidents, but on its own generally considered subordinate, in practice, to the CEO. The powers of the president vary widely across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws like Robert's Rules of Order.

The EUBS Founders set out to initially set up a chapter of the Undersea Medical Society but ultimately decided to form their own Society. [1] There was a perception that the United States was too far for many in Europe to travel for meetings and that a European organisation, if possible affiliated to the UMS, would be viable. The decision to establish a separate body, rather than a local chapter of the UMS was made because the law would allow an independent society to become a charity and avoid tax, which was not possible for a local branch of a US organisation. There were also restrictions in the early 1970s on United Kingdom citizens moving currency, which would have made it difficult to pay subscriptions to the UMS in the USA.

The 1972 Annual meeting took place on 19 August in London. The date was chosen to convenience attendees who were on a charter flight the next day to the Fifth Underwater Physiology Symposium in the Bahamas, and the Honorary Secretary Peter Barnard expressed his hopes that "the friendly atmosphere of the Bahamas" would provide a conducive atmosphere to discuss the proposed relationship between the EUBS and the UMS. On the matter of affiliation, Barnard stated his personal opinion: [1] [4]

"We will come closer to being a strong and useful international body by binding together strong local societies, such as the European Underwater and Biomedical Society and the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society, than we could have hoped to do by trying to promote growth at the periphery from the center of the United States. (…) I believe that the growth of local societies will attract many who would not have joined the UMS. It will be our task to persuade these new members that they are members also of that international community of interest for which the Undersea Medical Society has worked since its foundation."

At the Bahamas symposium in 1972, the two Societies stated jointly that the EUBS would be a "regional affiliate" and perform the functions normally performed by a regional chapter. [1] In 1973, an agreement was reached that allowed the EUBS members "full privileges" in the UMS. [1] At that time, David Elliott of England was the President-elect of the UMS and made significant contributions to the understanding between the Societies. [1] Around 1977, misunderstandings and bad feelings arose from difficulties concerning the joint membership and expenses that resulted in the end of the previous arrangement. [1]

After the 1991 meeting in Crete, the name of the society was changed from "Biomedical" to "Baromedical" to be more inclusive of hyperbaric medicine. [1]

Crete The largest and most populous of the Greek islands

Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. It bounds the southern border of the Aegean sea. Crete lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. It has an area of 8,336 km2 (3,219 sq mi) and a coastline of 1,046 km (650 mi).


The aims of the EUBS are to promote the advancement of diving and hyperbaric medicine and education of groups and individuals involved in the field. [5] [6] They do this by facilitating collaboration between life sciences and other disciplines involved with hyperbaric activity. [6]


The EUBS promotes and sponsors numerous educational opportunities to promote safety within the field. EUBS projects in 2013 include research into the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on osteoradionecrosis and on lower limb trauma. [7]


In 1971, a newsletter was formed with distribution to diving medical professionals. Dr Peter Mueller transformed the newsletter into a quarterly journal in 2000. [8] The new publication was called the European Journal of Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine. [8] The journal's name was changed to Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine in 2007 and incorporated the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society in 2008. [9] In 2011, Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine was approved for indexation in MEDLINE. [10]

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In-water recompression (IWR) or underwater oxygen treatment is the emergency treatment of decompression sickness (DCS) of sending the diver back underwater to allow the gas bubbles in the tissues, which are causing the symptoms, to resolve. It is a risky procedure that should only ever be used when the time to travel to the nearest recompression chamber is too long to save the victim's life.

Rubicon Foundation, Inc. is a non-profit organization devoted to contributing to the interdependent dynamic between research, exploration, science and education. The foundation, started in 2002, is located in Durham, North Carolina and is primarily supported by donations and grants. Funding has included the Office of Naval Research from 2008 to 2010. Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher has provided pro bono services to assist in copyright searches and support.

Divers Alert Network (DAN) is a group of not-for-profit organizations dedicated to improving diving safety for all divers. It was founded in Durham, North Carolina, United States, in 1980 at Duke University providing 24/7 telephonic hot-line diving medical assistance. Since then the organization has expanded globally and now has independent regional organizations in North America, Europe, Japan, Asia-Pacific and Southern Africa.

In physiology, isobaric counterdiffusion (ICD) is the diffusion of different gases into and out of tissues while under a constant ambient pressure, after a change of gas composition, and the physiological effects of this phenomenon. The term inert gas counterdiffusion is sometimes used as a synonym, but can also be applied to situations where the ambient pressure changes. It has relevance in mixed gas diving and anesthesiology

The South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (SPUMS) is a primary source of information for diving and hyperbaric medicine physiology worldwide.

