Water polo cap

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A water polo cap is a piece of headgear used in water polo and a number of underwater sports. The caps are used to identify both the player and their team, and to protect their ears from injury possibly caused by a water polo ball hitting the head.

Contents

Use for water polo

Caps are differentiated by the number printed on them as well as the color. Players from the visiting team will wear dark caps, whereas the home team players will wear white caps. The goalkeepers wear quartered red caps, numbered "1", while substitute goalies have caps which are either numbered "1-A" in NCAA games, or "13" in FINA international games. [1] Thus, each team will have two sets of caps: one white and the other dark colored. According to the NFHS water polo uniform rules, the numbers on the cap contrast the color of the cap, and both the color of the cap and the color of the number contrast the color of the ball. [2]

Use by underwater sports disciplines

In underwater football, underwater hockey and underwater rugby, water polo caps are worn by competitors to identify which teams they are playing for, and to offer some protection to individuals against the possibility of a burst eardrum caused by the blade of a fin making direct contact across the ear. [3] [4] [5] [6] Opponents in underwater hockey and underwater rugby wear either one of two colours - white or dark (i.e. blue or black) caps while the water referees wear red caps. [7] [8] Underwater football appears to follow this precedent. [9] Caps are also used in Aquathlon (underwater wrestling) for identification purposes; one competitor wears either a red or blue coloured cap while the other competitor wears a white or yellow coloured cap. [10]

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Turkish Underwater Sports Federation is the governing body for both underwater sports and lifesaving in Turkey. Founded in 1982 and based in Ankara, the TSSF is a member of both the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) and the International Life Saving Federation (ILS). Its president is Ahmet İnkılap Obruk, who was also elected in 2009 to CMAS' board of directors for a term of four years.

Underwater photography is a scuba-based underwater sport governed by Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) where teams of competitors using digital underwater camera systems all dive at the same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a two-day period. The submitted digital images are then assessed and ranked by a jury using a maximum of five photographic categories as well as an overall score. The sport was developed prior to 1985 as a photographic film-based event and is currently mainly practised in non-English speaking countries.

The Underwater Photography World Championships is the peak international event for the underwater sport of underwater photography. The event is conducted on behalf of the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) by an affiliated national federation. The championships was first held in 1985. Two variants of the championship are offered. The first is held at an open water site and has been conducted on 16 occasions as of November 2017. Its official title often includes the world ‘sea’ in order to distinguish it from the second which is held in a swimming pool. The swimming pool variant which is concerned with a number of creative categories has held twice with a third championship scheduled for Bari, Italy during 2004 being cancelled due to low competitor registration.

The 14th CMAS Underwater Photography World Championship was held from April 9 – 14, 2013 in Cuba at Cayo Largo. David Barrio of Spain was announced as the CMAS World Champion in underwater photography for 2013 and received the gold medal while runners-up Stefano Proakis and Michele Davino both representing Italy respectively received the silver and bronze medals.

The Underwater Society of America (USOA) is the peak body for underwater sport and recreational diving in the United States.

References

  1. "WP4 Caps". Fédération Internationale de Natation. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  2. https://www.nfhs.org/sports-resource-content/water-polo-uniform-rules/
  3. "Underwater Football. Rules and Regulations". Sean Ennis. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  4. "International Rules for Underwater Hockey. Tenth Edition". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. p. 5. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  5. Landsberg PG (December 1976). "South African Underwater Diving Accidents, 1969–1976" (PDF). SA Medical Journal: 2156. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  6. "CMAS Under Water Rugby Rules August 2011". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. p. 12. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  7. "International Rules for Underwater Hockey Volume 2. Tenth Edition". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. pp. 5 & 9. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  8. "CMAS Under Water Rugby Rules August 2011". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. pp. 13 & 17. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  9. "The Gear – Personal Equipment". Sean Ennis. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  10. "Aquathlon International Rules version 2012/01". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. p. 2. Retrieved 2 April 2013.