1969 in music

Last updated

List of years in music (table)
John Lennon rehearses "Give Peace a Chance", 1969. Lie In 15 -- John rehearses Give Peace A Chance.jpg
John Lennon rehearses "Give Peace a Chance", 1969.

List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1969.


Specific locations

Specific genres



1969 was the last year in which the United States government gave greater financial support, through the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) "Music Program" to opera than it did to other classical music, and the first year in which it gave any support at all to jazz and folk music. [1]

Perhaps the two most famous musical events of 1969 were concerts. At a Rolling Stones concert in Altamont, California, a fan was stabbed to death by Hells Angels, a biker gang that had been hired to provide security for the event. In retrospect, some commentators have concluded that the violence signaled the end of the "hippie" movement, which espoused an ethos of free love and peace. Even more famous than the Altamont concert was the Woodstock festival, which consisted of dozens of the most famous performers in the world at the time, playing together in an atmosphere of peace with nature and love, with many thousands of concert goers; it is still one of the largest concerts in the history of the world. One of those who performed was Ravi Shankar, his presence reflecting a growing interest in Indian and other Eastern music; Shankar later said that the 1960s "got India wrong". [2]

The 1967 musical Hair generated the same-named 1968 album, whose cuts include "Aquarius" and "Let The Sunshine In", "Hair", "Good Morning Starshine", "Easy to Be Hard" (covered, chronologically and respectively, by The 5th Dimension at number 1, The Cowsills at number 2, Oliver at number 3, Three Dog Night at number 4, on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1969), and others, and a London Cast album released in April 1969.

The Isle of Wight Festival saw the return of Bob Dylan to live music after his motorbike accident in 1966.

US and UK pop music remained popular worldwide, with few European acts making the charts outside their home countries; exceptions included Jane Birkin & Serge Gainsbourg, Shocking Blue, Georges Moustaki and Christian Anders. [3]

David Bowie's "Space Oddity" became a huge hit in this year, being released at the time that American astronauts first landed on the moon. The song, the story of an astronaut named Major Tom who goes into space and is entranced by the beauty of seeing Earth from such a great distance and consequently lets himself float off into space, never again to return, was chosen by the BBC as the theme song for the television coverage of the moon landing. The remainder of the album, Man of Words/Man of Music , was too eccentric for mainstream acceptance, though it established a devoted fanbase for Bowie, who would go on to become one of the most popular musicians in the world.

King Crimson's In the Court of the Crimson King is a pioneering album in the development of progressive rock. The album drew upon influences like Procol Harum, The Moody Blues and The Nice to form a sound melding rock and roll with classical influences in long pieces of music. Similar albums by The Moody Blues, Procol Harum and The Nice, as well as Genesis, Yes and Pink Floyd were also released this year, expanding the range of prog rock and developing it into a full-fledged genre.

The Stooges' eponymous debut, The Stooges , was also released this year to little critical or popular acceptance. The album, however, went on to become one of the most important recordings in the early development of punk rock, as did Kick Out The Jams by Detroit protopunkers MC5.

Johnny Cash's At San Quentin included his only Top Ten pop hit, "A Boy Named Sue". The album was a sequel to last year's At Folsom Prison . Also in country music, Merle Haggard's Same Train, Different Time , a tribute to Jimmie Rodgers, was enormously popular and influenced the development of the Bakersfield sound into outlaw country within a few years.

Creedence Clearwater Revival cement their success from the previous year. Having had a single US number 11 hit in 1968 with "Suzie Q", they release not only their second, but also their third and fourth proper studio album in 1969, as well as drawing a total of four top 3 hits from these three albums. Starting with Bayou Country , including the US number 2 hit "Proud Mary", and continuing with Green River and finally Willy and the Poor Boys , which, during the year, transformed them from an up-and-coming underground act to bona fide rockstars. During 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival had number 2 hits in the US with "Proud Mary", "Green River" and "Bad Moon Rising", and also have a number 3 hit with "Down on the Corner"/"Fortunate Son".

Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso released enormously popular albums in Brazil, Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso , respectively. The pair's fusion of bossa nova, samba and other native Brazilian folk influences, melded with politically and socially aware lyrics, kickstarted what came to be known as Tropicalia. Both musicians moved to London after a period of imprisonment for anti-government activities in Brazil.