William Paul Fife US Air Force officer and hyperbaric medicine researcher

Colonel William Paul "Bill" Fife USAF (Ret) was a United States Air Force officer that first proved the feasibility for U.S. Air Force Security Service airborne Communications Intelligence (COMINT) collection and Fife is considered the "Father of Airborne Intercept". Fife was also a hyperbaric medicine specialist who was known for his pioneering research on pressurized environments ranging from high altitude to underwater habitats. Fife was a Professor Emeritus at Texas A&M University.

Captain Albert Richard Behnke Jr. USN (ret.) was an American physician, who was principally responsible for developing the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute. Behnke separated the symptoms of Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE) from those of decompression sickness and suggested the use of oxygen in recompression therapy.

National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Medical Technology (NBDHMT), formally known as the National Association of Diving Technicians, is a non-profit organization devoted to the education and certification of qualified personnel in the fields of diving and hyperbaric medicine.

Charles Wesley Shilling US Navy physician and decompression and hyperbaric medicine researcher

Capt. Charles Wesley Shilling USN (ret.) was an American physician who was known as a leader in the field of undersea and hyperbaric medicine, research, and education. Shilling was widely recognized as an expert on deep sea diving, naval medicine, radiation biology, and submarine capabilities. In 1939, he was Senior Medical Officer in the rescue of the submarine U.S.S. Squalus.

Hyperbaric nursing is a nursing specialty involved in the care of patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Medical Technology offers certification in hyperbaric nursing as a Certified Hyperbaric Registered Nurse (CHRN). The professional nursing organization for hyperbaric nursing is the Baromedical Nurses Association.

Surgeon Vice Admiral Sir John Stuart Pepys Rawlins, was a Royal Navy officer and pioneer in the field of diving medicine.

Robert William Hamilton Jr. American physiologist and researcher in hyperbaric physiology.

Robert William Hamilton Jr. was an American physiologist known for his work in hyperbaric physiology.

Neal W. Pollock Canadian researcher in diving and hyperbaric medicine

Neal Pollock is a Canadian academic and diver. Born in Edmonton, Canada he completed a bachelor's degree in zoology; the first three years at University of Alberta and the final year at the University of British Columbia. After completing a master's degree he then served as diving officer at University of British Columbia for almost five years. He then moved to Florida and completed a doctorate in exercise physiology/environmental physiology at Florida State University.

Brian Andrew Hills, born 19 March 1934 in Cardiff, Wales, died 13 January 2006 in Brisbane, Queensland, was a physiologist who worked on decompression theory.

Southern African Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Association A special interest group of the Council of the South African Medical Association

The Southern African Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Association (SAUHMA} is an organisation of voluntary members with a special interest in the subject of underwater and/or hyperbaric medicine, recognised by the Council of the South African Medical Association as a special interest group. The Association promotes the practice and facilitates the study of underwater and hyperbaric medicine. Membership includes members and associate members, and may include medical practitioners; registered nurses; registered paramedics; qualified hyperbaric chamber operators; diving instructors; dive operators, and any other person with a special interest underwater or hyperbaric medicine.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bornmann, Robert C (1991). "Foundation for tenth years of accomplishment". Proceedings of the XVIIth Meeting of the European Underwater and Baromedical Society. Heraklion, Kriti, Greece: European Underwater and Baromedical Society.
  2. 1 2 Elliott, David (2011). "The foundations for today's future". Diving Hyperb Med. 41 (3): 118–20. PMID   21948494 . Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  3. Barnard, EEP (2011). "The proceedings of the inaugural meeting of the European Undersea Bio-Medical Society 1971". Diving Hyperb Med. 41 (3). Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  4. Barnard, EEP (August 1972). "Undersea Medicine". Aerospace Medicine. 43 (8): 936.
  5. Bornmann, Robert C; Greenbaum, Leon J (2001). "EUBS: Thirty years of growth and progress". European Journal of Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine. European Underwater and Baromedical Society. 2 (4): 95–99. ISSN   1605-9204.
  6. 1 2 "EUBS Constitution and Bylaws". European Underwater and Baromedical Society. Archived from the original on 13 March 2001. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  7. "EUBS Research and Courses Page". European Underwater and Baromedical Society. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  8. 1 2 Knight, John (2000). "Welcome European Journal of Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine". Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society . 30 (3). Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  9. Acott, Chris; Brubakk, Alf O (2008). "Messages from the Presidents of SPUMS and EUBS". Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 38 (1). Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  10. Davis, F Michael (2011). "The Editor's offering: MEDLINE indexation for DHM". Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 41 (1). Retrieved 8 June 2011.