Family released their second album, Family Entertainment, in their native Britain. It is their first top 10 album in the United Kingdom, hitting number six. "The Weaver's Answer", which opens the record, becomes their most popular song in their concert performances. By the end of the year, however, they lose and replace two members, and their first attempt to break through commercially in the United States backfires miserably.

Elvis Presley returned to live performances at the International Hotel in Las Vegas; breaking all attendance records in his 57-concert run. He also enjoyed great success with his songs "In the Ghetto" and "Suspicious Minds".

The Wendy Carlos album Switched-On Bach was one of the first classical albums to sell 500,000 copies, and helped bring classical music into the popular sphere, as did Mason Williams' "Classical Gas", played on classical guitar, in addition to being accompanied by one of the first successful music videos. [4] The composition won three Grammy Awards: Best Instrumental Composition, Best Contemporary-Pop Performance, Instrumental, and Best Instrumental Arrangement. [5] In the meantime, German trumpeter Manfred Schoof's free jazz album, European Echoes, a recording of his half-hour free improvisation broadcast on German radio in June 1969, featured international musicians and is regarded as a seminal album in the genre. [6] Alexander von Schlippenbach’s The Living Music, recorded a couple of months earlier, is also now regarded as a pioneering work. [7]

Chutney music was also first recorded in 1969, in Trinidad and Tobago by Sundar Popo.

New York City Ballet celebrates their 25th anniversary with performances at the David H. Koch Theater Lincoln Center.

Major events

Bands formed

Bands disbanded

Albums released


5 Bayou Country Creedence Clearwater Revival -
12 Led Zeppelin Led Zeppelin -
13 Yellow Submarine The Beatles Soundtrack
17 Babylon Dr. John -
Ball Iron Butterfly -
Soul '69 Aretha Franklin -
22 Neil Young Neil Young Re-released November 1969
30 Moby Grape '69 Moby Grape -
Birthday Blues Bert Jansch -
Crimson & Clover Tommy James and the Shondells -
Donovan's Greatest Hits Donovan Compilation
English Rose Fleetwood Mac Compilation
First Edition '69 The First Edition -
The Holy Land Johnny Cash -
Irresistible Tammi Terrell Solo debut
Till The Vogues -
What We Did on Our Holidays Fairport Convention -
The Live Adventures of Mike Bloomfield and Al Kooper Mike Bloomfield & Al Kooper -


5 Goodbye Cream -
10 20/20 The Beach Boys -
15 Instant Replay The Monkees -
17 Cloud Nine The Temptations -
21 Postcard Mary Hopkin -
22 Stonedhenge Ten Years After -
- Bless Its Pointed Little Head Jefferson Airplane Live
The Gilded Palace of Sin The Flying Burrito Brothers -
O.K. Ken? Chicken Shack -
Kick Out the Jams MC5 Live
Mutantes Os Mutantes -
Near the Beginning Vanilla Fudge -
Sound of Sexy Soul The Delfonics -
Contact Silver Apples -


5 Dr. Byrds & Mr. Hyde The Byrds -
7 From Genesis to Revelation Genesis -
14 Tons of Sobs Free -
17 Freedom Suite The Rascals -
24 Mothermania The Mothers of Invention Compilation
29 Happy Trails Quicksilver Messenger Service -
Yer' Album James Gang -
30 Odessa Bee Gees -
31 Dusty in Memphis Dusty Springfield -
At Your Birthday Party Steppenwolf -
Bull of the Woods 13th Floor Elevators -
Family Entertainment Family -
Just to Satisfy You Waylon Jennings -
My Way Frank Sinatra -
New! Improved! Blue Cheer -
Outta Season Ike & Tina Turner
Say It Loud, I'm Black and I'm Proud James Brown -
Scott 3 Scott Walker -
Spooky Two Spooky Tooth -
The Velvet Underground The Velvet Underground -
Wheatfield Soul The Guess Who -
Galveston Glen Campbell -


1 Taste Taste -
4 Brother Love's Traveling Salvation Show Neil Diamond -
7 Nazz Nazz Nazz -
Songs from a Room Leonard Cohen -
8 Three Week Hero P.J. Proby -
9 Nashville Skyline Bob Dylan -
15 Green Is Blues Al Green -
21 Uncle Meat The Mothers of Invention Soundtrack
23 With a Little Help from My Friends Joe Cocker -
25 On the Threshold of a Dream The Moody Blues -
26 It's Our Thing The Isley Brothers -
28 The Chicago Transit Authority Chicago -
30 M.P.G. Marvin Gaye -
- Blue Matter Savoy Brown -
Hair Various ArtistsLondon cast
Johnny Winter Johnny Winter -
Our Mother the Mountain Townes Van Zandt -
Ramblin' Gamblin' Man The Bob Seger System -
Elephant Mountain The Youngbloods -
Soft and Beautiful Aretha Franklin -
Soulful Dionne Warwick -


1 Clouds Joni Mitchell -
3 Stand! Sly & the Family Stone -
9 Beginnings Ambrose Slade -
Electronic Sound George Harrison -
Unfinished Music No. 2: Life with the Lions John Lennon & Yoko Ono -
12 After the Rain Muddy Waters -
14 Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere Neil Young & Crazy Horse -
16 Rehearsals for Retirement Phil Ochs -
Unicorn Tyrannosaurus Rex -
19 Pickin' Up the Pieces Poco -
Oar Skip Spence -
More Today Than Yesterday Spiral Starecase -
23 Surround Yourself with Cilla Cilla Black -
Tommy The Who -
26 Let the Sunshine In Diana Ross & the Supremes -
29 Crosby, Stills & Nash Crosby, Stills & Nash -
A Black Man's Soul Ike Turner & The Kings of Rhythm
The Age of Aquarius The 5th Dimension -
The Booker T. Set Booker T. & the M.G.'s -
California Bloodlines John Stewart -
David's Album Joan Baez -
Gettin' Down to It James Brown -
Hollies Sing Dylan The Hollies -
Home Delaney & Bonnie -
Last Exit Traffic -
The Meters The Meters -
Motor-Cycle Lotti Golden -
This Is Tom Jones Tom Jones -
The Young Mods' Forgotten Story The Impressions -


4 At San Quentin Johnny Cash Live
5 Folkjokeopus Roy Harper -
6 Empty Sky Elton John -
11 Suitable for Framing Three Dog Night -
13 More Pink Floyd Soundtrack
16 Brave New World Steve Miller Band -
Trout Mask Replica Captain Beefheart -
17 From Elvis in Memphis Elvis Presley -
20 3614 Jackson Highway Cher -
Aoxomoxoa Grateful Dead -
Chastity Cher Soundtrack
First Take Roberta Flack
21 Deep Purple Deep Purple US; third album
25 Pretties for You Alice Cooper -
Beck-Ola The Jeff Beck Group -
It's a Beautiful Day It's A Beautiful Day -
Best of Bee Gees Bee Gees Compilation
Concerto in B. Goode Chuck Berry -
An Electric Storm White Noise -
In Person Ike & Tina Turner and The Ikettes Live
Just Good Old Rock and Roll The Electric Prunes -
Lee Michaels Lee Michaels -
Love Man Otis Redding -
Pongo en tus manos abiertas Victor Jara -
A Salty Dog Procol Harum -
Jane Birkin/Serge Gainsbourg Jane Birkin and Serge Gainsbourg -


3 Unhalfbricking Fairport Convention -
Five Leaves Left Nick Drake -
4 Maybe Tomorrow The Iveys -
5 Bubblegum, Lemonade, and... Something for Mama Cass Elliot -
8 Hallelujah Canned Heat -
10 Happy Sad Tim Buckley -
18 The Soft Parade The Doors -
21 Blind Faith Blind Faith -
25 Ahead Rings Out Blodwyn Pig -
Yes Yes -
29 Preflyte The Byrds Compilation
30 In a Silent Way Miles Davis -
Truly Fine Citizen Moby Grape -
- 2525 (Exordium and Terminus) Zager and Evans -
Early Steppenwolf Steppenwolf Live 1967
Here We Are Again Country Joe and the Fish -
If Only for a Moment Blossom Toes -
More of Old Golden Throat Johnny Cash Compilation
Mountain Leslie West -
The Original Delaney & Bonnie & Friends Delaney & Bonnie -
Wasa Wasa Edgar Broughton Band -
What About Today? Barbra Streisand -


1 As Safe as Yesterday Is Humble Pie -
Stand Up Jethro Tull -
Tadpoles Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band Released on June 9 in US
3 Green River Creedence Clearwater Revival -
5 The Stooges The Stooges -
11 Barabajagal Donovan -
14 The Brothers: Isley The Isley Brothers -
15 Mourning in the Morning Otis Rush -
18 Fathers and Sons Muddy Waters -
25 On Time Grand Funk Railroad -
27 Boz Scaggs Boz Scaggs -
29 My Cherie Amour Stevie Wonder -
Songs for a Tailor Jack Bruce -
30 Santana Santana -
- The Association The Association -
Give It Away The Chi-Lites -
Harry Harry Nilsson -
It's a Mother James Brown -
Monster Movie Can -
The Popcorn James Brown -
Ssssh Ten Years After -
The Head Shop The Head Shop -


11 I Got Dem Ol' Kozmic Blues Again Mama! Janis Joplin Solo debut
12 Through the Past, Darkly (Big Hits Vol. 2) The Rolling Stones Compilation
16 Easy Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell -
19 Then Play On Fleetwood Mac -
22 The Band The Band -
23 Hot Buttered Soul Isaac Hayes -
Puzzle People The Temptations -
Together Diana Ross & the Supremes and The TemptationsDuets
24 New York Tendaberry Laura Nyro -
26 Abbey Road The Beatles -
30 At Home Shocking Blue -
Get Ready Rare Earth -
- 2 Ozs of Plastic with a Hole in the Middle Man -
Canned Wheat The Guess Who -
Four Sail Love -
Love Chronicles Al Stewart -
Nice The Nice -
Noah The Bob Seger System -
Rock & Roll Vanilla Fudge -
The Aerosol Grey Machine Van der Graaf Generator -
Spare Parts Status Quo -
A Step Further Savoy Brown Live + studio
Supersnazz The Flamin' Groovies -
These Things Too Pearls Before Swine -
Townes Van Zandt Townes Van Zandt -
Volume Two The Soft Machine -


1 Juicy Lucy Juicy Lucy -
The Monkees Present The Monkees -
6 Get Together with Andy Williams Andy Williams -
9 Ticket to Ride Carpenters Previously titled as Offering.
10 Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire) The Kinks -
Hot Rats Frank Zappa -
In the Court of the Crimson King King Crimson Debut
13 Give Me Your Love for Christmas Johnny Mathis Christmas
14 Elvis in Person at the International Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada Elvis Presley Live
14 Rhymes and Reasons John Denver Debut
16 Captured Live at the Forum Three Dog Night Live
18 Live at Yankee Stadium The Isley Brothers Live
20 Wedding Album John Lennon and Yoko Ono -
22 Led Zeppelin II Led Zeppelin -
25 Ummagumma Pink Floyd Double LP; live + studio
26 Basket of Light Pentangle -
27 Second Winter Johnny Winter -
The Battle of North West Six Keef Hartley -
Keep On Moving The Butterfield Blues Band -
Clear Spirit
The Deviants 3 The Deviants -
Free Free -
The Hunter Ike & Tina Turner
Renaissance Renaissance Debut
Tom Jones Live in Las Vegas Tom Jones Live
Turtle Soup The Turtles -


1 A Way of Life The Family Dogg -
2 Willy and the Poor Boys Creedence Clearwater Revival -
3 Cream of the Crop Diana Ross & the Supremes -
4 The Allman Brothers Band The Allman Brothers Band -
7 Manfred Mann Chapter Three Manfred Mann Chapter Three -
10 Ballad of Easy Rider The Byrds -
Live/Dead Grateful Dead Double LP; live
14 David Bowie David Bowie Re-titled Space Oddity
The Autumn Stone Small Faces compilation
Touching You, Touching Me Neil Diamond -
21 To Our Children's Children's Children The Moody Blues -
22 Mott the Hoople Mott the Hoople -
24 Blue Afternoon Tim Buckley -
29 Almendra Almendra -
- Eight Miles High Golden Earring -
100 Ton Chicken Chicken Shack -
Changing Horses The Incredible String Band -
Four in Blue The Miracles -
Hollies Sing Hollies The Hollies -
Keynsham Bonzo Dog Band -
Joe Cocker! Joe Cocker -
Joy of a Toy Kevin Ayers -
Monster Steppenwolf -
The Rod Stewart Album Rod Stewart US; released Feb. 13, 1970, in UK as An Old Raincoat Won't Ever Let You Down
Rock Salt & Nails Steve Young -
Scott 4 Scott Walker -
Town and Country Humble Pie -
Valentyne Suite Colosseum -
Volunteers Jefferson Airplane -
Your Saving Grace Steve Miller Band -


5 Let It Bleed The Rolling Stones -
Completely Well B.B. King -
12 Live Peace in Toronto 1969 Plastic Ono Band -
18 Diana Ross Presents The Jackson 5 The Jackson 5 -
20 Concerto for Group and Orchestra Deep Purple & the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Live
29 Grand Funk Grand Funk Railroad -
Okie from Muskogee Merle Haggard and the Strangers -
- Blue Cheer Blue Cheer -
Ceremony Spooky Tooth and Pierre Henry -
Liege & Lief Fairport Convention -
Out Here Love -

Release date unknown

Biggest hit singles

The following songs achieved the highest chart positions in the charts of 1969.

#ArtistTitleYearCountryChart Entries
1 The Beatles "Get Back"1969 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK 1 – Apr 1969, US BB 1 – May 1969, Canada 1 – Apr 1969, Netherlands 1 – Apr 1969, Switzerland 1 – Apr 1969, Norway 1 – May 1969, Germany 1 – May 1969, Éire 1 – May 1969, Australia 1 for 5 weeks Sep 1969, Australia Goset 1 – May 1969, RYM 6 of 1969, US CashBox 14 of 1969, US BB 21 of 1969, DDD 24 of 1969, Global 33 (5 M sold) – 1969, POP 33 of 1969, Europe 38 of the 1960s, Italy 46 of 1969, Virgin 64, Scrobulate 91 of British, OzNet 115, Germany 217 of the 1960s, WXPN 566, Acclaimed 1164
2 The Rolling Stones "Honky Tonk Women"1969 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK 1 – Jul 1969, US BB 1 – Jul 1969, Switzerland 1 – Jul 1969, Éire 1 – Aug 1969, Australia 1 for 5 weeks Jan 1970, Australia Goset 1 – Aug 1969, US CashBox 2 of 1969, Canada 2 – Aug 1969, Norway 2 – Aug 1969, Germany 3 – Aug 1969, Netherlands 4 – Jul 1969, Australia 4 of 1969, RYM 4 of 1969, DDD 4 of 1969, US BB 8 of 1969, POP 8 of 1969, TheQ 27, Europe 50 of the 1960s, Italy 92 of 1969, Acclaimed 182, Rolling Stone 116, WXPN 189, Germany 209 of the 1960s
3 Zager & Evans "In the Year 2525 (Exordium & Terminus)"1969 Flag of the United States.svg UK 1 – Aug 1969, US BB 1 – Jun 1969, Canada 1 – Jul 1969, Netherlands 1 – Aug 1969, France 1 – Mar 1970, Switzerland 1 – Aug 1969, Norway 1 – Aug 1969, Germany 1 – Aug 1969, Éire 1 – Sep 1969, Australia 1 for 1 weeks Jan 1970, Australia Goset 2 – Aug 1969, US CashBox 11 of 1969, Australia 19 of 1969, US BB 39 of 1969, RYM 60 of 1969, POP 75 of 1969, Europe 77 of the 1960s, Germany 109 of the 1960s, Acclaimed 6331
4 The Archies "Sugar, Sugar"1969 Flag of the United States.svg UK 1 – Oct 1969, US BB 1 – Aug 1969, US CashBox 1 of 1969, Canada 1 – Jul 1969, Norway 1 – Nov 1969, Germany 1 – Jan 1970, Éire 1 – Nov 1969, Switzerland 2 – Oct 1969, Netherlands 4 – Sep 1969, Australia Goset 5 – Aug 1969, France 8 – Feb 1970, South Africa 8 of 1969, US BB 10 of 1969, POP 10 of 1969, TOTP 26, Global 33 (5 M sold) – 1969, RYM 40 of 1969, Italy 70 of 1970, DDD 77 of 1969, Germany 157 of the 1960s, Acclaimed 1991
5 Elvis Presley "Suspicious Minds"1969 Flag of the United States.svg US BB 1 – Sep 1969, Canada 1 – Sep 1969, Australia 1 for 3 weeks Jun 1970, Australia Goset 1 – Nov 1969, South Africa 1 of 1969, UK 2 – Nov 1969, Netherlands 6 – Oct 1969, France 6 – Mar 1970, Germany 8 – Jan 1970, Norway 10 – Feb 1970, Australia 16 of 1969, RYM 19 of 1969, Scrobulate 19 of oldies, Europe 22 of the 1960s, DDD 23 of 1969, POP 26 of 1969, Global 33 (5 M sold) – 1969, US BB 40 of 1969, Poland 40 – Aug 1999, US CashBox 43 of 1969, Acclaimed 95, Rolling Stone 91, WXPN 121, OzNet 156

Some top hit singles

Classical music



Musical theater

Musical films





Grammy Awards

Eurovision Song Contest

Leeds International Piano Competition

Related Research Articles

1972 in music Overview of the events of 1972 in music

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1972.

List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1966.

1970 in music Overview of the events of 1970 in music

List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1970.

The year 1967 was an important one for psychedelic rock, and was famous for its "Summer of Love" in San Francisco. It saw major releases from The Beatles, Small Faces, Eric Burdon & The Animals, Big Brother and The Holding Company, The Doors, Jefferson Airplane, Moby Grape, Traffic, Pink Floyd, Love, The Beach Boys, Cream, The Byrds, The Rolling Stones, The Who, The Velvet Underground, Procol Harum, The Monkees, and The Jimi Hendrix Experience.

1968 in music Overview of the events of 1968 in music

List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1968.

1964 in music Overview of the events of 1964 in music

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1964.

1974 in music Overview of the events of 1974 in music

List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1974.

1975 in music Overview of the events of 1975 in music

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1975.

1976 in music Overview of the events of 1976 in music

A list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1976.

1978 in music Overview of the events of 1978 in music

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1978

This is a list of notable events in music from 1982, a year in which Madonna made her debut and Michael Jackson released Thriller, which holds the title for the world's best selling album.

1994 in music Overview of the events of 1994 in music

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1994.

1963 in music Overview of the events of 1963 in music

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1963.

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1960.

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1939.

Yer Blues 1968 song by the Beatles

"Yer Blues" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, from their 1968 double album The Beatles. Though credited to Lennon–McCartney, the song was written and composed by John Lennon during the Beatles' retreat in Rishikesh, India. The song is a parody of blues music, specifically English imitators of blues.

Dont Let Me Down (Beatles song) Original song written and composed by Lennon-McCartney

"Don't Let Me Down" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, recorded in 1969 during the Let It Be sessions. It was written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney. The band recorded the song with Billy Preston; the single release with "Get Back" was credited to "the Beatles with Billy Preston".

This is a summary of 1963 in music in the United Kingdom, including the official charts from that year.

List of notable events in music that took place in the year 1971.

This is a summary of 1969 in music in the United Kingdom.


  1. Donna M. Binkiewicz, Federalizing the Muse: United States Arts Policy and the National Endowment for the Arts 1965–1980 (University of North Carolina Press, 2004), p255
  2. O'Mahony, John (June 8, 2008). "Ravi Shankar bids Europe adieu". The Taipei Times. UK. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  3. World Charts. Accessed 19 November 2014
  4. Mason Williams, The Classical Gas Years. Accessed 19 November 2014
  5. The story of Classical Gas
  6. Allmusic.com Review by Stewart Mason. Accessed 19 November 2014
  7. The History of Jazz Music: Alexander Von Schlippenbach. Accessed 19 November 2014
  8. Lynskey, Dorian (2020). "Reel to Reel". Cam (91): 28.
  9. British Pathe, "Judy Garland Wedding To Mickey Deans 1969". Accessed 10 May 2041
  10. "Seven seconds of fire". The Economist . December 17, 2011. ISSN   0013-0613 . Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  11. Otzen, Ellen (March 29, 2015). "Six seconds that shaped 1,500 songs". BBC. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  12. Current Biography Yearbook. H. W. Wilson Co. 1988. p. 99.
  13. MacDonald, Ian (1997). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (1st rev. ed.). London: Pimlico (Random House). p. 322. ISBN   978-0-7126-6697-8.
  14. Mary Wilson; Patricia Romanowski; Patricia Romanowski Bashe (November 1, 1990). Supreme faith: someday we'll be together. HarperCollins. p. 9. ISBN   978-0-06-016290-0.
  15. David Dabydeen; John Gilmore; Cecily Jones (2008). The Oxford Companion to Black British History. Pennsylvania State University (Oxford University Press). p. 463. ISBN   978-0-199-2389-41.